Applied sciences

Archives of Foundry Engineering


Archives of Foundry Engineering | 2015 | No 2

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The production of thin-walled castings with wall thickness in the range of 1.5 to 3 mm and below requires the development of insulation

moulding sands and/or core materials. The test has been taken to develop these kind of materials. The study included a description of their

thermophysical properties. Authors described problems related to the heat flow in the casting-mould system, i.e. mathematically described

the main dependence of heat give-up during crystallization of the casting. The influence of the content of polyglicol on the thermophysical

properties of the mould with gypsum and cement binder was examined. Using the ATD method determined were the increments ΔT1 and

ΔT2 describing the temperature changes in the mould during crystallization of hypoeutectic alloy of AlSi6 and the temperature difference

between casting material and mould during the crystallization. In the considered range of technological parameters a description of the

heat flow kinetics was given.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Cholewa
Ł. Kozakiewicz
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Modern techniques of castings production, including moulding sands production, require a strict technological regime and high quality

materials. In the case of self-hardening moulding sands with synthetic binders those requirements apply mainly to sand, which adds to

more than 98% of the whole moulding sand mixture. The factors that affect the quality of the moulding sands are both chemical (SiO2


Fe2O3 and carbonates content) and physical. Among these factors somewhat less attention is paid to the granulometric composition of the

sands. As a part of this study, the effect of sand quality on bending strength Rgu

and thermal deformation of self-hardening moulding sands

with furfural and alkyd resin was assessed. Moulding sands with furfural resin are known [1] to be the most susceptible to the sand quality.

A negative effect on its properties has, among others, high content of clay binder and so-called subgrains (fraction smaller than 0,1mm),

which can lead to neutralization of acidic hardeners (in the case of moulding sands with furfuryl resin) and also increase the specific

surface, what forces greater amount of binding agents. The research used 5 different quartz sands originating from different sources and

characterized with different grain composition and different clay binder content.

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Authors and Affiliations

St.M. Dobosz
A. Grabarczyk
J. Jakubski
K. Major-Gabryś
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Grey cast iron belongs to materials for casting production, which have wide application for different industry branches. Wide spectrum of

properties of these materials is given by the structure of base metal matrix, which can be influenced with heat treatment. Processes of

annealing can be applied for grey cast iron without problems. During heat treatment processes, where higher cooling rates are used, the

thermal and structural strains become important. Usage and conditions of such heat treatment for grey cast iron castings of common

production are the subject of evaluation of this article.

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Authors and Affiliations

Š. Eperješi
J. Malik
I. Vasková
D. Fecko
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The results of research on stereological parameters of carbides in modified hypoeutectic chromium cast iron were shown in the paper. The

effect of distance the casting heat centre of casting to the carbide phase morphology was examined. The samples for metallographic

examination were taken from various locations of the model casting prepared in a special tester. This model casting was designed to

simulate the solidification of heavy castings. Using the proposed methodology the relation of the distance from the model mould and the

size, perimeter, length, width and the shape factor of carbides was examined. During the analysis, the values of stereological parameters of

carbides changed on various sections of the model casting.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Gromczyk
A. Studnicki
M. Kondracki
J. Szajnar
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The paper describes existing requirements for tool materials. In the light of experience with these supplied materials, we have

demonstrated their considerable influence on the life of molds for die casting technology. From this research came the evaluation

methodology of these tool materials which has been used for directing the development of a new material. Based on the new regulation of

the chemical composition a sample was casted and forged after that. Then was determined the process of heat treatment and from a block

of this material a mold insert was produced. This insert is now being tested in production.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Herman
P. Zikmund
F. Tatíček
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A number of technologies is developed that substitute simple metal cores in the high-pressure casting technology. Soluble cores, namely

on the salt basis, represent the highest prospect. The contribution gives the results of the production of salt cores by high-pressure

squeezing and shooting with using a binder. Special attention is paid to the shape of NaCl salt crystals with additives and the influence on

strength properties of cores. A technology of bonding the salt cores is developing. Salinity of circulating water is studied and it is checked

with the aid of electrical conductance.

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Authors and Affiliations

P. Jelínek
J. Beňo
E. Adámková
F. Mikšovský
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The results of the modification of austenitic matrix in cast high-manganese steel containing 11÷19% Mn with additions of Cr, Ni and Ti

were discussed. The introduction of carbide-forming alloying elements to this cast steel leads to the formation in matrix of stable complex

carbide phases, which effectively increase the abrasive wear resistance in a mixture of SiC and water. The starting material used in tests

was a cast Hadfield steel containing 11% Mn and 1.34% C. The results presented in the article show significant improvement in abrasive

wear resistance and hardness owing to the structure modification with additions of Cr and Ti.

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Authors and Affiliations

B. Kalandyk
R. Zapała
G. Tęcza
S. Sobula
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The problem of materials selection in terms of their mechanical properties during the design of new products is a key issue of design. The

complexity of this process is mainly due to a multitude of variants in the previously produced materials and the possibility of their further

processing improving the properties. In everyday practice, the problem is solved basing on expert or designer knowledge. The paper is the

proposition of a solution using computer-aided analysis of material experimental data, which may be acquired from external data sources.

In both cases, taking into account the rapid growth of data, additional tools become increasingly important, mainly those which offer

support for adding, viewing, and simple comparison of different experiments. In this paper, the use of formal knowledge representation in

the form of an ontology is proposed as a bridge between physical repositories of data in the form of files and user queries, which are

usually formulated in natural language. The number and the sophisticated internal structure of attributes or parameters that could be the

criteria of the search for the user are an important issue in the traditional data search tools. Ontology, as a formal representation of

knowledge, enables taking into account the known relationships between concepts in the field of cast iron, materials used and processing

techniques. This allows the user to receive support by searching the results of experiments that relate to a specific material or processing

treatment. Automatic presentation of the results which relate to similar materials or similar processing treatments is also possible, which

should make the conducted analysis of the selection of materials or processing treatments more comprehensive by including a wider range

of possible solutions.

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Authors and Affiliations

S. Kluska-Nawarecka
K. Regulski
D. Wilk-Kołodziejczyk
G. Rojek
G. Polek
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The article presents the method to assess the diffusion coefficient D in the sub-layer of intermetallic phases formed during hot-dip

galvanizing “Armco” iron and ductile cast iron EN-GJS-500-7. Hot-dip galvanizing is one of the most popular forms of long-term

protection of Fe-C alloys against corrosion. The process for producing a protective layer of sufficient quality is closely related to diffusion

of atoms of zinc and iron. The simulation consist in performed a hot-dip galvanizing in laboratory condition above Fe-C alloys, in the

Department of Engineering of Cast Alloys and Composites. Galvanizing time ranged from 15 to 300 seconds. Then metallographic

specimens were prepared, intermetallic layers were measured and diffusion coefficient (D) were calculated. It was found that the diffusion

coefficient obtained during hot-dip galvanizing “Armco” iron and zinc is about two orders of magnitude less than the coefficient obtained

on ductile cast iron EN-GJS-500-7.

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Authors and Affiliations

D. Kopyciński
E. Guzik
A. Szczęsny
D. Siekaniec
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The paper presents results of measuring thermal conductivity and heat capacity of bentonite foundry sand in temperature range ambient –

900 OC. During the experiments a technical purity Cu plate was cast into the green-sand moulds. Basing on measurements of the mould

temperature field during the solidification of the casting, the temperature relationships of the measured properties were evaluated. It was

confirmed that water vaporization strongly influences thermal conductivity of the moulding sand in the first period of the mould heating by

the poured casting.

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Authors and Affiliations

P.K. Krajewski
J.S. Suchy
W.K. Krajewski
G. Piwowarski
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The paper presents results of measuring attenuation coefficient of the Al-20 wt.% Zn alloy (AlZn20) inoculated with different grain

refiners. During experiments the melted alloys were doped with Al-Ti3-C0.15 refining master alloy. Basing on measurements performed

by Krautkramer USLT2000 device with 1MHz ultrasound wave frequency it was stated that grain refinement reduces the attenuation

coefficient by about 20-25%. However, the examined alloys can be still classified as the high-damping ones of attenuation greater than 150


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Authors and Affiliations

P.K. Krajewski
W.K. Krajewski
J. Buraś
G. Piwowarski
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Metallic foams are materials of which the research is still on-going, with the broad applicability in many different areas (e.g. automotive

industry, building industry, medicine, etc.). These metallic materials have specific properties, such as large rigidity at low density, high

thermal conductivity, capability to absorb energy, etc. The work is focused on the preparation of these materials using conventional casting

technology (infiltration method), which ensures rapid and economically feasible method for production of shaped components. In the

experimental part we studied conditions of casting of metallic foams with open pores and irregular cell structure made of ferrous and nonferrous

alloys by use of various types of filler material (precursors).

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Authors and Affiliations

P. Lichý
I. Kroupová
F. Radkovský
V. Bednářová
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Currently there is a constant development in the field of aluminium alloys engineering. This results from, i.a., better understanding of the

mechanisms that direct strengthening of these alloys and the role of microalloying. Now it is microalloying in aluminum alloys that is

receiving a lot of attention. It affects substantially the macro- and microstructure and kinetics of phase transformation influencing the

properties during production and its exploitation. 7xxx series aluminum alloys, based on the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu system, are high-strength

alloys, moreover, the presence of Zr and Sr further increases their strength and improves resistance to cracking.

This study aims to present the changes of the properties, depending on the alloy chemical composition and the macro- and microstructure.

Therefore, the characteristics in the field of hardness, tensile strength, yield strength and elongation are shown on selected examples.

Observations were made on ingot samples obtained by semi-continuous casting, in the homogenized state.

Samples were prepared from aluminum alloys in accordance with PN-EN 573-3: 2013. The advantage of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys are

undoubtedly good strength, Light-weight and resistance to corrosion. As widening of the already published studies it is sought to

demonstrate the repeatability of the physical parameters in the whole volume of the sample.

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Authors and Affiliations

S. Rzadkosz
M. Perek-Nowak
A. Garbacz-Klempka
Z. Kwak
W. Krok
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Presented are results of a preliminary research on determining a possibility to use microwave radiation for drying casting protective

coatings applied on patterns used in the lost foam technology. Taken were measurements of permittivity εr and loss factor tgδ at 2.45 GHz,

as well as attempts were made of microwave drying of a protective coating based on aluminium silicates, applied on shapes of foamed

polystyrene and rigid polymeric foam. Time and results of microwave drying were compared with the results obtained by drying at 50 °C

by the traditional method commonly used for removing water from protective coatings. Analysis of the obtained drying kinetics curves

demonstrated that selection of proper operation parameters of microwave equipment permits the drying time to be significantly shortened.

Depending on kind of the pattern material, drying process of a protective coating runs in a different way, resulting in obtaining different

quality of the dried coating.

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Authors and Affiliations

B. Opyd
K. Granat
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The paper deals with problems related to application of aluminum-silicon alloys for combustion engine cylinder liners

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Trytek
M. Tupaj
M. Mróz
A.W. Orłowicz
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Elaborated shapes of many car components are the reason for which the use of casting techniques to fabricate them is a solution wellfounded

from the economical point of view. Currently applicable regulatory requirements concerning emissions of exhaust fumes force the

carmakers to reduce the overall weight of their products, as this is a basic precondition for reducing fuel consumption. As a result, newly

launched car models contain a continuously increasing share of thin-walled castings made of materials which ensure a satisfactory level of

service properties. At the same time, developing new technological processes allowing to extend the service life of individual components

by means of surface improving becomes more and more important.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Trytek
M. Tupaj
M. Mróz
A.W. Orłowicz
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The paper presents an analysis of factors affecting the wear of cylinder liners. The effect of the graphite precipitation morphology on the

cylinder liner wear mechanism is presented. Materials used to cast cylinder liners mounted in a number of engines have been examined for

their conformity with requirements set out in applicable Polish industrial standard. A casting for a prototype cylinder liner has been made

with a microstructure guaranteeing good service properties of the part.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Trytek
M. Tupaj
M. Mróz
A.W. Orłowicz
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This paper presents the results on the effects of die-casting process on the strength parameters of castings of the aluminium AlSi9Cu3 alloy

belonging to the group of EN AB-46000, made on renovated high pressure die-casting machine. Specimens for quality testing were taken

from the places of the casting most loaded during the service. The aim of a research was to prove how the new die-casting process control

capabilities influence on the tensile strength of the cast material defined as a value of the breaking force of the specimens. It has been

found that it is possible to specify a set of recommended settings valves of second (II) and third (III) phase, which are responsible for

filling the metal mould on die-casting pressure machine. From the point of view of the finished cast element, it was noticed that exceeding

the prescribed values of valve settings does not bring further benefits and even causes unnecessary overload and reduce the durability of

the mold. Moreover, it was noticed that reduction of the predetermined setting of the second phase (II) valve leads to the formation of

casting defects again.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Stachowicz
Ł. Pałyga
K. Granat
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The work deals with technology Patternless process that combines 3 manufacturing process mold by using rapid prototyping technology,

conventional sand formation and 3D milling. It's unconventional technology that has been developed to produce large-sized and heavyduty

castings weighing up to several tons. It is used mainly in prototype and small batch production, because eliminating production of

models. The work deals with the production of blocks for making molds of gypsum and gypsum drying process technology Thermomold.

Into blocks, where were made cavities by milling were casted test castings from AlSi10MgMn alloy by gravity casting. At machining of

the mold cavity was varied feed rate of tool of cemented carbide. Evaluated was the surface roughness of test castings, that was to 5

micrometers with feed from 900 to 1300 mm/min. The dimensional accuracy of castings was high at feed rate of 1000 and 1500 mm/min

did not exceed 0.025 mm.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Sládek
R. Pastirčák
E. Kucharčíková
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This paper deals with influence on segregation of iron based phases on the secondary alloy AlSi7Mg0.3 microstructure by nickel. Iron is

the most common and harmful impurity in aluminum casting alloys and has long been associated with an increase of casting defects. In

generally, iron is associated with the formation of Fe-rich intermetallic phases. It is impossible to remove iron from melt by standard

operations. Some elements eliminates iron by changing iron intermetallic phase morphology, decreasing its extent and by improving alloy

properties. Realization of experiments and results of analysis show new view on solubility of iron based phases during melt preparation

with higher iron content and influence of nickel as iron corrector of iron based phases.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Brůna
L. Richtárech
D. Bolibruchová
J. Caiss
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Presented are results of a research on the possibility of using artificial neural networks for forecasting mechanical and technological

parameters of moulding sands containing water-glass, hardened in the innovative microwave heating process. Trial predictions were

confronted with experimental results of examining sandmixes prepared on the base of high-silica sand, containing various grades of

sodium water-glass and additions of a wetting agent. It was found on the grounds of obtained values of tensile strength and permeability

that, with use of artificial neural networks, it is possible complex forecasting mechanical and technological properties of these materials

after microwave heating and the obtained data will be used in further research works on application of modern analytic methods for

designing production technology of high-quality casting cores and moulds.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Stachowicz
Ł. Pałyga
K. Granat
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Deoxidation of steel with carbon under reduced pressure is often used for increasing the steel purity. Suitable units for this purpose in

foundries are vacuum induction furnaces. Possibilities of increasing the steel purity by deoxidation with carbon in the vacuum induction

furnace were studied for the steel for the petrochemistry of specific composition 25Cr/35Ni. The charge composed of the return material

only was melted in the air. During melting the charge oxidized and the oxidizing slag formed. Chemical composition of steel, morphology,

chemical composition of inclusions in the steel and chemical composition of slag after vacuuming were studied on the basis of samples

taken before and after vacuuming. Temperature and oxygen activity were measured before and after vacuuming. Globular inclusions with

dominant content of silicon and manganese were observed in steel before and after vacuuming. Contents of total oxygen in steel didn’t

change significantly during vacuuming. On the basis of composition of inclusions and measured oxygen activity the activity of Cr2O3


inclusions was calculated. A slag sample was taken after vacuuming and equilibrium oxygen activity in steel with regard to the Cr2O3

content in the slag was estimated from the slag composition. Equilibrium oxygen activity in relation to the Cr2O3 content in the slag was

higher than equilibrium activity measured in the steel. For this reason it is not possible, under the studied conditions, to decrease oxygen

content in steel during vacuuming.

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Šenberger
V. Pernica

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Instructions for the preparation of an Archives of Foundry Engineering Paper

Publication Ethics Policy

Publication Ethics Policy

The standards of expected ethical behavior for all parties involved in publishing in the Archives of Foundry Engineering journal: the author, the journal editor and editorial board, the peer reviewers and the publisher are listed below.

All the articles submitted for publication in Archives of Foundry Engineering are peer reviewed for authenticity, ethical issues and usefulness as per Review Procedure document.

Duties of Editors
1. Monitoring the ethical standards: Editorial Board monitors the ethical standards of the submitted manuscripts and takes all possible measures against any publication malpractices.
2. Fair play: Submitted manuscripts are evaluated for their scientific content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious beliefs, citizenship, political ideology or any other issues that is a personal or human right.
3. Publication decisions: The Editor in Chief is responsible for deciding which of the submitted articles should or should not be published. The decision to accept or reject the article is based on its importance, originality, clarity, and its relevance to the scope of the journal and is made after the review process.
4. Confidentiality: The Editor in Chief and the members of the Editorial Board t ensure that all materials submitted to the journal remain confidential during the review process. They must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the parties involved in the publishing process i.e., authors, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher.
5. Disclosure and conflict of interest: Unpublished materials disclosed in the submitted manuscript must not be used by the Editor and the Editorial Board in their own research without written consent of authors. Editors always precludes business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards.
6. Maintain the integrity of the academic record: The editors will guard the integrity of the published academic record by issuing corrections and retractions when needed and pursuing suspected or alleged research and publication misconduct. Plagiarism and fraudulent data is not acceptable. Editorial Board always be willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions and apologies when needed.

Retractions of the articles: the Editor in Chief will consider retracting a publication if:
- there are clear evidences that the findings are unreliable, either as a result of misconduct (e.g. data fabrication) or honest error (e.g. miscalculation or experimental error)
- the findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper cross-referencing, permission or justification (cases of redundant publication)
- it constitutes plagiarism or reports unethical research.
Notice of the retraction will be linked to the retracted article (by including the title and authors in the retraction heading), clearly identifies the retracted article and state who is retracting the article. Retraction notices should always mention the reason(s) for retraction to distinguish honest error from misconduct.
Retracted articles will not be removed from printed copies of the journal nor from electronic archives but their retracted status will be indicated as clearly as possible.

Duties of Authors
1. Reporting standards: Authors of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the paper. The paper should contain sufficient details and references to permit others to replicate the work. The fabrication of results and making of fraudulent or inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and will cause rejection or retraction of a manuscript or a published article.
2. Originality and plagiarism: Authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others they need to be cited or quoted. Plagiarism and fraudulent data is not acceptable.
3. Data access retention: Authors may be asked to provide the raw data for editorial review, should be prepared to provide public access to such data, and should be prepared to retain such data for a reasonable time after publication of their paper.
4. Multiple or concurrent publication: Authors should not in general publish a manuscript describing essentially the same research in more than one journal. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable.
5. Authorship of the manuscript: Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the report study. All those who have made contributions should be listed as co-authors. The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors and no inappropriate co-authors are included in the paper, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.
6. Acknowledgement of sources: The proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given. The authors should cite publications that have been influential in determining the scope of the reported work.
7. Fundamental errors in published works: When the author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper.

Duties of Reviewers
1. Contribution to editorial decisions: Peer reviews assist the editor in making editorial decisions and may also help authors to improve their manuscript.
2. Promptness: Any selected reviewer who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its timely review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself/herself from the review process.
3. Confidentiality: All manuscript received for review must be treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except those authorized by the editor.
4. Standards of objectivity: Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inappropriate. Reviewers should express their views clearly with appropriate supporting arguments.
5. Acknowledgement of sources: Reviewers should identify the relevant published work that has not been cited by authors. Any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper should be reported to the editor.
6. Disclosure and conflict of Interest: Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should not consider evaluating manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relations with any of the authors, companies, or institutions involved in writing a paper.

Peer-review Procedure

Review Procedure

The Review Procedure for articles submitted to the Archives of Foundry Engineering agrees with the recommendations of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education published in a booklet: ‘Dobre praktyki w procedurach recenzyjnych w nauce’ (MNiSW, Dobre praktyki w procedurach recenzyjnych w nauce, Warszawa 2011).

Papers submitted to the Editorial System are primarily screened by editors with respect to scope, formal issues and used template. Texts with obvious errors (formatting other than requested, missing references, evidently low scientific quality) will be rejected at this stage or will be sent for the adjustments.

Once verified each article is checked by the anti-plagiarism system Cross Check powered by iThenticate®. After the positive response, the article is moved into: Initially verified manuscripts. When the similarity level is too high, the article will be rejected. There is no strict rule (i.e., percentage of the similarity), and it is always subject to the Editor’s decision.
Initially verified manuscripts are then sent to at least four independent referees outside the author’s institution and at least two of them outside of Poland, who:

have no conflict of interests with the author,
are not in professional relationships with the author,
are competent in a given discipline and have at least a doctorate degree and respective
scientific achievements,
have a good reputation as reviewers.

The review form is available online at the Journal’s Editorial System and contains the following sections:

1. Article number and title in the Editorial System

2. The statement of the Reviewer (to choose the right options):

I declare that I have not guessed the identity of the Author. I declare that I have guessed the identity of the Author, but there is no conflict of interest

3. Detailed evaluation of the manuscript against other researches published to this point:

Do you think that the paper title corresponds with its contents?
Yes No
Do you think that the abstract expresses the paper contents well?
Yes No
Are the results or methods presented in the paper novel?
Yes No
Do the author(s) state clearly what they have achieved?
Yes No
Do you find the terminology employed proper?
Yes No
Do you find the bibliography representative and up-to-date?
Yes No
Do you find all necessary illustrations and tables?
Yes No
Do you think that the paper will be of interest to the journal readers?
Yes No

4. Reviewer conclusion

Accept without changes
Accept after changes suggested by reviewer.
Rate manuscript once again after major changes and another review

5. Information for Editors (not visible for authors).

6. Information for Authors

Reviewing is carried out in the double blind process (authors and reviewers do not know each other’s names).

The appointed reviewers obtain summary of the text and it is his/her decision upon accepting/rejecting the paper for review within a given time period 21 days.

The reviewers are obliged to keep opinions about the paper confidential and to not use knowledge about it before publication.

The reviewers send their review to the Archives of Foundry Engineering by Editorial System. The review is archived in the system.

Editors do not accept reviews, which do not conform to merit and formal rules of scientific reviewing like short positive or negative remarks not supported by a close scrutiny or definitely critical reviews with positive final conclusion. The reviewer’s remarks are sent to the author. He/she has to consider all remarks and revise the text accordingly.

The author of the text has the right to comment on the conclusions in case he/she does not agree with them. He/she can request the article withdrawal at any step of the article processing.

The Editor-in-Chief (supported by members of the Editorial Board) decides on publication based on remarks and conclusions presented by the reviewers, author’s comments and the final version of the manuscript.

The final Editor’s decision can be as follows:
Accept without changes

The rules for acceptance or rejection of the paper and the review form are available on the Web page of the AFE publisher.

Once a year Editorial Office publishes present list of cooperating reviewers.
Reviewing is free of charge.
All articles, including those rejected and withdrawn, are archived in the Editorial System.

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