Applied sciences

Archives of Environmental Protection


Archives of Environmental Protection | 2012 | vol. 38 | No 1 |

Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The removal of benzene (B) and toluene (T) from aqueous solution by multi walled, single walled, and hybrid carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, SWCNTs, and HCNTs) was evaluated for a nanomaterial dose of 1 g/l, concentration of 10-100 mg/l, and pH 7. The equilibrium amount removed by SWCNTs (B: 9.98 mg/g and T: 9.96 mg/g) was higher than for MWCNTs and HCNTs. Toluene has a higher adsorption tendency on CNTs than benzene, which is related to the increasing water solubility and the decreasing molecular weight of the compounds. The SWCNTs performed better for B and T sorption than the MWCNTs and HCNTs. Isotherms study based on isofit program indicate that the Generalized Langmuir-Freundlich (GLF) isotherm expression provides the best fit for benzene sorption, and that Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) isotherm is the best fit for toluene adsorption by SWCNT. SWCNTs are efficient B and T adsorbents and possess good potential applications to water and wastewater treatment and maintain water of high quality that could be used for cleaning up environmental pollution.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Bijan Bina
Mohammad Mehdi Amin
Alimorad Rashidi
Hamidreza Pourzamani
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


Oil derivatives are commonly used and they play a key role in the economy. They are used in many industries. Such big amounts of oil derivatives products generate vast quantity of pollution. Those pollutants can get into the ground and water beyond any control during catastrophes or due to inadequately managed waste and storage. The aim of the paper was to determine the level of oil derivatives pollution in the groundwater on the area of a former airbase, where between 1950 and 1990 the Soviet Army stationed. Analysis was carried out on groundwater samples from three piezometers placed on the area of the former airbase. In the samples some parameters were determined, i.e. temperature, reaction, electrolytic conductivity, the depth of groundwater surface, the content of aliphatic hydrocarbons, monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Determined amount of dissolved hydrocarbons was large what proves unsatisfactory effectiveness of previous rehabilitation processes.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

C. Rosik-Dulewska
T. Ciesielczuk
M. Krysiński
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The laboratory experiment was set up on a podzolic soil in two variants. In one of them non-sterile sewage sludge was introduced into the soil, and in the second - the same sludge but subjected previously to the process of sterilisation. In both variants the same doses of the sludge were applied: 30 (1%), 75 (2.5%), 150 (5%), 300 (10%) and 600 Mg·ha-1 (20%). Then, after 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 months, the soil of both experimental variants was analysed for the numbers of bacteria and fungi decomposing proteins, the rate of the process of ammonification, the rate of the process of nitrification, and for proteolytic activity. The results obtained revealed a stimulating effect of the sludge, both sterile and non-sterile, on the numbers of the microbial groups under study and on the rate of nitrification and protease activity. Only the process of ammonification was subject to inhibition. The observed effects of the sludge were the most pronounced in the case of the higher sludge doses. Significantly greater numbers of protein-decomposing fungi and higher activity of almost all (except for ammonifcation) analysed biochemical parameters in the soil with non-sterile sludge compared to that with sterile sludge indicate an effect of microorganisms from the sludge on the microbiological transformations of nitrogen in soil amended with sewage sludge.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

J. Joniec
J. Furczak
S. Baran
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The Timok River (202 km long, 4547 km2 basin area) is located in East Serbia. It is a right tributary of the Danube River and one of the most polluted watercourses in Serbia. On the basis of the data provided by the Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia, the paper presents an analysis of water quality and pollution using the combined physico-chemical WPI index (Water Pollution Index) calculated for two periods - 1993-96 and 2006-2009 at four hydrological stations: Zaječar-Gamzigrad (Crni Timok River), Zaječar (Beli Timok River), Rgotina (Borska Reka River) and Čokonjar (Timok River). The following parameters were taken into consideration: dissolved O2, O2 saturation, pH, suspended sediments, Five Day Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (CODMn), nitrites, nitrates, orthophosphates, ammonium, metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Hg, Ni, Zn, Cd), sulphates and coliform germs. The average WPI values were calculated for the observed periods based on the comparison of the annual average values of the listed parameters and defined standard values for the I water quality class (according to the Regulation on the Hygienic Acceptability of Potable Water of the Republic of Serbia). The highest pollution degree was recorded in the Borska Reka River, where heavy metal levels (especially manganese and iron) were significantly increased. These metals are indicators of inorganic pollution (primarily caused by copper mining). Also, increased values of the organic pollution indicators (ammonium, coliform germs, Five-Day Biological Oxygen Demand - BOD5) in the Borska Reka and the Timok rivers are the result of uncontrolled domestic wastewater discharge.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

J. Brankov
D. Milijašević
A. Milanović
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


Disinfectants are commonly used in households, hospitals, in drug manufacturing, in food processing. With the ever-increasing antibiotic-resistance of microorganisms, it is crucial to rationally apply disinfectants in suitable concentrations, with proper active substance, as not all substances affect various organisms in the same way. Among the microorganisms that are particularly difficult to kill, there are bacteria producing spores - forms that have different structure and sensitivity to disinfectants than the vegetative forms. The aim of the study has been to examine the influence of frequently used disinfectant compounds upon the spores of bacteria of the Bacillus genus: B. cereus, B. mycoides, and B. subtilis. In the study of disinfectants the findings showed that the disinfectants with the best results against spores are: peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide in concentrations of 30% as well as 5%, and Lysoformin 3000. The least efficient in fighting spores proved to be Isopropanol and Promanum N. Differentiation has been found to exist in the reaction of specific species to the preparation Rafasept, as B. subtilis occurred to be very sensitive to that compound, whereas Rafasept turned out to be ineffective in the case of B. mycoides and B. cereus.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

P. Olesiak
M. Kostecki
A. Smyłła
P. Krupa
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the soil tillage system on soil enzymatic activity. The performed investigations, employing two soil tillage systems: classical (ploughing) and simplified (no-tillage), were carried out on Luvisols and Arenosols differing typologically, with regard to their kind and species. The activity of the following five enzymes was determined in soil samples: dehydrogenases, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, urease and protease. The applied enzymes tests turned out to be good indicators differentiating the examined soil objects depending on the employed tillage system. The employment of the simplified tillage system stimulated significantly the activity of the analysed enzymes irrespective of the soil type. This effect was particularly apparent in the top layer (0-10 cm) of the soil. An exceptionally wide range of activity was obtained for dehydrogenases indicating the usefulness of this group of enzymes for the evaluation of changes in the soil environment under the influence of the soil tillage system. The observed activity stimulation of the examined enzymes was accompanied by advantageous changes in soil chemical conditions.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

E. Bielińska
A. Mocek-Płóciniak
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


Water and bottom sediment samples collected from a few fish-breeding ponds/reservoirs were subjected to tests. The aim of this paper was to determine the total content of aluminium and its fractions in the samples tested to estimate the potential risk to fish caused by the toxic forms of aluminium. The monomeric inorganic aluminium in waters was determined using the ion exchange and extraction-colorimetric method with oxychinoline according to Barnes's-Driscoll's procedure. The bottoms were fractionated using a three-step sequential extraction procedure and the microwave mineralisation. The total content of aluminium in waters and extracts was determined using the spectrophotometric method with eriochromocyanine R, and comparatively using the ICP OES technique. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. The level of concentration of labile Al in the waters about 26-34 μg/dm3 and content of exchangeable Al 5-34 mg/g range in bottom sediments are possibly hazardous to aquatic organisms.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Joanna Kluczka
Maria Zołotajkin
Jerzy Ciba
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


One of the methods of sewage sludge disposal, which is based on its fertilizing properties, is its use in nature, e.g. in farming (if all the permissible standards are met). However, the sludge used for soil fertilization might also contain heavy metals, pathogenic microorganisms, thus causing contamination in soil foundation and deterioration of the conditions for development of indigenous organisms. Particular threat is posed by the existence of drug-resistant microorganisms in sewage sludge. This problem has not been researched in detail yet.

The authors of the present study aimed to determine qualitative changes in drug-resistant microorganisms in sandy soil fertilized with selected sewage sludge. Sewage sludge after different types of drying process (natural and solar) was added to the degraded sandy soil. The effect of the methods of sewage sludge drying on concentration of drug-resistant microorganisms in soil fertilized with the sludge was analysed.

The study demonstrated that sewage sludge dried naturally in drying beds pose threat to soil environment and, potentially, to people and animals which have contact with fertilized soils. In sandy soils fertilized with these types of sewage sludge, pathogenic forms which exhibit resistance to first-line antibiotics can be found.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

E. Stańczyk-Mazanek
T. Nalewajek
M. Zabochnicka
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The factor which essentially affects sludge biodegradation rate is the degree of fluidization of insoluble organic polymers to the solved form, which is a precondition for availability of nutrients for microorganisms. The phases which substantially limit the rate of anaerobic decomposition include hydrolytic and methanogenic phase.

Subjecting excess sludge to the process of initial disintegration substantially affects the effectiveness of the process of anaerobic stabilization. As a result of intensification of the process of hydrolysis, which manifests itself in the increase in the value and rate of generating volatile fatty acids (VFA), elongation of methanogenic phase of the process and increase in the degree of fermentation of modified sludge can be observed. Use of initial treatment of sewage sludge i.e. thermal disintegration is aimed at breaking microorganisms' cells and release of intracellular organic matter to the liquid phase. As a result of thermal hydrolysis in the sludge, the volatile fatty acids (VFA) are generated as early as at the stage of the process of conditioning. The obtained value of VFA determines the course of biological hydrolysis which is the first phase of anaerobic stabilization.

The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of thermal disintegration of excess sludge on the effectiveness of the process of hydrolysis in anaerobic stabilization i.e. the rate of production of volatile fatty acids, changes in the level of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and increase in the degree of reduction in organic matter. During the first stage of the investigations, the most favourable conditions of thermal disintegration of excess sludge were identified using the temperatures of 50°C, 70°C, 90°C and heating times of 1.5 h - 6 h. The sludge was placed in laboratory flasks secured with a glass plug with liquid-column gauge and subjected to thermal treatment in water bath with shaker option. Another stage involved 8-day process of anaerobic stabilization of raw and thermally disintegrated excess sludge. Stabilization was carried out in mesophilic temperature regime i.e. at 37°C, under periodical conditions. In the case of the process of anaerobic stabilization of thermally disintegrated excess sludge at the temperature of 50°C and heating time of 6 h (mixture B) and 70°C and heating time of 4.5% (mixture C), the degree of fermentation of 30.67% and 33.63%, respectively, was obtained. For the studied sludge, i.e. mixture B and mixture C, maximal level of volatile fatty acids i.e. 874.29 mg CH3COOH/dm3 and 1131.43 mg CH3COOH/dm3 was found on the 2nd day of the process. The maximal obtained value of VFA was correlated on this day with maximal COD level, which was 1344 mg O2/dm3 for mixture B and 1778 mg O2/dm3 for mixture C.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

I. Zawieja
P. Wolski
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The study of the effectiveness of the removal of anionic natural organic matter (fulvic acids-FA and humic acids-HA) and inorganic anions (F-, Br-, NO3-) in MIEX®DOC process was performed. The influence of physico-chemical parameters of feed water on the process performance was investigated. The ion exchange process was carried out using strongly basic, macroporous polystyrene resin MIEX® by Orica Watercare. The synthetic feed waters differ in composition, i.e. concentration of FA and HA (ca. 6 and 12 mg/L), anions content (F-, Br-, NO3-) and of various alkalinity (ca. 20 and 120 mg/L as CaCO3) were used. The study confirmed the possibility of application of MIEX®DOC process for removal of anionic contaminants from water. It also showed the significant impact of feed water parameters on the process effectiveness. Moreover, the strong dependence of anions (F-, Br-, NO3-) removal, FA and HA concentration on the resin dose was revealed.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

M. Rajca

Instructions for authors

Archives of Environmental Protection

Instructions for Authors

Archives of Environmental Protection is a quarterly published jointly by the Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Committee of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Thanks to the cooperation with outstanding scientists from all over the world we are able to provide our readers with carefully selected, most interesting and most valuable texts, presenting the latest state of research in the field of engineering and environmental protection.

The Journal principally accepts for publication original research papers covering such topics as:
- Air quality, air pollution prevention and treatment;
- Wastewater treatment technologies and processing of sewage sludge;
- Technologies in waste management in the field of neutralization / recovery / closed circulation;
- Hydrology and water quality, water treatment;
- Soil protection and remediation;
- Transformations and transport of organic/inorganic pollutants in the environment;
- Measurement techniques used in environmental engineering and monitoring;
- Other topics directly related to environmental engineering and environment protection.

The Journal accepts also authoritative and critical reviews of the current state of knowledge in the topic directly relating to the environment protection.

If unsure whether the article is within the scope of the Journal, please send an abstract via e-mail to:

Preparation of the manuscript
The following are the requirements for manuscripts submitted for publication:
* The manuscript (with illustrations, tables, abstract and references) should not exceed 20 pages. In case the manuscript exceeds the required number of pages, we suggest contacting the Editor.
* The manuscript should be written in good English.
* The manuscript ought to be submitted in doc or docx format in three files:
– text.doc – file containing the entire text, without title, keywords, authors names and affiliations, and without tables and figures;
– figures.doc
– file containing illustrations with legends;
– tables.doc
– file containing tables with legends;

*The text should be prepared in A4 format, 2.5 cm margins, 1.5 spaced, preferably using Time New Roman font, 12 point. The text should be divided into sections and subsections according to general rules of manuscript editing. The proposed place of tables and figures insertion should be marked in the text.
* Legends in the figures should be concise and legible, using a proper font size so as to maintain their legibility after decreasing the font size. Please avoid using descriptions in figures, these should be used in legends or in the text of the article. Figures should be placed without the box. Legends should be placed under the figure and also without box.
* Tables should always be divided into columns. When there are many results presented in the table it should also be divided into lines.
* References should be cited in the text of an article by providing the name and publication year in brackets, e.g. (Nowak 2019). When a cited paper has two authors, both surnames connected with the word “and” should be provided, e.g. (Nowak and Kowalski 2019). When a cited paper has more than two authors, surname of its first author, abbreviation ‘et al.’ and publication year should be provided, e.g. (Kowalski et al. 2019). When there are more than two publications cited in one place they should be divided with a coma, e.g. (Kowalski et al. 2019, Nowak 2019, Nowak and Kowalski 2019). Internet sources should be cited like other texts - providing the name and publication year in brackets.
* The Authors should avoid extensive citations. The number of literature references must not exceed 30 including a maximum of 6 own papers. Only in review articles the number of literature references can exceed 30.
* References should be listed at the end of the article ordered alphabetically by surname of the first author. References should be made according to the following rules:

1. Journal:
Surnames and initials. (publication year). Title of the article, Journal Name, volume, number, pages, DOI.
For example:

Nowak, S.W., Smith, A.J. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of the article, Archives of Environmental Protection, 10, 2, pp. 93–98, DOI: 10.24425/aep.2019.126330

If the article has been assigned DOI, it should be provided and linked with the website on which it is made available.

2. Book:
Surnames and initials. (publication year). Title, Publisher, Place and publishing year.
For example:

Kraszewski, J. & Kinecki, K. (2019). Title of book, Work & Sudies, Zabrze 2019.

3. Edited book:
Surnames and initials of text authors. (publishing year). Title of cited chapter, in: Title of the book, Surnames and initials of editor(s). (Ed.)/(Eds.). Publisher, Place, pages.
For example:
Reynor, J. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of chapter, in: Title of the cited book, Kaźmierski, I. & Jasiński, C. (Eds.). Work & Studies, Zabrze, pp. 145–189.

4. Internet sources:
Surnames and initials or the name of the institution which published the text. (publication year). Title, (website address (accessed on)).
For example:
Kowalski, M. (2018). Title, ( (03.12.2018)).

5. Patents:
Orszulik, E. (2009). Palenisko fluidalne, Patent polski: nr PL20070383311 20070910 z 16 marca 2009. Smith, I.M. (1988). U.S. Patent No. 123,445. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

6. Materials published in language other than English:
Titles of cited materials should be translated into English. Information of the language the materials were published in should be provided at the end.

For example:
Nowak, S.W. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of article, Journal Name, 10, 2, pp. 93–98, DOI: 10.24425/aep.2019.126330. (in Polish)

Not more than 30 references should be cited in the original research paper.

Submission of the manuscript
By submitting the manuscript Author(s) warrant(s) that the article has not been previously published and is not under consideration by another journal. Authors claim responsibility and liability for the submitted article. The article is freely available and distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License (CC BY SA 4.0, https: //, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the article is properly cited, is not used for commercial purposes and no modification or adaptation are made.

© 2021. The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License (CC BY SA 4.0, https://, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the article is properly cited, the use is non-commercial, and no modifications or adaptations are made

The manuscripts should be submitted on-line using the Editorial System available at Authors are asked to propose at least 4 potential reviewers, including 2 from Poland, together with their e-mail addresses. The journal does not have article processing charges (APCs) nor article submission charges.

Review Process
All the submitted articles are assessed by the Editorial Board. If positively assessed by at least two editors, Editor in Chief, along with department editors selects two independent reviewers from recognized authorities in the discipline. Reviewers receive a text of the article (without personal data of Authors) and review forms applicable in the journal. Review process usually lasts from 1 to 4 months. Reviewers have access to PUBLONS platform which integrates into Bentus Editorial System and enables adding reviews to their personal profile. After completion of the review process Authors are informed of the results and - if both reviews are positive - asked to correct the text according to reviewers’ comments. Next, the revised work is verified by the editorial staff for factual and editorial content.

Acceptance of the manuscript
The manuscript is accepted for publication on grounds of the opinions of independent reviewers and approval of Editorial Board. Authors are informed about the decision and also asked to pay processing charges and to send completed declaration of the transfer of copyright to the editorial office.

Proofreading and Author Correction
All articles published in the Archives of Environmental Protection go through professional proofreading process. If there are too many language errors that prevent understanding of the text, the article is sent back to Authors with a request to correct the indicated fragments or - in extreme cases – to re-translate the text. After proofreading the manuscript is prepared for publishing. The final stage of the publishing process is Author correction. Authors receive a page proof copy of the article with a request to make final corrections.

Article publication charges
The publication fee of an article in the Journal is:
* 20 EUR/80 zł per page (black and white or in gray scale),
* 30 EUR/120 zł per page (color).

Payments in Polish zlotys
Bank BGK
Account no.: 20 1130 1091 0003 9111 7820 0001

Payments in Euros
Bank BGK
Account no.: 20 1130 1091 0003 9111 7820 0001
IBAN: PL 20 1130 1091 0003 9111 7820 0001

Authors are kindly requested to inform the editorial office of making payment for the publication, as well as to send all necessary data for issuing an invoice.

Additional info

Abstracting & Indexing

Archives of Environmental Protection is covered by the following services:

AGRICOLA (National Agricultural Library)



Baidu Scholar


CABI (over 50 subsections)

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) - CAplus

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) - SciFinder

CNKI Scholar (China National Knowledge Infrastructure)



DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals)

EBSCO (relevant databases)

EBSCO Discovery Service

Engineering Village

FSTA - Food Science & Technology Abstracts

Genamics JournalSeek



Google Scholar

Index Copernicus


Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)


Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition


KESLI-NDSL (Korean National Discovery for Science Leaders)

Microsoft Academic

Naviga (Softweco)

Primo Central (ExLibris)

ProQuest (relevant databases)






Summon (Serials Solutions/ProQuest)


TEMA Technik und Management

Ulrich's Periodicals Directory/ulrichsweb

WanFang Data

Web of Science - Biological Abstracts

Web of Science - BIOSIS Previews

Web of Science - Science Citation Index Expanded

WorldCat (OCLC)

This page uses 'cookies'. Learn more