Applied sciences

Chemical and Process Engineering: New Frontiers


Chemical and Process Engineering: New Frontiers | 2023 | vol. 44 | No 2

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In the paper, the mixing power and distributions of velocity and velocity pulsations in a baffled stirred tank with a flat blade turbine impeller placed at different distances from the bottom were determined. It was found that the mixing power reaches minimum values when the relative clearance of the impeller is C/D = 0.6÷0.7. The investigations of velocity distributions using the PIV method showed the axial flow of the liquid through the impeller. This results in deviations from the typical radial-circumferential flow and changes in mixing power vs. impeller clearance versus a Rushton impeller. With a clearance corresponding to the minimum power, the flow is axial-circumferential with one circulation loop. For a flat blade turbine impeller, good mixing conditions are obtained for a clearance of 0.8 < C/D < 0.9.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jacek Stelmach

  1. Lodz University of Technology, Faculty of Process and Environmental Engineering, Wolczanska 213, 93-005 Lodz, Poland
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The paper presents the concept of new swirl inserts. An empty two-phase swirl flow atomizer, and three atomizers with inserts were designed, manufactured and tested. The tested atomizers did not differ in terms of their geometric dimensions, with the only variable being the type swirl chamber filling. Flow resistance and spray angle values were analysed for all the evaluated structures. It was shown that the presence of a swirl insert does not significantly increase flow resistance, but instead results in larger spray angles. Taking into account the values of flow resistance and spray angles, the best design solution turned out to be the set of inserts No. 2.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sylwia Włodarczak
Daniel Janecki
Bartosz Czajkowski
Adam Szmyt
Andżelika Krupińska
Magdalena Matuszak
Marek Ochowiak

  1. Department of Chemical Engineering and Equipment, Poznan University of Technology, M. Sklodowska-Curie 5, 60-965 Poznan, Poland
  2. Institute of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Opole, 45-032 Opole, Poland
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When designing injectable scaffolds for biomedical applications, it is crucial to determine the conditions for the formation of unlimited structures, in particular the kinetics at constant temperature. Despite many studies, these conditions have not been characterized so far after injection, which is such an important application aspect. The aim of the research is to discuss the impact of the injection application on the polymer structure and to propose new criteria for assessing the potential of thermosensitive biopolymer sols, considering the flow under high shear rates during the administration.
Based on the analysis of the obtained results of rheological tests, it was shown that the flow through the needles causes a significant change in the elastic properties that define the polymer structure, with almost unchanged viscous properties. As a consequence, the parameters characterizing the polymer coil change, which, combined with the quantitatively proven fragmentation, indicates that injection application may affect the size of the coils that will not reach the critical size of the aggregating nucleus.
Finally, extended research procedures for the conscious design of injectable scaffolds are proposed as well as key rheological parameters to ensure thermoinduced aggregation preceded by shear during injection are provided.
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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Rył
Piotr Owczarz

  1. Department of Chemical Engineering, Lodz University of Technology, Wolczanska 213, 93-005 Lodz
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The paper presents the effects of sodium chloride on the rheological properties of aqueous solutions of cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) mixtures. Studies were carried out in the CAPB/SDBS molar ratio range of 0.95 to 3.5, at sodium chloride concentrations varying from 0.03 M to 0.75 M. Continuous and oscillatory flow measurements showed that the impact of sodium chloride concentration on shear viscosity and relaxation time was closely linked to the CAPB/SDBS molar ratio. The maximum shear viscosity and the longest Maxwell relaxation time were obtained at the CAPB/SDBS molar ratio of 2. Based on CryoTEM images, it was determined that the shear viscosity and relaxation time peaks identified at a certain concentration of sodium chloride could be attributed to the transition of the entangled wormlike micellar network into branched wormlike micelles. Changes in the micellar microstructure accompanying modifications of the CAPB/SDBS molar ratio and sodium chloride concentration were accounted for on the basis of the packing parameter.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sylwia Różańska
Ewelina Warmbier
Patrycja Wagner
Jacek Różański

  1. Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Berdychowo 4, 60-965 Poznań, Poland
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Unsteady motion of the impeller is one of the several methods to improve mixing in unbaffled vessel. It is very important in pharmaceutical industry, crystallization processes or some chemical reaction with catalyst where baffles are not recommended. The literature data shows that unsteady mixing cause generation of axial flow for radial impellers (Rushton turbine). The purpose of this study was to investigate axial force for axial impellers like A315, HE-3 and SC-3. Moreover, the momentum number, flow number and pumping efficiency were analysed. Results shows that axial force for unsteady mixing is higher in comparison to steady-state mixing. Also, the comparison of axial force between impellers shows that blades influence momentum number and flow number. Impellers with larger blade surface generate stronger axial force. The obtained results reveal that unsteady mixing with axial impellers could be apply for solid-liquid mixing as suitable alternative to steady-state mixing.
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Authors and Affiliations

Szymon Woziwodzki

  1. Poznan University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering and Equipment, Berdychowo 4, 60-965 Poznan, Poland
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The work presents a two-step method of iron red synthesis based on waste iron(II) sulfate. The synthesis was carried out using purified waste iron sulfate from titanium dioxide production. The study investigated the influence of factors such as temperature, pressure, concentration of solutions and synthesis time on the physicochemical properties of pigments. Obtained pigments were tested by instrumental analytical methods, e.g. X-ray Diffraction or BET surface area analysis. The pigments were analyzed for color, praticles size as well as for oil number. The results of the research showed a change in the physicochemical properties of the obtained pigments depending on the conditions of synthesis. It was shown that increasing the synthesis time in most cases increased the degree of crystallization of hematite in the pigments. High specific surface area, low agglomeration of pigments or low oil absorption are directly related to the crystallinity of the pigments obtained. Laboratory pigments have been found to be different from commercial pigments. The difference in properties speaks in favor of synthesized materials.
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Authors and Affiliations

Kamila Splinter
Zofia Lendzion-Bieluńb

  1. Department of Inorganic Chemical Technology and Environment Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Technology and Engineering, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Piastów Ave. 42, 71-065 Szczecin, Poland

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The content, aim and scope of the proposals have to comply with the main topics of the journal, i.e. discuss at least one of the four main areas, namely:
• New Advanced (Nano) Materials
• Environment & Water Processing (including circular economy)
• Biochemical & Biomedical Engineering (including pharmaceuticals)
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Charpentier J. C., McKenna T. F., 2004. Managing complex systems: some trends for the future of chemical and process engineering. Chem. Eng. Sci., 59, 1617-1640. DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2004.01.044.
Information from books (we suggest adding the page numbers where the quoted information can be found)
Bird R. B., Stewart W.E., Lightfood E.N., 2002. Transport Phenomena. 2nd edition, Wiley, New York, 415-421.
Chapters in books
Hanjalić K., Jakirlić S., 2002. Second-moment turbulence closure modelling, In: Launder B.E., Sandham N.D. (Eds.), Closure strategies for turbulent and transitional flows. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 47-101.
ten Cate A., Bermingham S.K., Derksen J.J., Kramer H.M.J., 2000. Compartmental modeling of an 1100L DTB crystallizer based on Large Eddy flow simulation. 10th European Conference on Mixing. Delft, the Netherlands, 2-5 July 2000, 255-264.

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