Applied sciences

Chemical and Process Engineering

Content

Chemical and Process Engineering | 2022 | vol. 43 | No 3

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Abstract

In recent years, infections are more often caused by pathogens with high multi-drug resistance, classified as the “ESKAPE” microorganisms. Therefore, investigation of these pathogens, e.g., Klebsiella pneumoniae, often requires biomass production for treatment testing such as antibiotics or bacteriophages. Moreover, K. pneumoniae can be successfully applied as a biocatalyst for other industrial applications, increasing the need for this bacteria biomass. In the current study, we proposed a novel magnetically assisted bioreactor for the cultivation of K. pneumoniae cells in the presence of an external alternating magnetic field (AMF). High efficiency of the production requires optimal bacteria growth conditions, e.g., temperature and field frequency. Therefore, we performed an optimization procedure using a central composite design for these two parameters in a wide range. As an objective function, we utilized a novel, previously described growth factor that considers both biomass and bacteria growth kinetics. Thus, based on the response surface, we could specify the optimal growth conditions. Moreover, we analysed the impact of the AMF on bacteria proliferation, which indicated positive field frequency windows, where the highest stimulatory effect of AMF on bacteria proliferation occurred. Obtained results proved that the magnetically assisted bioreactor could be successfully employed for K. pneumoniae cultivation.
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Authors and Affiliations

Maciej Konopacki
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Adrian Augustyniak
1 3
ORCID: ORCID
Bartłomiej Grygorcewicz
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Barbara Dołęgowska
2
ORCID: ORCID
Marian Kordas
1
ORCID: ORCID
Rafał Rakoczy
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Faculty of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, al. Piastów 42, 71-065 Szczecin, Poland
  2. Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Chair of Microbiology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, al. Powstanców Wielkopolskich 72, 70-111 Szczecin, Poland
  3. Technische Universität Berlin, Building Materials and Construction Chemistry, Gustav-Meyer Allee 25,13355 Berlin, Germany
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Abstract

Chitosan (CS) is a polysaccharide readily used in tissue engineering due to its properties: similarity to the glycosaminoglycans present in the body, biocompatibility, non-toxicity, antibacterial character and owing to the fact that its degradation that may occur under the influence of human enzymes generates non-toxic products. Applications in tissue engineering include using CS to produce artificial scaffolds for bone regeneration that provide an attachment site for cells during regeneration processes. Chitosan can be used to prepare scaffolds exclusively from this polysaccharide, composites or polyelectrolyte complexes. A popular solution for improving the surface properties and, as a result enhancing cellbiomaterial interactions, is to coat the scaffold with layers of chitosan. The article focuses on a polysaccharide of natural origin – chitosan (CS) and its application in scaffolds in tissue engineering. The last part of the review focuses on bone tissue and interactions between cells and chitosan after implantation of a scaffold and how chitosan’s structure affects bone cell adhesion and life processes.
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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Kołakowska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Agnieszka Gadomska-Gajadhur
1
ORCID: ORCID
Paweł Ruśkowski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The electrostatic impulse method is an established method for producing microbeads or capsules. Such particles have found application in biomedical engineering and biotechnology. The geometric properties of the droplets – constituting precursors of microbeads and capsules – can be precisely controlled by adjusting the geometry of the nozzle system, the physical properties and the flow rate of the fluids involved, as well as the parameters of the electrostatic impulse. In this work, a method of mathematical modeling of the droplet generation process using the electrostatic impulse method in a single nozzle system is presented. The developed mathematical model is an extension of the standard Volume of Fluid (VOF) model by addition of the effect of the electric field on the fluid flow. The model was implemented into the OpenFOAM toolkit for computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The performed CFD simulation results showed good agreement with experimental data. As a result, the influence of all process parameters on the droplet generation process was studied. The most significant change in droplet generation was caused by changing the electrostatic impulse strength. The presented modeling method can be used for optimization of process design and for studying the mechanisms of droplet generation. It can be extended to describe multi nozzle systems used for one-step microcapsule production.
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Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Cendrowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Katarzyna Kramek-Romanowska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Dorota Lewińska
2
ORCID: ORCID
Marcin Grzeczkowicz
2
ORCID: ORCID
Paulina Korycka
3
ORCID: ORCID
Jan Krzysztoforski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, ul. Ludwika Warynskiego 1, Warsaw, Poland
  2. Nalecz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Ks. Trojdena 4, Warsaw, Poland
  3. Foundation of Research and Science Development, Rydygiera 8, 01-793 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The following work gives the details of the modelling, simulation, and testing of a small portable gravitational water vortex (GWV) based power plant. The gravitation water vortex is an ideal source of renewable energy for rural areas that have a small body of flowing water. For this purpose, we have selected a small size for the vortex chamber that enables it to form a vortex with limited amounts of water. The paper gives the details of the simulation of the GWV in COMSOL FEA software and the parameters that were chosen for optimization. These parameters were the height of the vortex chamber, the number of blades, the length of the blades, and the tilt angle of the blades. These parameters were systematically varied step by step, to observe their effect on the speed of the rotor. The results of the parametric sweep that was performed on all the parameters are also presented. Based on the simulation results an optimal set of parameters was chosen for the physical implementation of the GWV. The paper also goes into the details of the construction of the physical GWV, the experimental setup that was devised for the testing and verification of the simulation results.
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Authors and Affiliations

Vinayakumar B.
1
ORCID: ORCID
Rahul Antonyo
1
ORCID: ORCID
Binson V.A.
1
ORCID: ORCID
Youhan Sunnyo
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Saintgits College of Engineering, Pathamuttom P.O Kottayam, Kerala, India Pincode: 686532
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Abstract

In this article, we present the results of the first application of 2–benzoylpyridine (2–BP) as a carrier in adsorptive polymeric materials dedicated for the removal of Ag(I) and Cu(II) ions from model acidic solutions. In the first stage of the research, the classical solvent extraction, in which 2–BP was used as an extractant, allowed to determine the proper conditions for conducting adsorptive processes. The stability constants of 2–BP complexes with analyzed metal ions were determined using the spectrophotometric method. The electrospray ionization (ESI) high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) method was applied for the confirmation of the ability of 2–BP molecules to form complexes with Cu 2+¸ metal ions in a solution and to determine the elemental composition of generated complexes (to identify the ratio of the number of metal ions to the number of molecules of 2–BP). The obtained results indicate that both the adsorptive processes and solvent extraction strongly depend on the properties of metal ions and that the use of 2–BP as a carrier/extractant allows for efficient removal of silver(I) ions and much less effective removal of copper(II) ions. The utilization of adsorptive polymeric materials is in line with the contemporary research trends that focus on eco-friendly and cost-effective methods.
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Authors and Affiliations

Małgorzata A. Kaczorowska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Daria Bożejewicz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Katarzyna Witt
1
ORCID: ORCID
Włodzimierz Urbaniak
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Bydgoszcz University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Seminaryjna 3, 85-326 Bydgoszcz, Poland
  2. Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Faculty of Chemistry, Uniwersytetu Poznanskiego 8, 61-712 Poznan, Poland
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Abstract

Halloysite is a filler which may be used to produce composites with thermoplastic polymer matrix. This work summarized the results of investigations of processing, structural, mechanical, and thermal properties of the composites with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix and raw halloysite (HA) as well as its calcined product (KHA). The effectiveness of calcination was confirmed with X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption method. The PVC composites with HA as well as KHA were processed in the molten state in the Brabender mixer chamber. The reduction of gelation time and simultaneous increase in maximum torque with filler content were found based on the results of plastographometric analysis. SEM images of PVC/halloysite composites showed a homogeneous distribution of the filler in the polymer matrix. The introduction of halloysite leads to a slight increase in Young’s modulus and tensile strength compared to neat PVC, where the increase of both parameters is greater when KHA is used. The incorporation of 1% KHA led to an increase in impact strength, an effect which may be attributed to toughening of the polymer. A slight improvement of the Vicat softening temperature of 2.7°C for PVC/HA and heat deflection temperature of 2.4°C for PVC/KHA was also ascertained for PVC modified with 10 wt% of filler.
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Authors and Affiliations

Martina Wieczorek
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jolanta Tomaszewska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Tomasz Bajda
2
ORCID: ORCID
Jacek Długosz
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Bydgoszcz University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Al. Prof. S. Kaliskiego 7, 85-796 Bydgoszcz, Poland
  2. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059, Kraków, Poland
  3. Bydgoszcz University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Al. Prof. S. Kaliskiego 7, 85-796 Bydgoszcz, Poland
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Abstract

Developing an effective and safe cancer therapy could significantly reduce the number of deaths and improve the quality of life of treated patients. Nowadays medicine has developed a wide range of anticancer chemotherapeutics but at the same time there is a lack of effective drug delivery methods. Therefore, the development of the targeted drug delivery system which will selectively release drug into the cancer cells is a key challenge of modern medicine.
The main aim of the presented research was to investigate the targeting effect of a drug delivery system based on the controlled release of dextran nanoparticles containing the anticancer drug – doxorubicin from the alginate microspheres coated with chitosan multilayers.
During the research the physicochemical properties of the alginate microspheres and its stability in the physiological environment were investigated. Moreover, the kinetics of the nanoparticles with doxorubicin release from the alginate microspheres covered with chitosan multilayers was characterized, depending on the thickness of the chitosan layer. Further, the cytotoxicity study of the alginate microspheres covered with chitosan multilayer and containing nanoparticles was performed to determine the therapeutic effect of the released nanoparticles with doxorubicin on the HeLa cells during the in vitro cell culture.
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Authors and Affiliations

Aleksandra Kulikowska-Darłak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Agata Stefanek
1
ORCID: ORCID
Iga Wasiak-Wojasińska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Paulina Wiechecka-Ożdżyńska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Tomasz Ciach
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warynskiego 1 Street, 00-645 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

In this work Response Surface Methodology and Central Composite Rotatable Design were applied to find high-energy mixing process parameters enabling flow properties of highly cohesive Disulfiram powder to be improved. Experiments were conducted in a planetary ball mill. The response functions were created for an angle of repose and compressibility index as measures of powder flowability. To accomplish an optimisation procedure of mixing process parameters according to a desirability function approach, the results obtained earlier for potato starch, as another cohesive coarse powder, were also employed. Coupling these results with those achieved in a previous work, it was possible to develop some guidelines of practical importance allowing mixing conditions to be predicted towards flow improvement of fine and coarse powders.
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Authors and Affiliations

Karolina M. Leś
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ireneusz Opaliński
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Rzeszow University of Technology, al. Powstanców Warszawy 6, 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland

Instructions for authors

All manuscripts submitted for publication in Chemical and Process Engineering must comprise a description of original research that has neither been published nor submitted for publication elsewhere.

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Bird R. B., Stewart W.E., Lightfood E.N., 2002. Transport Phenomena. 2nd edition, Wiley, New York, 415-421.
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Hanjalić K., Jakirlić S., 2002. Second-moment turbulence closure modelling, In: Launder B.E., Sandham N.D. (Eds.), Closure strategies for turbulent and transitional flows. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 47-101.
Conferences
ten Cate A., Bermingham S.K., Derksen J.J., Kramer H.M.J., 2000. Compartmental modeling of an 1100L DTB crystallizer based on Large Eddy flow simulation. 10th European Conference on Mixing. Delft, the Netherlands, 2-5 July 2000, 255-264.



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