Applied sciences

Archives of Thermodynamics

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Archives of Thermodynamics | 2020 | vol. 41 | No 1 |

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Abstract

In this paper, investigation of the effect of Reynolds number, nanoparticle volume ratio, nanoparticle diameter and entrance temperature on the convective heat transfer and pressure drop of Al2O3/H2O nanofluid in turbulent flow through a straight pipe was carried out. The study employed a computational fluid dynamic approach using single-phase model and response surface methodology for the design of experiment. The Reynolds average Navier-Stokes equations and energy equation were solved using k-" turbulent model. The central composite design method was used for the response-surface-methodology. Based on the number of variables and levels, the condition of 30 runs was defined and 30 simulations were performed. New models to evaluate the mean Nusselt number and pressure drop were obtained. Also, the result showed that all the four input variables are statistically significant to the pressure drop while three out of them are significant to the Nusslet number. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis carried out showed that the Reynolds number and volume fraction have a positive sensitivity to both the mean Nusselt number, and pressure drop, while the entrance temperature has negative sensitivities to both.

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Authors and Affiliations

Olatomide G. Fadodun
Adebimpe A. Amosun
Ayodeji O. Salau
David O. Olaloye
Johnson A. Ogundeji
Francis I. Ibitoye
Fatai A. Balogun
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Abstract

The paper is devoted to study the effect of gravity, magnetic field and laser pulse on the general model of the equations of generalized thermoelasticity for a homogeneous isotropic elastic half-space. The formulation is applied under four theories of generalized thermoelasticity: the coupled theory, Lord-Schulman theory, Green-Lindsay theory as well as Green-Naghdi theory. By employing normal mode analysis, the analytical expressions for the displacement components, temperature and the (mechanical and Maxwell’s) stresses distribution are obtained in the physical domain. These expressions are also calculated numerically and corresponding graphs are plotted to illustrate and compare the theoretical results. The effect of gravity, magnetic field and laser pulse are also studied and displayed graphically to show the physical meaning of the phenomena. A comparison has been made between the present results and the results obtained by the others. The results indicate that the effects of magnetic field, laser pulse and gravity field are very pronounced.

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Authors and Affiliations

Sayed M. Abo-Dahab
Abdelmooty M. Abd-Alla
Abdelkalk J. Alqarni
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Abstract

Promising cooling systems for high-power electronic elements are those based on vapor chambers and heat pipes which allow for the local heat flow to be dispersed from the electronic element to a larger surface area of the vapor chamber or the heat pipe. To reduce the thermal resistance of the cooling system, a finned radiator is installed on the outer surface of the vapor chamber or heat pipe. The authors propose a new design of the radiator which increases the heat transfer efficiency. The paper presents results of numerical simulation of heat transfer and aerodynamic resistance of the heat transfer surface with lamellar-split finning. The comparative analysis of heat transfer and aerodynamics was carried out for three types of radiators: with lamellar smooth finning, with lamellar split finning and with the sections of split finning rotated 30◦ against the air flow. It is shown that cutting the fins and rotating the split sections leads to an increase in heat transfer intensity and increase in aerodynamic resistance. The obtained results may be useful in the design of cooling systems for computer processors, power amplifiers for transmitting modules, energy-saving solid-state light sources, etc.

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Authors and Affiliations

Yurii Nikolaenko
Aleksandr Baranyuk
Valerii Rohachov
Aleksandr Terekh
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Abstract

Efficiency and electrical power output of combined cycle power plants vary according to the ambient conditions. The amount of these variations greatly affects electricity production, fuel consumption, and plant incomes. Obviously, many world countries have a wide range of climatic conditions, which impact the performance of power plants. In this paper, a thermodynamic analysis of an operating power plant located in Jordan is performed with actual operating data acquired from the power plant control unit. The analysis is performed by using first and second laws of thermodynamics. Energy and exergy efficiencies of each component of the power plant system are calculated and the effect of ambient temperature on the components performance is studied. The effects of gas turbine pressure ratio, gas turbine inlet temperature, load and ambient conditions on the combined cycle efficiency, power outputs and exergy destruction are investigated. Energy and exergy efficiencies of the combined cycle power plant are found as 45.29%, and 42.73% respectively when the ambient temperature is 34 ◦C. Furthermore, it is found that the combustion chamber has the largest exergy destruction rate among the system components. The results showed that 73% of the total exergy destruction occurs in the combustion chamber when the ambient temperature is 34 ◦C. Moreover, the results show that the second major exergy loss is in HRSC. The results show that the energy and exergy efficiency of the combined cycle power plant decreases as the ambient temperature increases. According to the calculation results, improvement and modification suggestions are presented.

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Authors and Affiliations

Khaled Bataineh
Bara A. Khaleel
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Abstract

Combi-steamer condensation hoods are widely used in modern gastronomy. They condense steam produced by the combi-steamer and also filter solid particles, moisture, grease and smells. All these factors negatively affect the staff and dishes, so efficient work of the condensation hoods becomes important. A mathematical and experimental analysis of such a device is described in this paper. First a measurement methodology was designed and measurements of air humidity, temperature and mass flow rates were performed. The measurement procedure concerned dedicated a steam generator and combi-steamer. Next a mathematical model was developed. It was based on mass and energy balances of the condensation hood. The condensate flow rate turned out to be insufficient to fulfill the energy balance while measured directly. Hence, it was calculated from heater’s power of the steam generator and the balance model was validated. The combisteamer had an unknown output, so the condensate flow rate was provided by the balance model after its validation. A preliminary diagnosis of the device was carried out as well.

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Authors and Affiliations

Mieszko Tokarski
Arkadiusz Ryfa
Piotr Buliński
Marek Rojczyk
Krzysztof Ziarko
Andrzej J. Nowak
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Abstract

For thin-walled structures invariably exposed to thermal and noise environment, their dynamic response is an extreme concern in the design of the component of advanced hypersonic aircraft. To address the problem, three theoretical models are established with three typical graded thermal distributions considered. By introducing the thermal moment, membrane forces and acoustic loadings into the vibration equation of plate, the governing equation is derived and it is solved combined with boundary conditions of the plate, the modal function and velocity compatibility equations at the fluid-structure coupling surface. The accuracy of the theoretical predictions is checked against finite element results with good agreement achieved. The results show that not the physical parameters with variation of temperature but the thermal moments and membrane forces, cause the buckling phenomenon. It is noted that buckling phenomenon occurs not only in uniform temperature field but also in graded temperature distribution filed. The mechanism analysis about modal snap-through and losing phenomenon indicates that thermoacoustic loadings will affect the stiffness matrix and mass matrix of structure. With the increase of temperature, the lower modes of the plate are lost, the higher modes appear in advance, and the losing phenomenon occurs in accordance with the order.

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Authors and Affiliations

Zhigao Dang
Zhaoyong Mao
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Abstract

The aim of present work is to investigate the mass transfer of steady incompressible hydromagnetic fluid near the stagnation point with deferment of dust particles over a stretching surface. Most researchers tried to improve the mass transfer by inclusion of cross-diffusion or dust particles due to their vast applications in industrial processes, extrusion process, chemical processing, manufacturing of various types of liquid drinks and in various engineering treatments. To encourage the mass transport phenomena in this study we incorporated dust with microorganisms. Conservation of mass, momentum, concentration and density of microorganisms are used in relevant flow equations. The arising system of nonlinear partial differential equations is transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The numerical solutions are obtained by the Runge-Kutta based shooting technique and the local Sherwood number is computed for various values of the physical governing parameters (Lewis number, Peclet number, Eckert number). An important finding of present work is that larger values of these parameters encourage the mass transfer rate, and the motile organisms density profiles are augmented with the larger values of fluid particle interaction parameter with reference to bioconvection, bioconvection Lewis number, and dust particle concentration parameter.

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Authors and Affiliations

S.U. Mamatha
K. Ramesh Babu
P. Durga Prasad
C.S.K. Raju
S.V.K. Varma
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Abstract

In the present research, an experimental investigation was conducted to assess the heat transfer coefficient of aqueous citric acid mixtures. The experimental facility provides conditions to assess the influence of various operating conditions such as the heat flux (0–190 kW/m2), mass flux (353–1059 kg/m2s) and the concentration of citric acid in water (10%– 50% by volume) with a view to measure the subcooled flow boiling heat transfer coefficient of the mixture. The results showed that two main heat transfer mechanisms can be identified including the forced convective and nucleate boiling heat transfer. The onset point of nucleate boiling was also identified, which separates the forced convective heat transfer domain from the nucleate boiling region. The heat transfer coefficient was found to be higher in the nucleate boiling regime due to the presence of bubbles and their interaction. Also, the influence of heat flux on the heat transfer coefficient was more pronounced in the nucleate boiling heat transfer domain, which was also attributed to the increase in bubble size and rate of bubble formation. The obtained results were also compared with those theoretically obtained using the Chen type model and with some experimental data reported in the literature. Results were within a fair agreement of 22% against the Chen model and within 15% against the experimental data.

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Authors and Affiliations

Mohammad Amin Abdolhossein Zadeh
Shima Nakhjavani
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Abstract

The theory of generalized two-temperature thermoelasticity is used to solve the boundary value problems between two elastic media with two different types of temprature under the influence of gravity.The classical dynamical coupled theory and Lord-Şhulman theory are used to obtain the general solution of the governing equations and investigate the effect of surface waves in an isotropic elastic medium subjected to gravity field. The harmonic vibrations method is used to obtain the displacement components, stress tensor and temperature distribution in the considerd physical domain with comparison with the two theories. The obtained analytic solution of the problem is applied for special cases for which the effect of two temperatures is studied. The conductive and dynamical temperatures as well as stress and strain components are shown graphically for a suitable material. Some comparisons are also introduced in the absence and in the presence of gravity, and two-temperature parameter. The differences in the obtained results between the two theories are considered.

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Authors and Affiliations

Khaled Lotfy
Mahmoud Gabr
Alaa Abd El-bary
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Abstract

The aim of any industrial plant, which is dealing in the energy sector, is to maximise the revenue generation at the lowest production cost. It can be carried out either by optimizing the manpower or by improving the performance index of the overall unit. This paper focuses on the optimisation of a biomass power plant which is powered by G50 hardwood chips (Austrian standard for biomass chips). The experiments are conducted at different operating conditions. The overall effect of the enhanced abilities of a reactor on the power generation is examined. The output enthalpy of a generated gas, the gas yield of a reactor and the driving mechanism of the pyrolysis are examined in this analysis. The thermal efficiency of the plant is found to vary from 44 to 47% at 400◦C, whereas it is 44 to 48% for running the same unit at 600 ◦C. The transient thermal condition is solved with the help of the lumped capacitance method. The thermal efficiency of the same design, within the constraint limit, is enhanced by 5.5%, whereas the enthalpy of the produced gas is magnified by 49.49% through nonlinear optimisation. The temperature of biomass should be homogenous, and the ramping rate must be very high. The 16% rise in temperature of the reactor is required to reduce the mass yield by 20.17%. The gas yield of the reactor is increased by up to 85%. The thermal assessment indicates that the bed is thermally thin, thus the exterior heat transfer rate is a deciding factor of the pyrolysis in the reactor.

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Authors and Affiliations

Alok Dhaundiyal
Suraj B. Singh

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