Applied sciences

Archive of Mechanical Engineering


Archive of Mechanical Engineering | 2022 | vol. 69 | No 1 |

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This paper concerns the analytical investigation of the axisymmetric and steady flow of incompressible couple stress fluid through a rigid sphere embedded in a porous medium. In the porous region, the flow field is governed by Brinkman's equation. Here we consider uniform flow at a distance from the sphere. The boundary conditions applied on the surface of the sphere are the slip condition and zero couple stress. Analytical solution of the problem in the terms of stream function is presented by modified Bessel functions. The drag experienced by an incompressible couple stress fluid on the sphere within the porous medium is calculated. The effects of the slip parameter, the couple stress parameter, and permeability on the drag are represented graphically. Special cases of viscous flow through a sphere are obtained and the results are compared with earlier published results.
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Authors and Affiliations

Krishna Prasad Madasu
Priya Sarkar

  1. Department of Mathematics, National Institute of Technology, Raipur-492010, Chhattisgarh, India
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The present study investigates the 2D numerical analogies to the changes of the droplet shapes during the freefall for a wide range of droplet sizes through the stagnation air. The freefall velocity, shape change due to frictional force during free-fall is studied for different considered cases. With the elapse of time, a droplet with a larger initial diameter is changing its original shape more compared to droplets with a smaller diameter. In addition, the spreading of the droplet during the freefall seems more rapid for the larger-diameter droplet. When a droplet with an initial diameter of 15 mm starts to fall with gravitational force, the diameter ratio is decreasing for droplets with higher density and surface tension while droplets having lower density and surface tension show a diameter ratio greater than one. The spreading and splashing of the droplet on a solid surface and liquid storage at the time of impact are much influenced by the freefall memories of the droplet during the freefall from a certain height. These freefall memories are influenced by the fluid properties, drag force, and the freefall height. However, these freefall memories eventually regulate the deformation of the droplet during the freefall.
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Authors and Affiliations

Abid Hasan Rafi
Mohammad Rejaul Haque
Dewan Hasan Ahmed

  1. Department of Mechanical and Production Engineering, Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh
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Digital image correlation (DIC) is a powerful full-field displacement measurement technique that has been used in various studies. The first step in the DIC is to create a random speckle pattern, where the spraying method is usually employed. However, creating an optimal pattern and modification in the spraying method is not convenient. Furthermore, the size of speckles which is not so small in spraying method, limits the minimum size of the field of study. In the present research, a convenient novel technique was introduced and investigated to generate a practical kind of speckle pattern with small speckles for evaluating smaller fields of view using nanoparticles. The pattern was created by spreading a mixture of different black and white nanoparticles. To this end, the black graphene oxide particles were mixed with white nanoparticles of titanium oxide, zirconium oxide and silicon to obtain three mixtures. Displacement tests show that the mixture of graphene and titanium provides the best DIC performance. More granularly, graphene and titanium were mixed at three different ratios to find the optimal combination. Subsequently, the accuracy of the new patterning method was analyzed via tensile testing and the results were compared against those of conventional method with various subset sizes.
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Authors and Affiliations

Milad Zolfipour Aghdam
Naser Soltani
Hadi Nobakhti

  1. School of Mechanical Engineering, Collegeof Engineering, University of Tehran, Iran
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The Inconel 718 alloys, which are primarily temperature resistant, are widely used in aviation, aerospace and nuclear industries. The study on dry cutting processes for this alloy becomes difficult due to its high hardness and low thermal conductivity, wherein, most of the heat transfers due to friction are accumulated over the tool surface. Further, several challenges like increased cutting force, developing high temperature and rapid tool wear are observed during its machining process. To overcome these, the coated tool inserts are used for machining the superalloys. In the present work, the cemented carbide tool is coated with chemical vapor deposition multi-layering Al 2O 3/TiCN under the dry cutting environment. The machining processes are carried out with varying cutting speeds: 65, 81, 95, and 106 m/min, feed rate 0.1 mm/rev, and depth of cut 0.2 mm. The variation in the cutting speeds can attain high temperatures, which may activate built-up-edge development which leads to extensive tool wear. In this context, the detailed chip morphology and its detailed analysis are carried out initially to understand the machining performance. Simultaneously, the surface roughness of the machined surface is studied for a clear understanding of the machining process. The potential tool wear mechanism in terms of abrasion, adhesion, tool chip off, delaminating of coating, flank wear, and crater wear is extensively identified during the processes. From the results, it is observed that the machining process at 81 m/min corresponds to a better machining process in terms of lesser cutting force, lower cutting temperature, better surface finish, and reduced tool wear than the other machining processes.
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Authors and Affiliations

Shailesh Rao Agari

  1. Department of Industrial and Production Engineering, The National Institute of Engineering, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
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The phase change materials (PCM) are widely used in several applications, especiallyi n the latent heat thermal energy storage system (LHTESS). Due to the very low thermal conductivity of PCMs. A small mass fraction of hybrid nanoparticles TiO 2–CuO (50%–50%) is dispersed in PCM with five mass concentrations of 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1 mass % to improve its thermal conductivity. This article is focused on thermal performance of the hybrid nano-PCM (HNPCM) used for the LHTESS. A numerical model based on the enthalpy-porosity technique is developed to solve the Navier-Stocks and energy equations. The computations were conducted for the melting and solidification processes of the HNPCM in a shell and tube latent heat storage (LHS). The developed numerical model was validated successfully with experimental data from the literature. The results showed that the dispersed hybrid nanoparticles improved the effective thermal conductivity and density of the HNPCM. Accordingly, when the mass fraction of a HNPCM increases by 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1 mass %, the average charging time improves by 12.04 %, 19.9 %, 23.55%, and 27.33 %, respectively. Besides, the stored energy is reduced by 0.83%, 1.67%, 2.83% and 3.88%, respectively. Moreover, the discharging time was shortened by 18.47%, 26.91%, 27.71%, and 30.52%, respectively.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mohamed Lamine Benlekkam
1 2
Driss Nehari

  1. Department of Science and Technology, University of Tissemsilt, Tissemsilt, Algeria
  2. Laboratory of Smart Structure, University of Ain Temouchent, Ain Temouchent, Algeria
  3. Laboratory of Hydrology and Applied Environment, University of Ain Temouchent, Algeria
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Biogas is a gaseous biofuel predominantly composed of methane and carbon-dioxide. Stability of biogas flames strongly depend upon the amount of carbon-dioxide present in biogas, which varies with the source of biomass and reactor. In this paper, a comprehensive study on the stability and flame characteristics of coflow biogas diffusion flames is reported. Numerical simulations are carried out using reactive flow module in OpenFOAM, incorporated with variable thermophysical properties, Fick’s and Soret diffusion, and short chemical kinetics mechanism. Effects of carbon-dioxide content in the biogas, temperatures of the fuel or coflowing air streams (preheated reactant) and hydrogen addition to fuel or air streams are analyzed. Entropy generation in these flames is also predicted. Results show that the flame temperature increases with the degree of preheat of reactants and the flames show better stability with the preheated air stream. Preheating the air contributes to increased flame stability and also to a significant decrease in entropy generation. Hydrogen addition, contributing to the same power rating, is seen to be relatively more effective in increasing the flame stability when added to the fuel stream. Results in terms of flow, temperature, species and entropy fields, are used to describe the stability and flame characteristics.
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Authors and Affiliations

R. Nivethana Kumar
S. Muthu Kumaran
Vasudevan Raghavan

  1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai – 600036, India
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Functionally Graded Materials (FGM) are extensively employed for hip plant component material due to their certain properties in a specific design to achieve the requirements of the hip-joint system. Nevertheless, if there are similar properties, it doesn’t necessarily indicate that the knee plant is efficiently and effectively working. Therefore, it is important to develop an ideal design of functionally graded material femoral components that can be used for a long period. A new ideal design of femoral prosthesis can be introduced using functionally graded fiber polymer (FGFP) which will reduce the stress shielding and the corresponding stresses present over the interface. Herein, modal analysis of the complete hip plant part is carried out, which is the main factor and to date, very few research studies have been found on it. Moreover, this enhances the life of hip replacement, and the modal, harmonic, and fatigue analysis determines the pre-loading failure phenomena due to the vibrational response of the hip. This study deals with the cementless hip plant applying the finite element analysis (FEA) model in which geometry is studied, and the femoral bone model is based in a 3D scan.
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Authors and Affiliations

Saeed Asiri

  1. Mechanical Engineering Department, Engineering College King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
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This study developed an ankle rehabilitation device for post-stroke patients. First, the research models and dynamic equations of the device are addressed. Second, the Sliding Mode Controller for the ankle rehabilitation device is designed, and the device's response is simulated on the software MATLAB. Third, the ankle rehabilitation device is successfully manufactured from aluminum and uses linear actuators to emulate dorsiflexion and plantarflexion exercises for humans. The advantages of the device are a simple design, low cost, and mounts onto rehabilitative equipment. The device can operate fast through experiments, has a foot drive mechanism overshoot of 0°, and a maximum angle error of 1°. Moreover, the rehabilitation robot can operate consistently and is comfortable for stroke patients to use. Finally, we will fully develop the device and proceed to clinical implementation.
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Authors and Affiliations

Minh Duc Dao
Xuan Tuy Tran
Dang Phuoc Pham
Quoc Anh Ngo
Thi Thuy Tram Le

  1. Faculty Technology and Engineering, The Pham Van Dong University, Quang Ngai, Vietnam
  2. Faculty Technology of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Danang – University of Science and Technology, Danang, Vietnam
  3. The Faculty Electronic-Electrical, The Quang Nam College, Quang Nam, Vietnam
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Production and assessment of artillery firing tables (FT) are the key tasks in solving ballistic problems through both standard and non-standard firing conditions. According to the literature, two different standard firing table formats were developed by the former-Soviet and the United States armies. This study proposes the main difference between these FT formats, as the standard meteorological conditions. An accuracy assessment has been proposed to justify different sources of errors through modeling and production of such tables, including applied meteorological message, aiming angles round-off, linear superposition principle, and Earth approximation. A~case study has been proposed for the 155M107 projectile to demonstrate the impact of the Coriolis effect as well as other ballistic and atmospheric non-standard conditions. As a part of the construction of artillery FT, a fitting process has to be made between available firing data and simulations. Therefore, a parametric study is implemented to study the number of test elevations per charge needed through the fitting process and its corresponding production error. Hence, based on the number of test elevations available, the genetic algorithm (GA) has been utilized to obtain the test elevations order needed with minimum FT production error. The results show a good agreement with the data stated in the literature.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mostafa Khalil

  1. Aerospace Engineering Department, Military Technical College, Cairo, Egypt

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List of reviewers of volume 68 (2021)
Ahmad ABDALLA – Huaiyin Institute of Technology, China
Sara ABDELSALAM – University of California, Riverside, United States
Muhammad Ilman Hakimi Chua ABDULLAH – Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia
Hafiz Malik Naqash AFZAL – University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
Reza ANSARI – University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
Jeewan C. ATWAL – Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India
Hadi BABAEI – Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Sakthi BALAN – K. Ramakrishnan college of Engineering, Trichy, India
Leszek BARANOWSKI – Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
Elias BRASSITOS – Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon
Tadeusz BURCZYŃSKI – Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Warsaw, Poland
Nguyen Duy CHINH – Hung Yen University of Technology and Education, Hung Yen, Vietnam
Dorota CHWIEDUK – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Adam CISZKIEWICZ – Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Meera CS – University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Duhradun, India
Piotr CYKLIS – Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Abanti DATTA – Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, India
Piotr DEUSZKIEWICZ – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Dinesh DHANDE – AISSMS College of Engineering, Pune, India
Sufen DONG – Dalian University of Technology, China
N. Godwin Raja EBENEZER – Loyola-ICAM College of Engineering and Technology, Chennai, India
Halina EGNER – Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Fehim FINDIK – Sakarya University of Applied Sciences, Turkey
Artur GANCZARSKI – Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Peng GAO – Northeastern University, Shenyang, China
Rafał GOŁĘBSKI – Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej GRZEBIELEC – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Ngoc San HA – Curtin University, Perth, Australia
Mehmet HASKUL – University of Sirnak, Turkey
Michal HATALA – Technical University of Košice, Slovak Republic
Dewey HODGES – Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, United States
Hamed HONARI – Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, United States
Olga IWASINSKA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Emmanuelle JACQUET – University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, France
Maciej JAWORSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Xiaoling JIN – Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
Halil Burak KAYBAL – Amasya University, Turkey
Vladis KOSSE – Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
Krzysztof KUBRYŃSKI – Air Force Institute of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
Waldemar KUCZYŃSKI – Koszalin University of Technology, Poland
Igor KURYTNIK – State Higher School in Oswiecim, Poland
Daniel LESNIC – University of Leeds, United Kingdom
Witold LEWANDOWSKI – Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
Guolu LI – Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin, China
Jun LI – Xi’an Jiaotong University, China
Baiquan LIN – China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, China
Dawei LIU – Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, China
Luis Norberto LÓPEZ DE LACALLE – University of the Basque Country, Bilbao, Spain
Ming LUO – Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, China
Xin MA – Shandong University, Jinan, China
Najmuldeen Yousif MAHMOOD – University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq
Arun Kumar MAJUMDER – Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India
Paweł MALCZYK – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Miloš MATEJIĆ – University of Kragujevac, Serbia
Norkhairunnisa MAZLAN – Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia
Dariusz MAZURKIEWICZ – Lublin University of Technology, Poland
Florin MINGIREANU – Romanian Space Agency, Bucharest, Romania
Vladimir MITYUSHEV – Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland
Adis MUMINOVIC – University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Baraka Olivier MUSHAGE – Université Libre des Pays des Grands Lacs, Goma, Congo (DRC)
Tomasz MUSZYŃSKI – Gdansk University of Technology, Poland
Mohamed NASR – National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
Driss NEHARI – University of Ain Temouchent, Algeria
Oleksii NOSKO – Bialystok University of Technology, Poland
Grzegorz NOWAK – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Iwona NOWAK – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Samy ORABY – Pharos University in Alexandria, Egypt
Marcin PĘKAL – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Bo PENG – University of Huddersfield, United Kingdom
Janusz PIECHNA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Maciej PIKULIŃSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
T.V.V.L.N. RAO – The LNM Institute of Information Technology, Jaipur, India
Andrzej RUSIN – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Artur RUSOWICZ – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Benjamin SCHLEICH – Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany
Jerzy SĘK – Lodz University of Technology, Poland
Reza SERAJIAN – University of California, Merced, USA
Artem SHAKLEIN – Udmurt Federal Research Center, Izhevsk, Russia
G.L. SHI – Guangxi University of Science and Technology, Liuzhou, China
Muhammad Faheem SIDDIQUI – Vrije University, Brussels, Belgium
Jarosław SMOCZEK – AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland
Josip STJEPANDIC – PROSTEP AG, Darmstadt, Germany
Pavel A. STRIZHAK – Tomsk Polytechnic University, Russia
Vadym STUPNYTSKYY – Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ukraine
Miklós SZAKÁLL – Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Germany
Agnieszka TOMASZEWSKA – Gdansk University of Technology, Poland
Artur TYLISZCZAK – Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland
Aneta USTRZYCKA – Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Warsaw, Poland
Alper UYSAL – Yildiz Technical University, Turkey
Gabriel WĘCEL – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Marek WĘGLOWSKI – Welding Institute, Gliwice, Poland
Frank WILL – Technische Universität Dresden, Germany
Michał WODTKE – Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
Marek WOJTYRA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Włodzimierz WRÓBLEWSKI – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Hongtao WU – Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China
Jinyang XU – Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
Zhiwu XU – Harbin Institute of Technology, China
Zbigniew ZAPAŁOWICZ – West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland
Zdzislaw ZATORSKI – Polish Naval Academy, Gdynia, Poland
Wanming ZHAI – Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China
Xin ZHANG – Wenzhou University of Technology, China
Su ZHAO – Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, China

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