Applied sciences

Chemical and Process Engineering


Chemical and Process Engineering | 2021 | vol. 42 | No 3 |

Authors and Affiliations

Joël Bertrand

  1. Directeur de Recherche CNRS, Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, INP – ENSIACET,4, allée Emile Monsoi, CS 84234, 31432 TOULOUSE CEDEX 4, France
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The aim of the investigation was liquid mixing time measurement in a laboratory scale stirred tank equipped with a metal Maxblend impeller and comparison with the corresponding mixing time obtained with other conventional impellers. The data are collected by Electrical Resistance Tomography, whose applicability in this case is non-trivial, because of the electrical interferences between the large paddles of the impeller and the measuring system. The raw data treatment methodology purposely developed for obtaining the homogenization dynamics curve is presented.Arobust approach for a fine and lowcost investigation of the mixing performances of close-clearance impellers in opaque systems is suggested. The analysis of the local and averaged conductivity time traces reveals the effect of important variables, such as the fluid viscosity and the vessel configuration, on the mixing time under various agitation conditions. The data collection and post processing procedures open the way to the application of the technique to multiphase and non-Newtonian fluids stirred with close-clearance impellers.
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Authors and Affiliations

Suzuka Iwasawa
Honami Kubo
Katsuhide Takenaka
Sandro Pintus
Francesco Maluta
Giuseppina Montante
Alessandro Paglianti

  1. Sumitomo Heavy Industries Process Equipment Co., Ltd. 1501, Imazaike, Saijo City, Ehime, Japan
  2. Retired from University of Pisa, Via Giunta Pisano 28, 56126 Pisa, Italy
  3. Department of Industrial Chemistry, University of Bologna, viale Risorgimento 4,40136 Bologna, Italy
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The homogeneity of an immiscible liquid–liquid system was investigated in a baffled vessel agitated by a Rushton turbine. The dispersion homogeneity was analyzed by comparing Sauter mean diameters and drop size distribution (DSD) determined in different measured regions for various impeller speeds. The sizes of droplets were obtained by the in-situ measurement technique and by the Image Analysis (IA) method. Dispersion kinetics was successfully fitted with Hong and Lee (1983) model. The effect of intermittency turbulence on drop size reported by Bałdyga and Podgórska (1998) was analyzed and the multifractal exponent ������ was evaluated.
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Authors and Affiliations

Roman Formánek
Radek Šulc

  1. Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Process Engineering, Technická 4, 160 00 Prague, Czech Republic
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The study addresses two groups of issues occurring in modeling and experimental studies of multicomponent nonisobaric diffusion in macroporous materials. The dynamics of such processes is described in terms of systems of nonlinear partial differential equations. A method of orthogonal collocation for resolving the equations is proposed and compared with the method of lines. The second group of problems presented involves numerical simulations of diffusion in aWicke–Kallenbach diffusion cell. Such an apparatus is used in experimental studies. Particular attention is paid to diffusion in a cell closed from both sides. This is an analogue of the Duncan–Toor experiment. The effect of the number of diffusing components and their initial concentrations on the dynamics of diffusion in binary and ternary solution was studied. Hitherto unknown dynamic properties of such processes were detected and discussed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Katarzyna Bizon
Bolesław Tabiś

  1. Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, ul. Warszawska 24, 31-155 Kraków, Poland
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This paper presents the results of investigations into dry methane reforming (DMR). The process was aimed at obtaining synthesis gas required for the production of dimethyl ether (DME). The effect of temperature, pressure and inlet gas composition on the process was determined in the experimental part of this work. The tests were carried out in a laboratory tubular reactor over a Ni/CaO–Al2O3 catalyst. The obtained experimental results were used to verify literature kinetic data and to develop a mathematical model of the DMR process.
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Authors and Affiliations

Robert Cherbański
Ewelina Franczyk
Michał Lewak
Piotr Machniewski
Eugeniusz Molga

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, ul. Warynskiego 1, 00-645 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Łukasiewicz Research Network – New Chemical Syntheses Institute, Al. Tysiaclecia Panstwa Polskiego 13a, 24-110 Puławy, Poland
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The works presents the application of mass/volume balances of liquid drug converted into the aerosol during atomization in medical nebulizers. The amount of liquid that can be delivered to the respiratory system during inhalation is reduced compared to the nominal dose not only because of drug losses both in the device (the residual volume, RV) and outside the nebulizer (in the mouthpiece, mask, or tubings), but also to the limitations of the patient (periodic flow with limited capacity). The paper should help to understand the complexity of aerosol therapy widely used in asthma, COPD and other pulmonary diseases.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz R. Sosnowski
Kamil Janeczek
Karolina Grzywna
3 4
Andrzej Emeryk

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warynskiego 1, 00-645 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Medical University of Lublin, Clinics of Lung Diseases and Pediatric Reumathology, Gebali 6, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
  3. Silesian Medical University in Katowice, Student Scientific Club at the Chair and Division of Pathomorphology and Molecular Diagnostics, Medyków 18, 40-752 Katowice, Poland
  4. Silesian Medical University in Katowice, Faculty of Medical Sciences in Zabrze, Traugutta sq. 2, 41-800 Zabrze, Poland
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Most antiseptic agents are intended for use on intact skin, e.g. for hand hygiene or skin preparation before any medical procedure. This paper presents multiple emulsion-based antiseptic agents as formulations for application to body surfaces with modified release rates.
Multiple emulsions with a co-encapsulated antiseptic (phenyl salicylate – salol) and an agent preventing microorganism growth (benzoic acid) were formed in a Couette–Taylor flow apparatus. Results confirmed the possibility of the release kinetics modification while two compounds were encapsulated in the internal droplets of emulsions to control the release rates and time of the dose release. The addition of benzoic acid as a second active compound of the encapsulation process in the internal phase of double O1/W/O2 emulsion reduced the time necessary for the total release of salol triggering a two-step release.
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Authors and Affiliations

Agnieszka Markowska-Radomska
Ewa Dluska
Agata Metera
Maria Wojcieszak

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warynskiego 1, 00-645 Warsaw, Poland
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Every bone implant to work correctly after implantation needs to integrate with the surrounding bone. To enhance such a process, called osseointegration, various techniques of implant surface modification emerged. One of the approaches is based on the deposition of nano- and submicron materials on the implant surface. This paper presents a solution blow spinning process for producing poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA)/ceramic fibrous composites designed to be deposited directly onto orthopaedic implants prior to implantation to increase osseointegration. We produced plain PLLA fibrous materials for comparison, and fibrous composite materials with ��-tricalcium phosphate (��TCP), hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAp) and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles modified with lecithin (nHAp-LE). We performed the structural analysis of produced materials with scanning electron microscopy, gravimetric determination of porosity, and water contact angle measurement. We also used infrared spectroscopy, Alizarin Red S staining, and cytotoxicity evaluation to conclude that PLLA/nHAp-LE composite material shows the most promising properties to be applied as surface modification of bone implants. To visualise fibrous composite deposition on implants, we used two models: titanium plate and stainlesssteel bolt. Thus, we showed that the solution blow spun materials can be used for surface modification of orthopaedic implants.
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Authors and Affiliations

Michał Wojasiński
Tomasz Ciach
1 2

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warynskiego 1, 00-645 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Warsaw University of Technology, Centre for Advanced Materials and Technologies CEZAMAT, Poleczki 19, 02-822 Warsaw, Poland

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Information from books (we suggest adding the page numbers where the quoted information can be found)
Bird R. B., Stewart W.E., Lightfood E.N., 2002. Transport Phenomena. 2nd edition, Wiley, New York, 415-421.

Chapters in books
Hanjalić K., Jakirlić S., 2002. Second-moment turbulence closure modelling, In: Launder B.E., Sandham N.D. (Eds.), Closure strategies for turbulent and transitional flows. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 47-101.

ten Cate A., Bermingham S.K., Derksen J.J., Kramer H.M.J., 2000. Compartmental modeling of an 1100L DTB crystallizer based on Large Eddy flow simulation. 10th European Conference on Mixing. Delft, the Netherlands, 2-5 July 2000, 255-264.

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