Applied sciences

Chemical and Process Engineering


Chemical and Process Engineering | 2017 | vol. 38 | No 2

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The opportunity to assess haemolysis in a designed artificial heart seems to be one of the most important stages in construction. We propose a new method for assessing haemolysis level in a rotary blood pump. This method is based on CFD calculations using large eddy simulations (LES). This paper presents an approach to haemolysis estimation and shows examples of numerical simulation. Our method does not determine the value of haemolysis but allows for comparison of haemolysis levels between different artificial heart constructions.

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Authors and Affiliations

Maciej Szwast
Arkadiusz Moskal
Wojciech Piątkiewicz
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Transport properties of bronchial mucus are investigated by two-stage experimental approach focused on: (a) rheological properties and (b) mass transfer rate through the stagnant layer of solutions of mucus components (mucine, DNA, proteins) and simulated multi-component mucus. Studies were done using thermostated horizontal diffusion cells with sodium cromoglycate and carminic acid as transferred solutes. Rheological properties of tested liquids was studied by a rotational viscometer and a cone-plate rheometer (dynamic method). First part of the studies demonstrated that inter-molecular interactions in these complex liquids influence both rheological and permeability characteristics. Transfer rate is governed not only by mucus composition and concentration but also by hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties of transported molecules. Second part was focused on the properties of such a layer in presence of selected nanostructured particles (different nanoclays and graphene oxide) which may be present in lungs after inhalation. It was shown that most of such particles increase visco-elasticity of the mucus and reduce the rate of mass transfer of model drugs. Measured effects may have adverse impact on health, since they will reduce mucociliary clearance in vivo and slow down drug penetration to the bronchial epithelium during inhalation therapy.

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Authors and Affiliations

Marcin Odziomek
Martyna Kalinowska
Aleksandra Płuzińska
Antoni Rożeń
Tomasz R. Sosnowski
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One of the actual challenges in tissue engineering applications is to efficiently produce as high of number of cells as it is only possible, in the shortest time. In static cultures, the production of animal cell biomass in integrated forms (i.e. aggregates, inoculated scaffolds) is limited due to inefficient diffusion of culture medium components observed in such non-mixed culture systems, especially in the case of cell-inoculated fiber-based dense 3D scaffolds, inside which the intensification of mass transfer is particularly important. The applicability of a prototyped, small-scale, continuously wave-induced agitated system for intensification of anchorage-dependent CP5 chondrocytes proliferation outside and inside three-dimensional poly(lactic acid) (PLA) scaffolds has been discussed. Fibrous PLA-based constructs have been inoculated with CP5 cells and then maintained in two independent incubation systems: (i) non-agitated conditions and (ii) culture with wave-induced agitation. Significantly higher values of the volumetric glucose consumption rate have been noted for the system with the wave-induced agitation. The advantage of the presented wave-induced agitation culture system has been confirmed by lower activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released from the cells in the samples of culture medium harvested from the agitated cultures, in contrast to rather high values of LDH activity measured for static conditions. Results of the proceeded experiments and their analysis clearly exhibited the feasibility of the culture system supported with continuously wave-induced agitation for robust proliferation of the CP5 chondrocytes on PLA-based structures. Aside from the practicability of the prototyped system, we believe that it could also be applied as a standard method offering advantages for all types of the daily routine laboratory-scale animal cell cultures utilizing various fiber-based biomaterials, with the use of only regular laboratory devices.

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Authors and Affiliations

Maciej Pilarek
Michał Wojasiński
Klaudia Godlewska
Aleksandra Kuźmińska
Katarzyna Dąbkowska
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It is known that external diffusional resistances are significant in immobilized enzyme packed-bed reactors, especially at large scales. Thus, the external mass transfer effects were analyzed for hydrogen peroxide decomposition by immobilized Terminox Ultra catalase in a packed-bed bioreactor. For this purpose the apparent reaction rate constants, kP, were determined by conducting experimental works at different superficial velocities, U, and temperatures. To develop an external mass transfer model the correlation between the Colburn factor, JD, and the Reynolds number, Re, of the type JD = K Re(n-1) was assessed and related to the mass transfer coefficient, kmL. The values of K and n were calculated from the dependence (am kp-1 - kR-1) vs. Re-1 making use of the intrinsic reaction rate constants, kR, determined before. Based on statistical analysis it was found that the mass transfer correlation JD = 0.972 Re-0.368 predicts experimental data accurately. The proposed model would be useful for the design and optimization of industrial-scale reactors.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ireneusz Grubecki
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Filtering nonwovens produced with melt-blown technology are one of the most basic materials used in the construction of respiratory protective equipment (RPE) against harmful aerosols, including bio- and nanoaerosols. The improvement of their filtering properties can be achieved by the development of quasi-permanent electric charge on the fibres. Usually corona discharge method is utilized for this purpose. In the presented study, it was assumed that the low-temperature plasma treatment could be applied as an alternative method for the manufacturing of conventional electret nonwovens for the RPE construction. Low temperature plasma treatment of polypropylene nonwovens was carried out with various process gases (argon, nitrogen, oxygen or air) in a wide range of process parameters (gas flow velocity, time of treatment and power supplied to the reactor electrodes). After the modification, nonwovens were evaluated in terms of filtration efficiency of paraffin oil mist. The stability of the modification results was tested after 12 months of storage and after conditioning at elevated temperature and relative humidity conditions. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy and ATR-IR spectroscopy were used to assess changes in surface topography and chemical composition of the fibres. The modification of melt-blown nonwovens with nitrogen, oxygen and air plasma did not result in a satisfactory improvement of the filtration efficiency. In case of argon plasma treatment, up to 82% increase of filtration efficiency of paraffin oil mist was observed in relation to untreated samples. This effect was stable after 12 months of storage in normal conditions and after thermal conditioning in (70 ± 3)°C for 24 h. The use of low-temperature plasma treatment was proven to be a promising improvement direction of filtering properties of nonwovens used for the protection of respiratory tract against harmful aerosols.

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Authors and Affiliations

Katarzyna Majchrzycka
Małgorzata Okrasa
Agnieszka Brochocka
Wiesława Urbaniak-Domagała
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Measurements of hydrogen solubility in various nitrobenzene-aniline mixtures were conducted in an autoclave reactor with a stirrer and control of temperature. The solubility of hydrogen was measured at 7 different values of temperature (30 °C, 40 °C, 50 °C, 90 °C, 130 °C, 170 °C, 210 °C, respectively), 3 values of stirrer rotation speed (1200 rpm, 1600 rpm, 2000 rpm, respectively) and a range of pressure of 20 ‒ 30 bar. Moreover, pure aniline, pure nitrobenzene and their mixtures with different concentrations were used. In the next step, values of Henry’s constant were calculated. Based on experimental data a dependence of Henry’s constant on temperature for pure aniline and pure nitrobenzene was proposed. Additionally, for each temperature correlations between Henry’s constant and aniline’s concentration in mixture of nitrobenzene-aniline were found.

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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł Sobieszuk
Aleksandra Srebniak
Manfred Kraut
Oliver Görke
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A rotor-stator spinning disk reactor for intensified biodiesel synthesis is described and numerically simulated in the present research. The reactor consists of two flat disks, located coaxially and parallel to each other with a gap ranging from 0.1 mm to 0.2 mm between the disks. The upper disk is located on a rotating shaft while the lower disk is stationary. The feed liquids, triglycerides (TG) and methanol are injected into the reactor from centres of rotating disk and stationary disk, respectively. Fluid hydrodynamics in the reactor for synthesis of biodiesel from TG and methanol in the presence of a sodium hydroxide catalyst are simulated, using convection-diffusion-reaction multicomponent transport model with the CFD software ANSYS©Fluent v. 13.0. Effect of operating conditions on TG conversion is particularly investigated. Simulation results indicate that there is occurrence of back flow close to the stator at the outlet zone. Small gap size and fast rotational speed generally help to intensify mixing among reagents, and consequently enhance TG conversion. However, increasing rotational speed of spinning disk leads to more backflow, which decreases TG conversion. Large flow rate of TG at inlet is not recommended as well because of the short mean residence time of reactants inside the reactor.

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Authors and Affiliations

Zhuqing Wen
Jerzy Petera
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Analysis of granulation kinetics was carried out using a laboratory disc granulator with a diameter D of 0.5 m. A liquid binder was delivered to the tumbling bed at a constant flow rate with a nozzle generating droplets with a size of approx. 4-5 mm. Fine-grained chalk was used as a model of raw material and water or disaccharide solution with concentrations of 20 - 40% as a wetting liquid. Different times of droplet delivery ranging from 2 to 6 min were utilized. Granulometric composition of the bed for selected lengths of process, bed moisture and the moisture of individual size-fractions were assessed. Mass of granulated material, which was transferred from nuclei fraction to other size fractions was determined on the basis of mass balance analysis and the assessment of liquid migration between fractions. The influence of disaccharide concentration in wetting liquid on the aforementioned phenomena was also examined.

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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Obraniak
Tadeusz Gluba
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This paper presents the results of experimental drum granulation of silica flour with the use of wetting liquids with different values of surface tension. Additionally, different liquid jet breakup and different residual moisture of the bed were applied in the tests. The process was conducted periodically in two stages: wetting and proper granulation, during which no liquid was supplied to the bed. The condition of the granulated material after the period of wetting (particle size distribution and moisture of separate fractions) and a change in the particle size distribution during the further conduct of the process (granulation kinetics) were determined.

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Authors and Affiliations

Michał Błaszczyk
Andrzej Heim
Tomasz P. Olejnik
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This paper discusses the adsorption of Direct Orange 26 azo dye on sunflower husk - an agricultural waste product. During the study, sorption kinetics and equilibrium as well as sorption capacity of the husk were investigated. The adsorption kinetics was analyzed using pseudo-first and pseudo-second order equations, which indicated a chemical sorption mechanism. The sorption equilibrium was approximated with the two-parameter Freundlich and Langmuir equations and the three-parameter Redlich-Peterson equation. The main experiments were carried out in a laboratory adsorption column under different process conditions. Experimental data were interpreted with the Thomas model, based on the volumetric flow rate, initial composition of the feed solution and mass of the adsorbent. The results of modeling the adsorption equilibrium, adsorption kinetics and adsorption dynamics were evaluated statistically.

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Authors and Affiliations

Elwira Tomczak
Paweł Tosik
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The studies showed that alkaline lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens enables an irreversible transesterification of vinyl esters to give enantiomeric excess (eeR) of about 80% using vinyl butyrate as acyl donor and diisopropyl ether as a solvent, at partially optimized conditions. For the native lipase the process was adequately described by a five-parameter Ping-Pong Bi Bi model for both enantiomers plus expression accounting for the formation of enzyme-acyl donor complex, but for the same lipase supported on mesoporous materials of SBA-15-Oc type, R-product inhibition also had to be taken into account. The use of hydrophobic support increased by more than two-fold the rate of the S-solketal conversion but even more that of R-solketal. Thus the immobilization of lipase had very positive effect on the process kinetics but decreased its enantioselectivity.

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Authors and Affiliations

Aurelia Zniszczoł
Katarzyna Szymańska
Jacek Kocurek
Jolanta Bryjak
Krzysztof Walczak
Andrzej Jarzębski
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These studies examined the concept of concentration and purification of several types of wastewater by freezing and thawing. The experiments demonstrated that freezing of contaminated liquid contributed to concentration of contaminants in solution as well as significant concentration and agglomeration of solid particles. A high degree of purification was achieved for many parameters. The results of comparative laboratory tests for single and multiple freezing are presented. It was found that there was a higher degree of concentration of pollutants in wastewater frozen as man-made snow than in bulk ice. Furthermore, the hypothesis that long storage time of liquid as snow and sufficient temperature gradient metamorphism allows for high efficiency of the concentration process was confirmed. It was reported that the first 30% of the melted liquid volume contained over 90% of all impurities. It gives great opportunities to use this method to concentrate pollutants. The results revealed that the application of this process in full scale is possible. Significant agglomeration of solid particles was also noted. Tests with clay slurry showed that repeated freezing and thawing processes significantly improve the characteristics of slurry for sedimentation and filtration.

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Authors and Affiliations

Janusz A. Szpaczyński
Jeffrey A. White
Caroline L. Côté

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ten Cate A., Bermingham S.K., Derksen J.J., Kramer H.M.J., 2000. Compartmental modeling of an 1100L DTB crystallizer based on Large Eddy flow simulation. 10th European Conference on Mixing. Delft, the Netherlands, 2-5 July 2000, 255-264.

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