Applied sciences

Archives of Foundry Engineering

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Archives of Foundry Engineering | 2021 | vo. 21 | No 4 in progress |

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Abstract

The article presents the results of research on the physicochemical and mechanical properties, microstructure, and the tendency to form shrinkage of nodular cast iron depending on the type of inoculant used for secondary inoculation. Six different inoculants containing different active elements in their chemical composition were used for the research. Step castings and Y2 wedges were made on the vertical forming line using an automatic pouring machine. The inoculation in the amount of 0.2% was made using a pneumatic dispenser equipped with a vision system controlling the effectiveness of the inoculation. The results of the thermal analysis were determined and compared, and the potential of each of the inoculants was assessed.
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Bibliography

[1] Fraś, E., Podrzucki, C. (1978). Modified cast iron. Kraków: Skrypt AGH, nr. 675. (in Polish).
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Authors and Affiliations

R. Dwulat
1 2
K. Janerka
2
K. Grzesiak
1

  1. Foundry Lisie Kąty, Lisie Kąty 7, 86-302 Grudziądz, Poland
  2. Department of Foundry Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, Towarowa 7, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
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Abstract

Disposable foundry models constitute an increasingly important role in a unitary large-size foundry. These models have many benefits, but technologies using such materials require an understanding of degradation kinetics at the time of filling. The studies presented in the article determine the size of the polystyrene combustion products used for disposable foundry models. The results were obtained by carrying out the combustion process of the polystyrene model in a special combustion chamber, in different configurations. The pressures generated during thermal degradation vary depending on process parameters such as model density or the use of an additional adhesive binder. The results of laboratory tests may suggest what values of pressure are generated when filling in full-mold and lost foam technologies. The studies provide a prelude to further analysis of materials used for disposable foundry models and quantitative evaluation of their thermal degradation products for computer simulation.
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Bibliography

[1] Pacyniak, T. (2013). Full mold casting. Selected aspects. Lodz: A Series of Monographs, Lodz University of Technology. (in Polish)
[2] Pysz, S., Żółkiewicz, Z., Żuczek, R., Maniowski, Z., Sierant, Z., Młyński, M. (2010). Simulation studies of mould filling conditions with molten metal in evaporative pattern technology. The Transactions of the Foundry Research Institute. 10(3), 27-37.
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[4] Kaczorowski, R., Just, P. & Pacyniak, T. (2013), Test bench for analyzing the lost foam process. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 13(1), 57-62.
[5] Buczkowska, K., Just, P., Świniarska, J. & Pacyniak, T. (2015). The effect of the type, the ceramic coating thickness and the pattern set density on the degree of gas porosity in casting. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 15(2), 7-12.
[6] Żmudzińska, M., Faber, J., Perszewska, K., Żółkiewicz, Z., Maniowski, Z. (2011). Studying the emission of products formed during evaporation of polystyrene patterns in the lost foam process in terms of the work environment. The Transactions of the Foundry Research Institute. 50(1), 23-33.
[7] Żółkiewicz, Z., Baliński, A., Żółkiewicz M. (2017). Characteristics of the thermal process of polystyrene model gasification. The Transactions of the Foundry Research Institute. 17(3), 201 - 210.
[8] Mocek, J. & Chojecki, A. (2014). Gas atmosphere formed in casting by full mold process. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials. 59(3), 1045-1049.
[9] Żółkiewicz, Z. & Żółkiewicz, M. (2010). Characteristic properties of materials for evaporative patterns. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 10(spec. 3), 289-292.
[10] Pielichowski, J., Sobczak, J.J., Żółkiewicz, Z., Hebda, E., Karwiński, A. (2011). The thermal analysis of polystyrene foundry model. The Transactions of the Foundry Research Institute. 11(1), 15-21.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Jureczko
1 2
D. Bartocha
1

  1. Department of Foundry Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, 7 Towarowa Str. 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
  2. Joint Doctoral School, Silesian University of Technology, 2A Akademicka Str. 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
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Abstract

Production of the defect-free casting of aluminium alloys is the biggest challenge. Porosity is known to be the most important defect. Therefore, many cast parts are subjected to several non-destructive tests in order to check their acceptability. There are several standards, yet, the acceptance limit of porosity size and distribution may change according to the customer design and requirements. In this work, the aim was targeted to evaluate the effect of size, location, and distribution of pores on the tensile properties of cast A356 alloy. ANSYS software was used to perform stress analysis where the pore sizes were changed between 0.05 mm to 3 mm by 0.05 mm increments. Additionally, pore number was changed from 1 to 5 where they were placed at different locations in the test bar. Finally, bifilms were placed inside the pore at different sizes and orientations. The stress generated along the pores was recorded and compared with the fracture stress of the A356 alloy. It was found that as the bifilm size was getting smaller, their effect on tensile properties was lowered. On the other hand, as bifilms were larger, their orientation became the dominant factor in determining the fracture.
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Authors and Affiliations

H. Sahin
1
M. Atik
1
F. Tezer
1
S. Temel
1
O. Aydin
1
O. Kesen
1
O. Gursoy
2
D. Dispinar
3

  1. Istanbul Technical University, Turkey
  2. University of Padova, Italy
  3. Foseco, Netherlands
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Abstract

Cast iron destined for spheroidization is usually characterized by a near-eutectic chemical composition, which is a result of the necessity of maintaining its high graphitizing ability. This graphitizing ability depends mainly on the chemical composition but also on the so-called physical-chemical state. This, in turn, depends on the melting process history and the charge structure. It happens quite often, that at very similar chemical compositions cast irons are characterized by different graphitizing abilities. The hereby work concerns searching for the best method of assessing the graphitizing abilities of near-eutectic cast iron. The assessment of the graphitizing ability was performed for cast iron obtained from the metal charge consisting of 100% of special pig iron and for synthetic cast iron obtained from the charge containing 50% of pig iron + 50% of steel. This assessment was carried out by a few methods: wedge tests, thermal analysis, microstructure tests as well as by the new ultrasonic method. The last method is the most sensitive and accurate. On the basis of the distribution of the wave velocity, determined in the rod which one end was cast on the metal plate, it is possible to determine the graphitizing ability of cast iron. The more uniform structure in the rod, in which directional solidification was forced and which had graphite precipitates on the whole length, the higher graphitizing ability of cast iron. The homogeneity of the structure is determined by the indirect ultrasonic method, by measurements of the wave velocity. This new ultrasonic method of assessing the graphitizing ability of cast iron of a high Sc (degree of eutectiveness) and CE (carbon equivalent) content, can be counted among fast technological methods, allowing to assess the cast iron quality during the melting process.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Zych
1
M. Myszka
1
T. Snopkiewicz
1

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Foundry Engineering, Department of Moulding Materials, Mould Technology and Cast Non-Ferrous Metals, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
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Abstract

Computational Materials Engineering (CME) is a high technological approach used to design and develop new materials including the physical, thermal and mechanical properties by combining materials models at multiple techniques. With the recent advances in technology, the importance of microstructural design in CME environments and the contribution that such an approach can make in the estimation of material properties in simulations are frequently discussed in scientific, academic, and industrial platforms. Determination of the raw material characteristics that can be modeled in a virtual environment at an atomic scale by means of simulation programs plays a big role in combining experimental and virtual worlds and creating digital twins of the production chain and the products. In this study, a new generation, alternative and effective approach that could be used to the development of Al-Si based wheel casting alloys is proposed. This approach is based on the procedure of optimizing the physical and thermodynamic alloy properties developed in a computer environment with the CME technique before the casting phase. This article demonstrates the applicability of this approach in alloy development studies to produce Al-Si alloy wheels using the low pressure die casting (LPDC) method. With this study, an alternative and economical way is presented to the alloy development studies by trial and error in the aluminum casting industry. In other respects, since the study is directly related to the automotive industry, the reduction in fuel consumption in vehicles is an expected effect, as the new alloy aims to reduce the weight of the wheels. In addition to conserving energy, reducing carbon emissions also highlights the environmental aspects of this study.
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Authors and Affiliations

T. Yağcı
1
Ü. Cöcen
1
O. Çulha
2

  1. Dokuz Eylul University, Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, İzmir, Turkey
  2. Manisa Celal Bayar University, Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Manisa, Turkey

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