Applied sciences

Archives of Thermodynamics


Archives of Thermodynamics | 2022 | vol. 43 | No 2

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Problems related to power control of low power-output steam turbines are analyzed. These turbines are designed to operate in distributed power generation systems. Principles of automatic control involving a single control valve are presented on the basis of experience gathered with high power-output turbines. Results of simulations of power control for a low power-output turbine are discussed. It has been proven that closing of the control system and an application of a power controller (of optimally selected parameters) improves the object dynamics (shortening of the transition period). At the same time, a lack of such optimization can results in occurrence of undesirable phenomena such as: overshoot in the generator power characteristics, elongation of the response time to disturbance or overshoot of turbine control valves.
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[15] Karczewski J., Szuman P.: Simulation of various control system configuration of power units. Elektronika (2015), 12 (in Polish).
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Authors and Affiliations

Władysław Kryłłowicz
Jacek Karczewski
Paweł Szuman

  1. Lodz University of Technology, Institute of Turbomachinery, Wolczanska 217/221, 93-003 Lodz, Poland
  2. Institute of Power Engineering, Mory 8, 01-330 Warsaw, Poland
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Energy management plays a crucial role in cabin comfort as well as enormously affects the driving range. In this paper energy balances contemplating the implementation of a heat pump and an expansion device in battery electric vehicles are elaborated, by comparing the performances of refrigerants R1234yf and R744, from –20°C to 20°C. This work calculates the coefficient of performance, energy requirements for ventilation (from 1 to 5 people in the cabin) and energy required with the implementation of a heat pump, with the employment of a code in Python with the aid of Cool- Prop library. The work ratio is also estimated if the work recovery device recuperates the work during the expansion. Comments on the feasibility of the implementation are as well explicated. The results of the analysis show that the implementation of an expansion device in an heat pump may cover the energy requirement of the compressor from 27% to more than 35% at 20°C in cycles operating with R744, and from 15% to more than 20% with refrigerant R1234yf, considering different compressor efficiencies. At –20°C, it would be possible to recuperate between around 30 and 24%. However, the risk of suction when operating with R1234yf at ambient temperatures below –10°C shows that the heat pump can only operate with R744. Thus, it is the only refrigerant that achieves the reduction of energy consumption at these temperatures.
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Authors and Affiliations

Maria Laura Canteros
Jiri Polansky

  1. Czech Technical University in Prague, Jugoslávských partyzánu 1580/3, 160 00 Prague 6 – Dejvice, Czech Republic
  2. ESI Group, Brojova 16, 326 00 Plzen, Czech Republic
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The usage of wet methods for flue gas dedusting from coalfired boilers is associated with significant heat losses and water resources. Widespread emulsifiers of the first and second generation are satisfactory in terms of flue gas cleaning efficiency (up to 99.5%), but at the same time do not create conditions for deeper waste heat recovery, leading to lowering the temperature of gases. Therefore, in the paper, an innovative modernization, including installing an additional economizer in front of the scrubber (emulsifier) is proposed, as part of the flue gas passes through a parallel bag filter. At the outlet of the emulsifier and the bag filter, the gases are mixed in a suitable ratio, whereby the gas mixture entering the stack does not create conditions for condensation processes in the stack.
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Authors and Affiliations

Iliya Krastev Iliev
Tomasz Kowalczyk
Hristo Kvanov Beloev
Angel Kostadinov Terziev
Krzysztof Jan Jesionek
Janusz Badur

  1. University of Ruse, Department of Thermotechnics, Hydraulics and Environmental Engineering, Studentska 8, 7017 Ruse, Bulgaria
  2. Energy Conversion Department, Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14, 80-251 Gdansk, Poland
  3. Technical University of Sofia, Department of Power Engineering and Power Machines, Kliment Ohridski 8, 1000 Sofia, Bulgaria
  4. Witelon Collegium State University, Faculty of Technical and Economic Science, Sejmowa 5C, 59-220 Legnica, Poland
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The potential applications of loop heat pipes (LHPs) are the nuclear power space systems, fuel cell thermal management systems, waste heat recovery systems, medium temperature electronic systems, medium temperature military systems, among others. Such applications usually operate in temperature ranges between 500–700 K, hence it is necessary to develop an LHP system that will meet this requirement. Such a thermal management device require to meet various technical problems and challenges currently existing in the development of LHP working in medium temperatures, including: (1) selection of appropriate working fluid; (2) selection of appropriate LHP construction material; (3) construction of suitable test rig capable of testing at elevated temperatures; (4) development of new testing methods. Currently, there are no proven working fluids that can be used in LHPs in medium temperature ranges. Water can be applicable only at temperatures up to 570 K. Caesium can be applicable at temperatures above 670 K. Organic fluids usually tend to generate non-condensable gasses and/or decompose at elevated temperatures and their viscosity dramatically increases. For halides, most of them are very reactive or toxic and their full property data are not available or the majority of the physical properties are predicted, also live tests and their environmental impact data are not adequate. As for casing/LHP construction material, there are no full chemical compatibility tables with most of the medium temperature working fluids and the reactivity of fluids significantly limits the potential materials. Also, testing such an LHP is an endeavour as the reactivity of medium temperature fluids and the use of obscure metals create new challenges. Altogether creates multiple challenges in the development, testing, handling and operating of LHP in the medium temperature range.
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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł Szymański
Dariusz Mikielewicz

  1. Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Ship Technology, Narutowicza 11/12,80-233 Gdansk, Poland
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The article deals with a current state-of-art of fluid solid interaction (FSI) – the new branch of continuum physics. Fluid-solid interaction is a new quality of modeling physical processes of continuum mechanics, it can be described as the interaction of various (so far treated separately from the point of view of mathematical modeling) physical phenomena occurring in continuous media systems. The most correct is the simultaneous application of the laws of the given physical disciplines, which implies that fluid solid interaction is a subset of multi-physical applications where the interactions between these subsets are exchanged on the surface in interconnected systems. Our purpose is to extend the fluid solid interaction aplications into new phenomena what follow from the industrial needs and inovative thechnologies. Selecting the various approaches, we prefer the arbitraty lagrangean-eulerian description within the bulk of fluid/solid domain and a new sort of advanced boundary condition on a surface of common contact.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Ochrymiuk
Mariusz Banaszkiewicz
1 2
Marcin Lemański
1 3
Tomasz Kowalczyk
Paweł Ziółkowski
1 4
Piotr J. Ziółkowski
Rafał Hyrzyński
1 5
Michał Stajnke
Mateusz Bryk
Bartosz Kraszewski
Sylwia Kruk-Gotzman
1 6
Marcin Froissart
Janusz Badur

  1. Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery Polish Academy of Science, Fiszera 14, 80-331 Gdansk, Poland
  2. General Electric Power, Stoczniowa 2, 82-300 Elblag, Poland
  3. Anwil Grupa Orlen, Torunska 222, 87-800 Włocławek, Poland
  4. Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
  5. Energa S.A. Grunwaldzka 472, 80-309 Gdansk, Poland
  6. Agencja Rynku Energii, Bobrowiecka 3, 00-728 Warszawa, Poland
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The global solar radiation is the origin for all environmental processes on the earth and the majority of energy sources are derived from it. The data of solar radiation are required for the design and the study of solar application systems. The more important is the quality of the solar radiation which is defined by the maximum work can be provided by the solar radiation. This quality is measured by the exergy content of a solar radiation. In the present work, a universal pattern has been built to provide a prediction of solar exergy dependently to the geographic location. Fitting models have been developed for exergy account depending on geographic location, based on the linear, quadratic, cubic, logarithmic, exponential, power regression. The Petela model is adopted from literature for exergetic efficiency accounting of solar radiation. The global solar radiation according to ASHRAE model is expressed dependently of the cosine of zenith angle. The developed model is applied on Tunisia regions to predict exergy solar potential. The studied regions are classified regarding the exergy account, high, medium and low solar exergy locations. Results show that generally the solar radiation shows a low degree of exergy content, about 7% of difference.
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Authors and Affiliations

Khaoula Daghsen
1 2
Dorra Lounissi
Nahla Bouaziz

  1. University of Monastir, National Engineering School of Monastir, Rue Ibn El Jazzar, Monastir 5000, Rue Ibn Jazzar, Monastir 5035, Tunisia
  2. University of Tunis El Manar, National Engineering School of Tunis, Energy and Environment Laboratory LR21ES09, ENIT. BP 37, Le Belvedere 1002
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This brief note focuses on a simple fluid, i.e., a homogeneous, chemically inert, and electrically neutral fluid, for which, in the linear nonequilibrium regime, the thermodynamic state is expressed by a relation between pressure, temperature, and density. The approach based on the elementary scales is used to check the validity range of both the classical irreversible thermodynamics and the extended irreversible thermodynamics. The achieved result reveals that the classical irreversible thermodynamics fails in providing an adequate response when the mechanical solicitations exceed limit values.
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Authors and Affiliations

Carmine Di Nucci
Daniele Celli
Piera Fischione
Davide Pasquali

  1. Environmental and Maritime Hydraulic Laboratory (LIAM), Civil, Construction-Architectural and Environmental Engineering Department (DICEAA), University of L’Aquila, Piazzale Ernesto Pontieri 1, Monteluco di Roio, 67100 L’Aquila, Italy
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Limiting energy resources has led researchers to find new innovative ways to enhance heat exchanging devices thermal performance in power generating systems. Thus, the present paper analyzes passive techniques of enhancing the thermal performance of a single tube heat exchanger. Experimental and numerical investigation on heat transfer enhancement using aserrated circular ring with twisted tape is carried out. The work incorporates the determination of Nusselt number, friction factor, thermal performance factor for serrated circular ring with twisted tape with variation in diameter ratio (0.8 and 0.85) and pitch ratio (2 and 3). Air is used as a working fluid with Reynolds number 6000–24000. The experiment is conducted by providing a constant wall heat flux of 1000 W/m2 to the system and thereby taking results at a steady state. The experimental and computational findings obtained for the smooth tube case are compared with the standard correlations of Dittus–Boelter and Blasius. Based on experimental and numerical investigation, there is 5.16 times augmentation in heat transfer and 3.05 times improvement in thermal performance factor over the smooth tube heat exchanger. In addition, the study of entropy generation rate for every geometrical parameter has been conducted, and their influence on the system’s thermal behaviour is presented. The results obtained in the present study may help the researchers of the same research area to find similar inserts and new ways of enhancing the thermal performance of heat exchangers.
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Authors and Affiliations

Himanshi Kharkwal
Satyendra Singh

  1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.T. Kumaon Institute of Technology, Dwarahat-263653 (Almora), Uttarakhand, India

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