Nauki Techniczne

Chemical and Process Engineering: New Frontiers


Chemical and Process Engineering: New Frontiers | 2024 | vol. 45 | No 1


Fresh water is essential for life. More and more countries around the world are facing scarcity of drinking water, which affects over 50% of the global population. Due to human activity such as industrial development and the increasing greenhouse effect, the amount of drinking water is drastically decreasing. To address this issue, various methods of sea and brackish water desalination are used. In this study, an energy analysis (specific energy consumption, SEC) of two laboratory membrane processes, reverse osmosis (RO) and pervaporation (PV), was conducted. A model feed system saline water at 0.8, and 3.5% wt. NaCl was used. The efficiency and selectivity of membranes used in PV and RO were examined, and power of the devices was measured. The desalination processes were found to have a high retention factor (over 99%) for both PV and RO. For PV, the permeate fluxes were small but they increased with increasing feed flow rate, process temperature and salt content in the feed. The calculated SEC values for both laboratory processes ranged from 2 to 70 MWh/m 3. Lowering the process temperature, which consumes 30 to 60% of the total energy used in the PV process, can be an important factor in reducing energy consumption.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Izabela Gortat
Joanna Marszałek
Paweł Wawrzyniak

  1. Lodz University of Technology, Faculty of Process and Environmental Engineering, Wólczańska 213, 93-005 Łódź, Poland


Biobased hydrogels are three-dimensional polymeric matrices with a unique high water-holding capacity, which are mainly obtained from polysaccharides and proteins. Such a variety of natural polymer structures offers a range of hydrogel products with interesting physicochemical and biological properties. Nowadays, these matrices are already used in many industrial and environmental fields, which is considered extremely important. Moreover, the literature on the subject is constantly expanding, especially in areas of scientific research. The main purpose of this article is to briefly review the current development of matrices composition and properties of hydrogels of natural origin, considered as functional platforms in three application areas, primarily in biocatalysis, nutrition and medicine. The description of individual issues in the present article is supported by examples of case studies described in our previously published research papers, as well as considered in current projects of our research group.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Karolina Labus
Halina Maniak
Katarzyna Kołodzińska
Łukasz Radosiński

  1. Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Micro, Nano and Bioprocess Engineering, Norwida 4/6 50-373 Wrocław, Poland


Current efforts are taken to increase resource efficiency, close material loops, and improve sustainable waste and by-products management. Thus, networking agro-food by-products andc onverting them into valuable products completely exhausting the potential of the raw material becomes significant. Model lignocellulosic and starch based biomass were subjected to pre-treatment with the application of acidic compounds, i.e. sulphuric (SA) and acetic (AA) acids. The response, i.e. total sugar content and derivatives content is investigated depending on variables changed during hydrolysis: concentration of acid, process duration, temperature and the size of the biomass particles. After saccharification, the hydrolysates were analysed via HPLC. Total reducing sugars concentration was in the range of 0.1 – 15.53 g/LAmong the substances present in the hydrolysates, protein, peptides, hydroxybenzyl acid (HA), 5-HMF, furfural (FF), vanillin (V), vanillic acid (VA), formic acid (FA) and levulinic acid (LA) were found in the range of 0.44 – 9.05 g/L and determined as total derivatives concentration. The aim of the study was to evaluate the measurable effects of the research and deliver information about the statistically important parameters for the process course and relations between the variables.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Karolina Kucharska
Patrycja Makoś-Chełstowska
Edyta Słupek
Jacek Gębicki

  1. Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Process Engineering and Chemical Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland


Most of the existing toxic gas mitigation techniques have difficulty in practical implementation. More effective mitigation methods are required for handling hazardous gas releases in Chemical Process Industries (CPIs). One of the most hazardous chemicals is chlorine, an integral part of almost all chemical industries, especially chlor-alkali. This study examined a possible accidental spill of liquid chlorine from a chlorine storage area. Computational Fluid Dynamics, Process Hazard Analysis Software Tool (PHAST), and Probit analysis were combined to develop the overall effect and vulnerability models. The dispersion of chlorine vapors at wind speeds of 2, 3, and 4 m/s was analyzed, and the corresponding threat zones were plotted. Many public establishments of extreme vulnerability were located inside the threat zones. Offsite emergency planning guidelines are necessary for such conditions. Based on the results of the consequence analysis, a practical and cost-efficient IoT (Internet of Things) based mitigation system using physical barriers is proposed. The proposed mitigation system accounts for entrapment, continuous removal, and safe handling of the chlorine vapor from the release area. The proposed mitigation system can be implemented in all CPIs dealing with the production and storage of toxic gases. The outcome of this study can contribute to the development of Emergency Response Planning (ERP) guidelines for chlorine release.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

E Ahammed
1 2
AR Soman
1 3
PA Abdul Samad
1 2
B Varikkadinmel

  1. Department of Mechanical engineering, Government Engineering College, Thrissur, Kerala, India
  2. APJ Abdul Kalam Technological University, Kerala, India
  3. Department of Mechanical engineering, Government Engineering College, Idukki, Kerala, India
  4. Mechanical and Industrial engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India


In this study, a stable and effective magnetically recoverable nanocatalyst was prepared by coating Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles with SiO 2, followed by functionalization with N-(2-aminoethyl)- 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AEPTMS) and produce Schiff base ligand to linkage Ru(OTf) 2 onto the surface. The nanocatalyst was characterized using various techniques such as FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, and VSM to confirm its successful synthesis. The nanocatalyst was used for the trimethylsilylation of various alcohols (primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols) using hexamethyldisilazane as a silylating agent in dichloromethane at room temperature. The reaction proceeded quickly with a protection time of only 90 seconds, which is a remarkable advantage of this nanocatalyst. The turnover frequency (TOF) values of the catalytic system were estimated to be 1869 h -1. The use of this nanocatalyst offers many advantages, such as excellent yield, catalyst reusability, high acidity, and strong magneticp roperties. These advantages make it a fascinating candidate for green chemistry principles. The simple reprocessing procedure and quick response times are also additional benefits of this nanocatalyst. Overall, this study provides a promising approach for the facile preparation of a stable and effective magnetically recoverable nanocatalyst that can be utilized for the trimethylsilylation of alcohols. The exceptional properties of this catalyst make it an attractive candidate for practical applications in the field of catalysis.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Somayeh Mehdigholami
Esmaeil Koohestanian

  1. Young Researchers and Elite Club, Iranshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iranshahr, Iran
  2. Department of Chemical Engineering, Iranshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iranshahr, Iran


Despite its unique properties (biocompatibility and nontoxicity), chitin itself has limited application. Chitin is completely insoluble in most organic or inorganic solvents what can be beneficial when chitin is investigated as a support for chromatography or enzyme immobilization. These applications require the particles to have an extensive outer surface with a large number of reactive ligands. The increase in specific surface area of chitin particles can be performed by dissolution in ionic liquid and precipitation with water. To increase the number of reactive ligands (amine groups), deacetylation of the surface of chitin particles is necessary. The deacetylation process can be carried out by an enzymatic process with the enzyme, chitin deacetylase. In our investigation, 21 ionic liquids were used for chitin particle structure modification followed by enzymatic deacetylation. Results proved positive effect of modifications with ionic liquid on enzymatic deacetylation of the chitin surface with chitin deacetylase. For 12 samples the deacetylation gave an increase in number of active ligands in comparison to natural chitin. The best results were observed for [Bmim][Br], [Emim][Cl] and [MPpip][Ac]. That could be correlated with an increase in outer surface area by increasing porosity of particles or by structural changes in chitin particles.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Małgorzata M. Jaworska
Dorota Biniaś
Katarzyna Dąbkowska-Susfał
Andrzej Górak

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warynskiego 1, 00-645 Warsaw, Poland
  2. University of Bielsko-Biała, Faculty of Materials, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Environmental Protection and Engineering, Willowa 2, 43-309 Bielsko-Biała, 9 Poland
  3. Faculty of Process Engineering and Environmental Protection, Lodz Technical University, ul. Wólczanska 213, 93-005 Lodz, Poland


This paper presents the development of a multiphase aerodynamic reactor designed for multi-component systems, focusing on precise catalyst dosing in the combustion chamber. The study aims to underscore the significance of this work by emphasizing the critical role of optimized operational conditions in enhancing the transportation of the modifier for combustion processes. Through comprehensive numerical simulations and experimental tests, this research explores the impact of parameters such as flow rates of the dosed substance and air, dosing nozzle outlet diameter, and conduit diameter on the flow rate and trajectory of the transported modifier. The findings highlight the importance of a minimum droplet diameter of 30 μm, preferably 50 μm, for proper delivery to the combustion chamber. This study not only identifies key differences between analyzed structures but also emphasizes the crucial role of these operational parameters in achieving optimal conditions for modifier transport.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Marek Ochowiak
1 2
Zdzisław Bielecki
2 3
Andżelika Krupińska
Sylwia Włodarczak
Magdalena Matuszak

  1. Department of Chemical Engineering and Equipment, Poznan University of Technology, Pl. M. Sklodowska-Curie 5, 60-965 Poznan, Poland
  2. Kuncar S.A., Pszczyńska 167C, 43-175 Wyry, Poland
  3. Department of Automatic Control and Robotics, Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 2A Str., 44-100 Gliwice, Poland


The chemical composition of commercial thyme oils, freshly hydrodistilled EO (essetntial oil) from dried thyme herb and thymol, the main thyme oil constituent, were analyzed in the aspect of possible cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 breast cancer and normal L929 mouse fibroblast cell lines. Based on the GC-MS analysis, it was found that the commercial essential oils revealed similarities in their chemical composition. The content of main components such as thymol, linalool and α-pinene was almost equal. Interestingly, the EO obtained by hydrodistillation from Thymi herba showed considerable differences in the percentage content of some main constituents. The reason for the differences may be caused by the intraspecific chemical variability of T. vulgaris L. Four types of tested EOs can be classified as a ‘thymol’ chemotype, with thymol as the predominant compound. The thymol alone and the freshly hydrodistilled EO demonstrated the highest cytotoxic effect against used cell lines. The difference in IC50 values suggests more sensitive L929 cells are more sensitive in both the CCK-8 assay (except EOs Kawon) and the NRU assay.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Aurelia Fijałkowska
Aneta Wesołowska
Rafał Rakoczy
Magdalena Jedrzejczak-Silicka

  1. West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Laboratory of Cytogenetics, Klemensa Janickiego 29, 71-270 Szczecin, Poland
  2. West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Institute of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection Process, Piastow 42, 71-065 Szczecin, Poland

Instrukcja dla autorów

All manuscripts submitted for publication in Chemical and Process Engineering: New Frontiers must comprise a description of original research that has neither been published nor submitted for publication elsewhere.

The content, aim and scope of the proposals have to comply with the main topics of the journal, i.e. discuss at least one of the four main areas, namely:
• New Advanced (Nano) Materials
• Environment & Water Processing (including circular economy)
• Biochemical & Biomedical Engineering (including pharmaceuticals)
• Climate & Energy (including energy conversion & storage, electrification, decarbonization)

Chemical and Process Engineering: New Frontiers publishes: i) experimental and theoretical research papers, ii) short communications, iii) critical reviews, and iv) perspective articles. Each publication form is peer-reviewed by at least two independent referees.

New Submissions

Manuscripts are submitted for publication via Editorial System. When writing a manuscript, you may choose to submit it as a single Word file to be used in the refereeing process. The manuscript needs to be written in a clear way. The minimum requirements are:
• Please use clear fonts, at least 12 points large, with at least 1.5-line spacing.
• Figures should be placed in relevant places within the manuscript. All figures and tables should be numbered and provided with appropriate caption and legend, if necessary.

Language requirements

• Use Simple Past to talk about your experiment and your results as they were finished before you wrote the paper. Use Simple Past to describe what you did.
Example: Two samples were taken. Temperature increased to 200K at the end of the process.
• Use Simple Present to refer to figures and tables.
Example: Table 2 shows nitrogen concentration changes in the process.
• Use Simple Present to talk about your conclusions. You move here from describing your results to stating what is generally true.
Example: The process is caused by changes of nitrogen concentration.
• Capitalise words like ‘Table 2’, ‘Equation 11’.
• If a sentence is longer than three lines, break down your writing into logically divided parts (paragraphs). Start a new paragraph to discuss a new concept.
• Check noun/verb agreement (singular/plural).
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• Avoid empty language (it is worth pointing out that, etc.).

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After the first revision, authors will be requested to put their paper in the correct format, using the below guidelines and template for articles.

Manuscript outline

1. Header details
a. Title,
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c. Institution(s) (affiliation),
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2. Abstract – should contain a short summary of the proposed paper. In the maximum of 200 words the authors should present the main assumptions, results and conclusions drawn from the presented study.

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6. Acknowledgements may be included before the list of literature references

7. Literature citations
The method of quoting literature source in the manuscript depends on the number of its authors:
single author – their surname and year of publication should be given, e.g. Marquardt (1996) or (Marquardt, 1996),
two authors – the two surnames separated by the conjunction “and” with the publication year should be given, e.g. Charpentier and McKenna (2004) or (Charpentier and McKenna, 2004),
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In the case of citing more sources in one bracket, they should be listed in alphabetical order using semicolon for separation, e.g. (Bird et al., 1960; Charpentier and McKenna, 2004; Marquardt, 1996). Should more citations of the same author(s) and year appear in the manuscript then letters “a, b, c, ...” should be successively applied after the publication year.

Bibliographic data of the quoted literature should be arranged at the end of the manuscript in alphabetical order of surnames of the first author. It is obligatory to indicate the DOI number of those literature items, whose numbers have already been assigned. Journal titles should be specified by typing their right abbreviations or, when in doubts, according to the Science and Engineering Journal Abbreviations.

Examples of citation for:

Charpentier J. C., McKenna T. F., 2004. Managing complex systems: some trends for the future of chemical and process engineering. Chem. Eng. Sci., 59, 1617-1640. DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2004.01.044.
Information from books (we suggest adding the page numbers where the quoted information can be found)
Bird R. B., Stewart W.E., Lightfood E.N., 2002. Transport Phenomena. 2nd edition, Wiley, New York, 415-421.
Chapters in books
Hanjalić K., Jakirlić S., 2002. Second-moment turbulence closure modelling, In: Launder B.E., Sandham N.D. (Eds.), Closure strategies for turbulent and transitional flows. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 47-101.
ten Cate A., Bermingham S.K., Derksen J.J., Kramer H.M.J., 2000. Compartmental modeling of an 1100L DTB crystallizer based on Large Eddy flow simulation. 10th European Conference on Mixing. Delft, the Netherlands, 2-5 July 2000, 255-264.

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Suggested Reviewers

Authors are kindly requested to include a list of 4 potential reviewers for their manuscript, with complete contact information. Suggested reviewers may not reside in the same country as the corresponding author and remain subject to the Editors' discretion in appointing manuscripts for review.


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Zasady etyki publikacyjnej


Editors of the "Chemical and Process Engineering: New Frontiers" pay attention to maintain ethical standards in scientific publications and undertake any possible measure to counteract neglecting the standards. Papers submitted for publication are evaluated with respect to reliability, conforming to ethical standards and the advancement of science. Principles given below are based on COPE's Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors, which may be found at:

Authors’ duties

Authorship should be limited to persons, who markedly contributed to the idea, project, realization and interpretation of results. All of them have to be listed as co-authors. Other persons, who affected some important parts of the study should be listed or mentioned as co-workers. Author should be certain that all co-authors were enlisted, saw and accepted final version of the paper and agreed upon its publication.

Disclosure and conflict of interests
Author should disclose all sources of financing of his/her study, the input of scientific institutions, associations and other subjects and all important conflicts of interests that might affect results and interpretation of the study.

Standards in reporting
Authors of papers based on original studies should present precise description of performed work and objective discussion on its importance. Source data should be accurately presented in the paper. The paper should contain detailed information and references that would enable others to use it. False or intentionally not true declarations are not ethical and are not accepted by the editors.

Access to and storage of data
Authors may be asked for providing raw data used in the paper for editorial assessment and should be prepared to store them within the reasonable time period after publication.

Multiple, unnecessary and competitive publications
As a rule author should not publish papers describing the same studies in more than one journal or primary publication. Submission of the same paper to more than one journal at the same time is not ethical and prohibited.

Confirmation of sources
Author should cite papers that affected the creation of submitted manuscript and every time he/she should confirm the use of other authors’ work.

Important errors in published papers
When author finds an important error or inaccuracy in his/her paper, he/she is obliged to inform Editorial Office about this as soon as possible.

Originality and plagiarism
Author may submit only original papers. He/she should be certain that the names of authors referred to in the paper and/or fragments of their texts are properly cited or mentioned.

Ghost writing/guest authorship are manifestation of scientific unreliability and all such cases will be revealed including notification of appropriate subjects. Signs of scientific unreliability, especially violation of ethical principles in science will be documented by the Editorial Office.

Duties of the Editorial Office

Editors’ duties
Editors know the rules of journal editing including the procedures applied in case of uncovering non-ethical practices.

Decisions on publication
Editor-in Chief is obliged to apply present legal status as to defamation, violation of author’s rights and plagiarism and bears the responsibility for decisions. He/she may consult thematic editors and/or referees in that matter.

Selection of referees
Editorial Office provides appropriate selection of referees and takes care about appropriate course of peer –reviewing (the review has to be substantive).

Every member of editorial team is not allowed to disclose information about submitted paper to any person except its author, referees, other advisors and editors.

To counteract discrimination the Editorial Office obeys the legally binding rules.

Disclosure and conflict of interests
Not published papers or their fragments cannot be used in the studies of editorial team or ref-erees without written consent of the author.

Referees' duties

Editorial decisions

Referee supports Editor-in-Chief in taking editorial decisions and may also support author in improving the paper.

Back information
In case a selected referee is not able to review the paper or cannot do it in due time period, he/she should inform secretary of the Editorial Office about this fact.

Objectivity standards
Reviews should be objective. Personal criticism is inappropriate. Referees should clearly ex-press their opinions and support them with proper arguments.

All reviewed papers should be dealt with as confidential. They should not be discussed or revealed to persons other than the secretary of the Editorial Office.

All reviews should be made anonymously and the Editorial Office does not disclose names of the authors to referees.

Disclosure and conflict of interests
Confidential information or ideas resulting from reviewing procedure should be kept secret and should not be used to gain personal benefits. Referees should not review papers, which might generate conflict of interests resulting from relationships with the author, firm or institution involved in the study.

Confirmation of sources
Referees should indicate publications which are not referred to in the paper. Any statement that the observation, source or argument was described previously should be supported by appropriate citation. Referee should also inform the secretary of the Editorial Office about significant similarity to or partial overlapping of the reviewed paper with any other published paper and about suspected plagiarism.

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