Applied sciences

Chemical and Process Engineering

Content

Chemical and Process Engineering | 2020 | vol. 41 | No 1 |

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Abstract

In the paper, differential quadrature method (DQM) is used to find numerical solutions of reaction-diffusion equations with different boundary conditions. The DQM-method changes the reaction- diffusion equation (ordinary differential equation) into a system of algebraic equations. The obtained system is solved using built-in procedures of Maple®(Computer Algebra System-type program). Calculations were performed with Maple®program. The test problems include reaction-diffusion equation applied in heterogeneous catalysis. The method can be employed even in relatively hard tasks (e.g. ill-conditioned, free boundary problems).

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Authors and Affiliations

Mirosław K. Szukiewicz
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Abstract

In the last few years, cationic layered clays, including bentonites have been investigated as potential catalysts for SCR DeNOx systems. In this work, bentonite as the representative of layered clays was modified in order to obtain an alternative, low-cost NH3–SCR catalyst. Samples of raw clay were activated with HCl or HNO3, treated with C2H2O4 and subsequently pillared with alumina by the ion- exchange. Afterwards, the modified materials were impregnated with iron and copper. The obtained catalysts were characterized by XRD and FT-IR. SCR catalytic tests carried out over analyzed samples indicated the conversion of NO of approximately 90% for the most active sample. The type of acid used for modification and the type of active phase strongly influenced the catalytic properties of the analyzed materials.

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Authors and Affiliations

Agmieszka Szymaszek
Maciej Kubeł
Bogdan Samojeden
Monika Motak
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Abstract

There is general agreement that primary pyrolysis products of end-of-life tyres should be valorised to improve the economics of pyrolysis. In this work, tyre pyrolysis char (TPC) is produced in a pyrolysis pilot plant designed and built at our home university. The produced TPC was upgraded to tyre-derived activated carbon (TDAC) by activation with CO2, and then characterised using stereological analysis (SA) and nitrogen adsorption at 77 K. SA showed that the grains of TPC and TDAC were quasi- spherical and slightly elongated with a 25% increase in the mean particle cross-section surface area for TDAC. The textural properties of TDAC demonstrated the BET and micropore surface areas of 259 and 70 m2/g, respectively. Micropore volume and micropore surface area were 5.8 and 6.7 times higher for TDAC than TPC at  2 nm, respectively. The n-hexane adsorption was investigated using experiments and modelling. Eight adsorption isotherms along with three error functions were tested to model the adsorption equilibrium. The optimum sets of isotherm parameters were chosen by comparing sum of the normalized errors. The analysis indicated that the Freundlich isotherm gave the best agreement with the equilibrium experiments. In relation to different activated carbons, the adsorption capacity of TDAC for n-hexane is about 16.2 times higher than that of the worst reference material and 4.3 times lower than that of the best reference material. In addition, stereological analysis showed that activation with CO2 did not change the grain’s shape factors. However, a 25% increase in the mean particle cross-section surface area for TDAC was observed.

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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Kotkowski
Robert Cherbański
Eugeniusz Molga
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Abstract

The paper presents a photographic analysis of the break-up of gas bubbles flowing out of the outlets of a self-aspirating disk impeller. It was found that bubbles detached from the interfacial surface most often disintegrate to form several daughter bubbles. Further in the work, the population balance model was verified for several formulas describing the bubble break-up rate. It has been found that a good fit to the experimental data is provided by the formula given by Laakkonen for 5 daughter bubbles. The possibility of using the Monte Carlo method to model the bubble break-up processwas also determined. For this method, a good agreement of results was achieved for the division into a maximum of 10 daughter bubbles. In the case of this method it was also found necessary to use the function of break-up frequency at a higher rate for smaller bubbles.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jacek Stelmach
Radosław Musowski
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Abstract

Catalytic properties of activated carbons oxidized, treated with N-compounds, and promoted with copper were studied in selective catalytic reduction NOX by ammonia (NH3-SCR). The modification of the catalysts consisted of a series of steps (pre-oxidation of activated carbon, impregnation with urea, impregnation with copper). The physicochemical properties of the obtained samples were determined using X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, and low-temperature N2 sorption. The modification with copper improved the catalytic activity and stability of the catalysts. All the functionalized carbon doped with copper reached more than 90% of NO conversion and CO2 did not exceed 240 ppm at 220 ◦C. The sample doped with 5 wt.% Cu had the maximum NO conversion of 98% at 300 ◦C. The maximum N2O concentration detected for the same sample was only 55 ppm, which confirmed its selectivity.

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Authors and Affiliations

Marwa Saad
Anna Białas
Przemysław Grzywacz
Cezary Czosnek
Bogdan Samojeden
Monika Motak
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Abstract

In this paper, three methods of sterilisation are compared to determine their usability in nanobubble dispersion sterilisation: filtration, thermal sterilisation and sonication (in two systems: using a sonotrode and sonication bath). Nanobubble dispersions are most commonly generated in non-sterile systems which precludes them from use in most biological research. As a result of this study, filtration was chosen as the best method for nanobubble sterilisation.

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Authors and Affiliations

Karol Ulatowski
Julia Fiuk
Paweł Sobieszuk

Editorial office

Editor-in-Chief
Andrzej K. Biń, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Editorial Board
Andrzej Burghardt (Chairman), Polish Academy of Sciences, Gliwice, Poland
Jerzy Bałdyga, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej Górak, T.U. Dortmund, Germany
Leon Gradoń, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej Jarzębski, Silesian University of Technology, Poland
Zdzisław Jaworski, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland
Władysław Kamiński, Technical University of Łódź, Poland
Stefan Kowalski, Poznań University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej Krasławski, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland
Stanisław Ledakowicz, Technical University of Łódź, Poland
Eugeniusz Molga, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Alvin W. Nienow, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom
Andrzej Noworyta, Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
Ryszard Pohorecki, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej Stankiewicz, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands
Czesław Strumiłło, Technical University of Łódź, Poland
Stanisław Sieniutycz, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Krzysztof Warmuziński, Polish Academy of Sciences, Gliwice, Poland
Laurence R. Weatherley, University of Kansas, Lawrence, United States
Günter Wozny, T.U. Berlin, Germany
Ireneusz Zbiciński, Technical University of Łódź, Poland

Technical Editor
Barbara Zakrzewska, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland
Language Editor
Marek Stelmaszczyk, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland

 

Contact

Editorial Office
ul. Waryńskiego 1
00-645 Warszawa
Poland
email: andrzej.bin@outlook.com

 

Instructions for authors

All manuscripts submitted for publication in Chemical and Process Engineering must comprise a description of original research that has neither been published nor submitted for publication elsewhere.

The content, aim and scope of the proposals should comply with the main subject of the journal, i.e. they should deal with mathematical modelling and/or experimental investigations on momentum, heat and mass transfer, unit processes and operations, integrated processes, biochemical engineering, statics and kinetics of chemical reactions. The experiments and modelling may cover different scales and processes ranging from the molecular phenomena up to production systems. The journal language is grammatically correct British English.

Chemical and Process Engineering publishes: i) full text research articles, ii) invited reviews, iii) letters to the editor and iv) short communications, aiming at important new results and/or applications. Each of the publication form is peer-reviewed by at least two independent referees.  

Submission of materials for publication

The manuscripts are submitted for publication via e-mail address andrzej.bin@outlook.com. When writing the manuscript, authors should preferably use the template for articles.

Proposals of a paper should be uploaded using the Internet site of the journal and should contain:

  • a manuscript file in Word format (*.doc, *.docx),
  • the manuscript mirror in PDF format,
  • all graphical figuresin separate graphics files.

In the following paragraphthe general guidelines for the manuscript preparation are presented.

Manuscript outline

        1. Header details
          1. Title of paper
          2. Names (first name and further initials) and surnames of authors
          3. Institution(s) (affiliation)
          4. Address(es) of authors
          5. Information about the corresponding author; academic title, name and surname, email address, address for correspondence
        2. Abstract – should contain a short summary of the proposed paper. In the maximum of 200 words the authors should present the main assumptions, results and conclusions drawn from the presented study.
        3. Keywords– Up to 5 characteristic keyword items should be provided.
        4. Text
          1. Introduction. In this part, description of motivation for the study and formulation of the scientific problem should be included and supported by a concise review of recent literature.
          2. Main text. It should contain all important elements of the scientific investigations, such as presentation of experimental rigs, mathematical models, results and their discussion. This part may be divided into subchapters.
          3. Conclusions. The major conclusions can be put forward in concise style in a separate chapter. Presentation of conclusions from the reported research work accompanied by a short commentary is also acceptable.
          4. Figures: drawings, diagrams and photographs can be in colour and should be located in appropriate places in the manuscript text. Their graphical form should be of vector or raster type with the minimum resolution of 900 dpi. In addition, separate files containing each of the drawings, graphs and photos should be uploaded onto the journal Web site in one of the following formats: bmp, gif, tiff, jpg, eps. Due to rigid editorial reasons, graphical elements created within MS Word and Excel are not acceptable. The final length of figures should be intended typically for 8 cm (single column) or 16 cm in special cases of rich-detail figures. The basic font size of letters in figures should be at least 10 pts after adjusting graphs to the final length.  

          Figures: drawings, diagrams and photographs should be in gray scale. In case of coloured graphs or photo an additional payment of 300 PLN (72 €) per 1 page containing coloured figures on both sides, or 150 PLN (36 €) per page containing coloured figures on one side will be required.

          Tables should be made according to the format shown in the template.

        5. All figures and tables should be numbered and provided with appropriate title and legend, if necessary. They have to be properly referenced to and commented in the text of the manuscript.

        6. List of symbols should be accompanied by their units
        7. Acknowledgements may be included before the list of literature references
        8. Literature citations

 

The method of quoting literature source in the manuscript depends on the number of its authors:

  • single author – their surname and year of publication should be given, e.g. Marquardt (1996) or (Marquardt, 1996),
  • two authors – the two surnames separated by the conjunction “and” with the publication year should be given, e.g. Charpentier and McKenna (2004) or (Charpentier and McKenna, 2004),
  • three and more authors – the surname of the first author followed by the abbreviation “et al.” and year of publication should be given, e.g. Bird et al. (1960) or (Bird et al., 1960).

In the case of citing more sources in one bracket, they should be listed in alphabetical order using semicolon for separation, e.g. (Bird et al., 1960; Charpentier and McKenna, 2004; Marquardt, 1996). Should more citations of the same author(s) and year appear in the manuscript then letters “a, b, c, ...” should be successively applied after the publication year.

Bibliographic data of the quoted literature should be arranged at the end of the manuscript text in alphabetic order of surnames of the first author. It is obligatory to indicate the DOI number of those literature items, which have the numbers already assigned. Journal titles should be specified by typingtheir right abbreviationsor, in case of doubts, according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations available at http://www.issn.org/2-22661-LTWA-online.php.

Examples of citation for:

Articles
Charpentier J. C., McKenna T. F., 2004.Managing complex systems: some trends for the future of chemical and process engineering. Chem. Eng. Sci., 59, 1617-1640. DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2004.01.044.

Information from books (we suggest adding the page numbers where the quoted information can be found)
Bird R. B., Stewart W.E., Lightfood E.N., 2002. Transport Phenomena. 2nd edition, Wiley, New York, 415-421.

Chapters in books
Hanjalić K., Jakirlić S., 2002. Second-moment turbulence closure modelling, In: Launder B.E., Sandham N.D. (Eds.), Closure strategies for turbulent and transitional flows. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 47-101.

Conferences
ten Cate A., Bermingham S.K., Derksen J.J., Kramer H.M.J., 2000. Compartmental modeling of an 1100L DTB crystallizer based on Large Eddy flow simulation. 10th European Conference on Mixing. Delft, the Netherlands, 2-5 July 2000, 255-264.

8. Payments

Starting from 2014 a principle of publishing articles against payment is introduced, assuming non-profit making editorial office. According to the principle authors or institutions employing them, will have to cover the expenses amounting to 40 PLN (or 10 €) per printed page. The above amount will be used to supplement the limited financial means received from the Polish Academy of Sciences for the editorial and publishing; and in particular to increase the capacity of the next CPE volumes and to proofread the linguistic correctness of the articles. The method of payment will be indicated in an invoice sent to the authors or institutions after acceptance of their manuscripts to be published. In justifiable cases presented in writing, the editorial staff may decide to relieve authors from basic payment, either partially or fully. All correspondence should be sent to Editor-in-Chief, Prof. Andrzej K. Biń, email address: andrzej.bin@outlook.com.


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