The possibility of scaling viscoelastic properties of starch solutions in relation to biopolymer concentration was presented in this study. An application of this empirical method enabled to widen the observation horizon of viscoelastic properties. It was also determined that the scope of its applicability is limited by amylose content in the solution. In high amylose solutions, for which up to 40% (w/w) concentration was the highest one obtained, calibration caused the formation of master curve in the widest frequency range. Determined values of scaling coefficients aC changed exponentially in starch concentration function in the solution. For waxy starch solutions of maximum concentration equal to 20% (w/w), scaling did not significantly widen the observation window. Based on master curves constructed in such way, continuous relaxation spectra H(λ) were determined using Tikhonov regularisation method. Their structure indicates advantageous of viscous elements in the process of viscoelastic phenomena formation.
The porous structure of cylindrical and ring-shaped char material was developed by partial steam gasification. Micropore and mesopore structures of active carbons with various forms of burn-off were evaluated by nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. Parameters of the Dubinin- Radushkevich equation were calculated as well as the micropore size distribution by the Horvath- Kawazoe method. The results of textural investigations showed that more uniform micropore structure and better mechanical properties were found for ring-shaped active carbons.
The paper presents results of experimental studies on removal of NOx from flue gas via NO ozonation and wet scrubbing of products of NO oxidation in NaOH solutions. The experiment was conducted in a pilot plant installation supplied with flue gas from a coal-fired boiler at the flow rate 200 m3/h. The initial mole fraction of NOx,ref in flue gas was approx. 220 ppm, the molar ratio X = O3/NOref varied between 0 and 2.5. Ozone (O3 content 1÷5% in oxygen) was injected into the flue gas channel before the wet scrubber. The effect of the mole ratio X, the NaOH concentration in the absorbent, the liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) and the initial NOx concentration on the efficiency of NOx removal was examined. Two domains of the molar ratio X were distinguished in which denitrification was governed by different mechanisms: for X ≤ 1.0 oxidation of NO to NO2 predominates with slow absorption of NO2, for X >> 1.0 NO2 undergoes further oxidation to higher oxides being efficiently absorbed in the scrubber. At the stoichiometric conditions (X = 1) the effectiveness of NO oxidation was better than 90%. However, the effectiveness of NOx removal reached only 25%. When ozonation was intensified (X ≥ 2.25) about 95% of NOx was removed from flue gas. The concentration of sodium hydroxide in the aqueous solution and the liquid-to-gas ratio in the absorber had little effect on the effectiveness of NOx removal for X > 2.
The article presents tests carried out on three selected samples of limestone originating from three commercially exploited deposits. The tests of sorbents included desulphurisation in different atmospheres and a physicochemical analysis of desulphurisation products. The aim of the tests was to determine desulphurisation efficiency and conversion degree as dependent on the concentration of O2 and CO2.
The pressure drop in microreactors for the gas - liquid Taylor flow was measured for 4 different microreactor geometries and 3 different gas - liquid systems. The results have been compared with the existing literature correlations. A selection of the best correlations has been made.
Some studies show that cells are able to penetrate through pores that are smaller than cell size. It concerns especially Red Blood Cells but it also may concern different types of biological cells. Such penetration of small pores is a very significant problem in the filtration process, for example in micro- or ultrafiltration. Deformability of cells allows them to go through the porous membrane and contaminate permeate. This paper shows how cells can penetrate small cylindrical holes and tries to assess mechanical stress in a cell during this process. A new mathematical approach to this phenomenon was presented, based on assumptions that were made during the microscopic observation of Red Blood Cell aspiration into a small capillary. The computational model concerns Red Blood Cell geometry. The mathematical model allows to obtain geometrical relation as well as mechanical stress relations.
The homogeneous stirred reactor designed for kinetic studies of the combustion of hydrocarbons with intensive internal recirculation in high temperature combustion chamber is described. The originality of our reactor lies in its construction which allows to intensively mix fuel and flue gases, measure gas temperature as well as obtain samples which can be used to investigate diffusion flames. The cylindrical construction enables to use the reactor in laboratory cylindrical electrically heated ovens. The CFD analysis of the reactors, the mixing parameters (turbulent Peclet number and mixing level) and the volume average temperature in the reactors were elaborated on the basis of the typical dimensions of classical reactors to kinetics research as well as the own reactor design. The results of the analysis allow to reveal advantages of our construction.
The application of aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) is a cost-effective and simple method of protein separation (including enzymes) from complex systems. The first stage of designing the protein purification process in an ATPS involves the identification of the conditions for the formation of a given extraction system. For this purpose, the conditions for the formation of ATPSs in a thermoseparating EO50PO50 polymer/potassium phosphates system have been studied. Factors determining the ATPS formation comprised: separation temperature (4ºC or 20ºC), phosphate solution pH (6, 7.5 or 9) as well as the concentration of NaCl introduced into the systems (0.085 M, 0.475 M and 0.85 M). ATPS without NaCl were prepared as well. The conditions for the formation of the primary EO50PO50/potassium phosphate ATPS were determined with their phase diagrams. It was observed that with an increase of phosphate pH and NaCl concentration in the system, there was a decrease of the EO50PO50 and phosphate concentrations necessary to form a primary ATPS. After the primary two-phase separation, the top phase (rich in the EO50PO50 polymer) was partitioned from the bottom phase (rich in phosphates). Next, by means of polymer phase thermoseparation, a secondary two-phase system was formed. In the secondary EO50PO50/phosphate ATPS, the bottom phase was formed by the concentrated EO50PO50 polymer (30-80% concentration), while the top phase by a solution composed mainly of water, containing phosphate ions and remains of EO50PO50 polymer (3-7%).
Based on hydrodynamic data, Kato-Wen and Kunii-Levenspiel bubbling-bed model parameters, supplemented with assumptions characteristic for tested confined fluidised bed, were analysed. The calculated bubble diameters and the bed composition proved essential influence of inter-particle space of packed compacted component onto fluidisation character. The usability of the conducted model analysis was also confirmed. Finally, it can be concluded that Kunii-Levenspiel and Kato- Wen models with characteristic assumptions (for the tested bed) can be applied for calculation of the confined fluidised bed layer porosity. Discrepancies of ε f value, determined on the basis of the above mentioned bubbling-bed models do not exceed 8% of the error. The model parameters obtained from the matching the model relations to experimental data εf = f(u0) allow an analysis of the fluidisation character as well as gas velocity regime and the fluidised bed structural composition identification. A description of the regime of the process in which confined fluidised bed is characterised with an increase of mass and heat transfer rate is also possible using relation (17) derived in the present study.
Based on mathematical modelling and numerical simulations, a control strategy for a Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Hybrid System (MCFC-HS) is presented. Adequate maps of performances with three independent parameters are shown. The independent parameters are as follows: stack current, fuel mass flow and compressor outlet pressure. Those parameters can be controlled by external load, fuel valve and turbine-compressor shaft speed, respectively. The control system is purposed to meet many constraints: e.g. stack temperature, steam-to-carbon ratio, compressor surge limitation, etc. The aim is to achieve maximum efficiency of power generated within these constraints. Governing equations of MCFC-HS modelling are given. An operational line of the MCFC-GT system is presented which fulfils several constraints (temperature difference, cell temperature, etc.) The system is able to achieve efficiency of more than 62% even in part-load operation.
A method of parameters fitting to the experimental vapour - liquid - liquid equilibrium (VLLE) data is presented for the NRTL and the Uniquac equations for six quaternary mixtures. The same equations but with coefficients taken from the simulator Chemcad database were also used for calculation of the VLLE for the same mixtures. The calculated equilibrium temperatures and compositions for all the three phases were compared with the experimental data for these four cases. The investigated models were also applied for calculation of the compositions and temperatures of ternary azeotropes occurring in the considered quaternary mixtures. The computed values were compared with the experimental ones to appreciate the model's accuracy and to confirm whether the model correctly predicts the presence of homo- or heteroazeotrope. The NRTL equation with coefficients fitted to the VLLE data proved to be the most accurate model. For the mixtures containing water, ethanol and two different hydrocarbons this model shows particularly high accuracy. In three cases the mean deviations between the calculated and measured temperatures do not exceed 0.25 K, and for the fourth mixture the difference equals 0.33. Besides, the mean deviations between the calculated and the measured concentrations in the gas and liquid phases, with one exception do not exceed 1 mole %.
The paper presents the properties of surface oxide layers with an increased content of carbon for tribological applications. The composite surface oxide layers were produced using a two-step technology through hard anodising of the surface of an aluminium alloy, followed by thermochemical treatment of anodic oxide coatings. The surface oxide layers were subjected to tribological tests in an oil-less sliding couple with T5W plastic. The presented test results confirm the usefulness of the proposed modifications of surface oxide layers for the purpose of enhancing the operational durability of oil-less sliding couples in a reciprocating motion.
One of the methods of obtaining energy from renewable sources is the technology of indirect cofiring of biomass. It consists in the gasification of secondary fuel and combustion of the generated gas in the boiler together with its primary fuel. The paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of the use of the boiler flue gases as the converting medium in the process of indirect co-firing - a technology which is being developed at the Institute of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery of the Silesian University of Technology. The basis of the analysis are the data resulting from variant calculations conducted with the use of the Gaseq program. The calculations were made for various compositions of gasified fuel and the converting medium, variable fuel/oxidiser ratios and variable gasification temperatures. As a result, the equilibrium composition and the calorific value of the generated gas were obtained. The main optimisation objective adopted here was the nondimensional efficiency coefficient, which is the ratio of the chemical energy of products to the chemical energy of the process reactants.
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