Humanities and Social Sciences

Folia Orientalia


Folia Orientalia | 2023 | vol. 60

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In this article, the Hui Muslim tradition of posting the names of donors during Ramaḍān and ʿĪd al-Fiṭr is illustrated with an example from the city of Liáochéng in 2019. In the past, these notices were posted on the perimeter walls of the mosques of Chinese Muslims on the eve of the festival of breaking the fast, which is a custom not otherwise found in the Islamic-influenced world, shows Chinese influence, and fulfilled a number of functions for the communities concerned. In the meantime, this tradition is no longer practised and, according to people who can confirm this, has been stopped by the authorities as part of some campaign against religious propaganda.
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Authors and Affiliations

Michael Knüppel

  1. Liaocheng University, China
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Negation was analysed by Indian grammarian-philosophers from the very beginning of the linguistic thought in India. Over the centuries its understanding developed from purely formal to more semantically and pragmatically oriented analysis. Some of this analysis was influenced by concepts developed by other philosophical schools, which led to the change in the interpretation of negation in the school of Vyākaraṇa. The article first presents the early interpretations of negative expressions in the school of Sanskrit grammarians and then discusses the semantic shift that took place around the 11th century CE in the meaning of negation, especially the implicative ( paryudāsa) type. It analyses the passages from various grammatical and philosophical commentaries which introduce the concept of āropa (superimposition) to interpret negation.
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Authors and Affiliations

Małgorzata Sulich-Cowley

  1. University of Warsaw, Poland
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In this contribution, a further parallel between the Akkadian and Egyptian literature is highlighted. The comparison between the lover and a wolf will be of crucial importance. The material consists of one Akkadian example and three Egyptian examples. The radius of the Egyptian formulation then expanded to include other examples.
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Authors and Affiliations

Stefan Bojowald

  1. University of Bonn, Germany
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A common feature of ancient Near Eastern written tradition is the curse formula, i.e. a threat issued against an individual or group of individuals who might commit some infraction, be it the violation of a treaty, an armed rebellion against an overlord, or the removal and/ or destruction of an inscription or other monument. Typically, curse formulae invoke a divine force or forces as the agent(s) that would, if need be, carry out the punishment of anyone guilty of committing any of the aforementioned infractions. Although curse formulae from various ancient civilizations have been the subject of multiple studies over the years, one civilization that has been overlooked is the kingdom of Aksum that dominated northern Ethiopia from around the turn of the Common Era to the seventh century. This article seeks to rectify this situation by systematically presenting and analysing all known curse formulae in Aksumite inscriptions and pointing out analogies with other ancient societies in which curse formulae are attested, as well as, where relevant, ethnographic analogies with modern societies. Aksumite curse formulae are limited to royal inscriptions and are concerned exclusively with the destruction of monuments erected by kings. Their thematic content, however, sheds light on concepts of crime and collective guilt in Aksumite society more broadly.
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Authors and Affiliations

George Hatke

  1. University of Vienna, Austria
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This article conducts a reading of ʾAbū Bakr b. Muḥsin Bā ʿAbbūd al-ʿAlawī’s al-Maqāmāt al-hindiyya (1715), employing Vladimir Propp’s model of narrative functions. Although Proppian functions have frequently been harnessed to deconstruct essential components and plot architecture within the maqāma genre, the article emphasises the intrinsic limitations of this approach, especially when the focus is restricted to the analysis of isolated units rather than the entire collection. In accordance with various literary analyses, this research interprets the maqāma as a genre that orchestrates individual narrative units to synthesise a more expansive, novel-like overarching narrative. Within this intricate framework, the text accentuates the interconnected events between the narrator and the trickster. The emphasis lies on the multifaceted transformation experienced by both characters: the first encountering and engaging with the world’s complexity, and the second undergoing a progressive moral conversion, culminating in his eventual demise. In the process, the article posits that the inherent quality of the maqāma of Bā ʿAbbūd, inspired by the models of al-Ḥarīrī, shows the flexibility of the genre. Within the predictability of its narratives, the maqāma is a genre able to become a vessel for diverse thematic discourses that the author seeks to convey.
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Authors and Affiliations

Andrea Maria Negri

  1. University of Bologna, Italy
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This article provides a lexical and morphemic analysis of a folktale in the so far undocumented South Bashkardi dialect of Garu village, Hormozgān province, Iran. The text, which belongs to ATU 315A tale type about the so-called ‘Cannibal sister’, is presented with a tentative phonological transcription, an English translation, and a detailed glossary
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Authors and Affiliations

Gerardo Barbera
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The Jewish dialect of ʿĀna exhibits three synchronic vowel qualities for the prefix vowel in the prefix-conjugation of the first stem: a, ǝ, and u. While the latter vowel is an allophone of ǝ, the former two are independent phonemes. The existence of two phonemic prefix vowels, especially the vowel a, is intriguing in regional context since the reconstructed prefix vowel in qǝltu dialects is assumed to be *i. Therefore, this paper aims to outline the historical developments that led to this synchronic reality. It will argue that the prefix vowel a was borrowed from surrounding Bedouin dialects. As for the vowel ǝ, two hypotheses will be suggested to explain its existence: it either developed from the prefix vowel a in analogy to other cases of vowel raising, or it is simply a reflection of the older qǝltu prefix vowel. Regardless of which hypothesis we choose to follow, the assumed historical development has clearly not been finalised, resulting in synchronic free variation.
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Authors and Affiliations

Assaf Bar-Moshe

  1. Free University of Berlin, Germany
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This article deals with the study of Gulf Arabic. By the means of the Qatari Arabic Corpus elaborated by Elmahdy et al. (2014), the aim of this study is investigating a number of selected verbal prefixes and the active participle gāʕid ‘sitting’ as a progressive aspect marker in Qatari Arabic, a relatively under researched variety in the field of Arabic Dialectology. A descriptive and quantitative approach in the data collection was adopted and the validation process, throughout the whole corpus which consists of 15 hours of speech flow, provided over 600 manually-selected tokens of verbal prefixes and active participles as progressive aspect markers whose main forms and functions were discussed in the paper.
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Authors and Affiliations

Najla Kalach
Muntasir Fayez Al-Hamad

  1. UNINT University, Italy
  2. Qatar University, Qatar
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This article offers a local version of the Palestinian folktale of Ǧbēne, audio recorded in 2018 in the town of Bāḳa l-Ġarbiyye in the Muṯallaṯ area. The tale of Ǧbēne represents the feminine passage from infancy to adulthood and marriage. These stages are marked by the opposition of white and black, which symbolically evoke complex cultural values. After a background to folktales in general, and in the Palestinian Arabic speaking area in particular, the tale of Ǧbēne is examined within its sociocultural context, with reference to its contemporary transmission and notes on plot, content, and cultural elements and comparisons of its different versions. The text is provided in transcription and translation, and accompanied by a linguistic analysis that highlights the features of the traditional Arabic variety spoken in Bāḳa l-Ġarbiyye through comparisons with other dialects, especially those spoken in adjacent areas inside the Muṯallaṯ region and outside it.
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Authors and Affiliations

Letizia Cerqueglini

  1. Tel Aviv University, Israel
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Analogy and language contact represent endogenous and exogenous factors of language change. Although both processes have been discussed in the realm of Arabic dialectology, they are usually treated as two unrelated scenarios. The central question that this study posits is whether those are two functionally independent phenomena, or they can operate synergetically. The primary focus of this paper is two typologically distinct Jewish dialects, i.e. sedentary Gabes (Southern Tunisia), and exhibiting numerous Bedouin features Wad-Souf (Eastern Algeria). Based on new data obtained from fieldwork, this paper accounts for five cases of grammar evolution within verb morphology and syntax through the lens of analogy and language contact. It raises the possibility that under certain circumstances, language change can occur at the intersection of endogenous and exogenous factors.
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Authors and Affiliations

Wiktor Gębski

  1. University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
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The article sets the signposts of a theft in history, as it charters the way the discipline of Philosophy has been narrated as a ‘western’ system of thought. We follow the global sources of Philosophy and establish how better knowledge and education can develop, once the myths of the past are overcome.
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Authors and Affiliations

Arshin Adib-Moghaddam

  1. SOAS University of London, United Kingdom
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The contribution summarises the Beja lexicon connected with natural phenomena, including astronomical, temporal, and geographical terminology. Every lexeme is documented in available sources and etymologized in areal or genealogical perspectives. In the case of borrowings, the ambition is to trace primary donor-languages, usually Arabic or Ethio-Semitic, sometimes Nilo-Saharan. The inherited lexemes are identified, if no convincing donors were determined, while there are promising comparanda in other Cushitic, Omotic or other Afroasiatic branches.
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Authors and Affiliations

Václav Blažek

  1. Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic

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- Journal article

Fox, Joshua. 1996. ‘A Sequence of Vowel Shifts in Phoenician and Other Languages’. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 55 (1): 37–47.
Intext citation: (Fox 1996: 37); Fox (1996: 37)
Footnote citation: Fox 1996: 37; Fox (1996: 37)

Mulder-Heymans, Noor. 2002. ‘Archaeology, Experimental Archaeology and Ethnoarchaeology on Bread Ovens in Syria’. Civilisations 49 (1–2): 197–221.
Intext citation: (Mulder-Heymans 2002: 198); Mulder-Heymans (2002: 198)
Footnote citation: Mulder-Heymans 2002: 198; Mulder-Heymans (2002: 198)

- Book and edited books

Lewin, Bernhard. 1966. Arabische Texte im Dialekt von Hama mit Einleitung und Glossar. Beiruter Texte und Studien 2. Beirut and Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner.
Intext citation: (Lewin 1966: 67); Lewin (1966: 67)
Footnote citation: Lewin 1966: 67; Lewin (1966: 67)

Fleck, Ludwik. 2019. Denkstile und Tatsachen: gesammelte Schriften und Zeugnisse. Edited by Sylwia Werner and Claus Zittel. 3rd ed. Suhrkamp Taschenbücher Wissenschaft. Berlin: Suhrkamp.
Intext citation: (Fleck 2019); Fleck (2019)
Footnote citation: Fleck 2019; Fleck (2019)

Caubet, Dominique, and Martine Vanhove, eds. 1994. Actes des premières journées internationales de dialectologie arabe de Paris. Colloque international tenu à Paris du 27 au 30 janvier 1993. Paris: INALCO, Publications Langues’O.
Intext citation: (Caubet and Vanhove 1994); Caubet and Vanhove (1994)
Footnote citation: Caubet and Vanhove 1994; Caubet and Vanhove (1994)

Holes, Clive, ed. 2018. Arabic Historical Dialectology: Linguistic and Sociolinguistic Approaches. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Intext citation: (Holes 2018); Holes (2018)
Footnote citation: Holes 2018; Holes (2018)

- Chapter in an edited book

Ullendorff, Edward. 1970. ‘Comparative Semitics’. In Current Trends in Linguistics: Volume 6. Linguistics in South West Asia and North Africa, edited by Thomas A. Sebeok, 261–73. The Hague-Paris: Mouton.
Intext citation: (Ullendorff 1970: 262); Ullendorff (1970: 262)
Footnote citation: Ullendorff 1970: 262; Ullendorff (1970: 262)

Khan, Geoffrey. 2011. ‘North-Eastern Neo-Aramaic’. In The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook, edited by Stefan Weninger, 708–24. Berlin and New York: de Gruyter Mouton.
Intext citation: (Khan 2011: 711); Khan (2011: 711)
Footnote citation: Khan 2011: 711; Khan (2011: 711)

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Borg, Alexander. 1978. ‘A Historical and Comparative Phonology and Morphology of Maltese’. PhD Thesis, Jerusalem: The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Intext citation: (Borg 1978: 112); Borg (1978: 112)
Footnote citation: Borg 1978: 112; Borg (1978: 112)

- Internet sources

Abdellatif, Karim. 2010. Dictionnaire « le Karmous » du Tunisien : Qāmus al-Karmūs li-l-luġa at-tūnisiyya. 19 February 2012.
Watson, Janet C. E. 2003. ‘Some Pausal Forms from Text 6 of Waṣf Sanʿā: Texts in Ṣanʿānī Arabic Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2000 (Semitica Viva; 23)’. 31 October 2003.〈=de.

- Citations

Behnstedt (1994a, 1994b)
Behnstedt (1994a: 102, 1994b: 134)
Behnstedt (1994a: 102, 134, 148–49)
(Behnstedt 1994a: 102, 134, 148–49; Woidich 1996: 72, 1998: 34)
Serracino-Inglott (1975–2003: vol. 1)
Serracino-Inglott (1975: 1, 123–124)


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Transcription/transliteration must be used for all languages written in non-Latin script. In addition to the writing of any words in non-Latin alphabets, a transcription must mandatorily appear. Longer paragraphs may only be given in alphabets other than Latin when scientifically and methodologically justified.


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Articles sent to the editorial team of Folia Orientalia journal are first subjected to internal review by the editors-in-chief and the academic secretary. After the primary qualification, the texts are sent to external reviewers (double-blind review). Each article is reviewed by two reviewers specialising in each subject. Texts are sent for review anonymously: the identity of the reviewed author will not be disclosed to reviewers, nor vice versa. The review must contain an explicit conclusion stating whether the article should or should not be accepted for publication.

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List of Reviewers

Folia Orientalia 60 (2023)

Hussam Almujalli (King Saud University, Saudi Arabia)
Khaled Amrani (Grenoble Alpes University, France)
Andrei Avram (University of Bucharest, Romania)
Alessandro Bausi (Hamburg University, Germany)
Alex Bellem (The Aga Khan University, United Kingdom)
Luca D’Anna (University of Naples ‘L’Orientale’, Italy)
Felipe Benjamin Francisco (Free University of Berlin, Germany)
Aharon Geva Kleinberger (University of Haifa, Israel)
Wiktor Gębski (Cambridge University, United Kingdom)
Valerie J. Hoffman (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States)
Mateusz Kłagisz (Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Poland)
Malhar A. Kulkarni (Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India)
Zella Lakhdar (University of Blida, Algeria)
Amelia Macioszek (University of Gdańsk, Poland)
Eiman Mustafawi (Qatar University, Qatar)
Ludwig Paul (University of Hamburg, Germany)
Nina Pawlak (University of Warsaw, Poland)
Tiziana Pontillo (University of Cagliari, Italy)
Veronika Ritt-Benmimoun (University of Vienna, Austria)
Judith Rosenhouse (Technion. Israel Institute of Technology, Israel)
Gianluca Saitta (University of Palermo, Italy)
Thomas Schneider (The University of British Columbia, Canada)
Marek Stachowski (Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Poland)
Peter Stein (University of Jena, University of Erfurt, Germany)
Lloyd Strickland (Manchester Metropolitan University, United Kingdom)
Yannick Wiechmann (University of Bonn, Germany)

Folia Orientalia 59 (2022)

Arshin Adib-Moghaddam (SOAS University of London)
Piotr Balcerowicz (University of Warsaw)
Assaf Bar Moshe (Free University of Berlin)
Thomas Barfield (Boston University)
Basilius Bawardi (Bar-Ilan University)
Letizia Cerqueglini (Tel Aviv University)
Adrian Heinrich (University of Jena)
Roni Henkin-Roitfarb (Ben-Gurion University of the Negev)
Bernard Hourcade (French National Centre for Scientific Research)
Azadeh Kian (University of Paris 7-Paris-Diderot, French National Centre for Scientific Research)
Bettina Leitner (University of Vienna)
Maria Lipnicka (Heidelberg University)
Michał Moch (Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw)
Marijn van Puten (Leiden University)
Monica M. Ringer (Amherst College)
Marcin Rzepka (Jagiellonian University)
Małgorzata Sandowicz (University of Warsaw)
Małgorzata Sulich-Cowley (University of Warsaw)
Kamran Talattof (University of Arizona)
Małgorzata Wielińska-Soltwedel (Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw)
Mariam Zehtabi (University of Virginia)
Saeed Zeydabadi-Nejad (SOAS University of London)

Folia Orientalia 57 (2020) – 58 (2021)

Werner Arnold (Heidelberg University, Center for Jewish Studies Heidelberg)
Piotr Bachtin (University of Warsaw)
Sergio Baldi (University of Naples “L’Orientale”)
Giorgio Banti (University of Naples “L’Orientale”)
Basilius Bawardi (Bar-Ilan University)
Clive Holes (Oxford University)
Peter Juhás (Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich)
Małgorzata Kajzer (Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology of the Polish Academy of Sciences)
Edyta Kopp (University of Warsaw)
Jolanta Młynarczyk (University of Warsaw)
Michał Moch (Institute of Mediterranean and Oriental Cultures of the Polish Academy of Science)
Antonia Navarro-Tejero (University of Córdoba)
Nina Pawlak (University of Warsaw)
Joachim Quack (Heidelberg University)
Magdalena Rodziewicz (University of Warsaw)
Josef Tropper (Free University Berlin, Humboldt University)
Mateusz Wilk (University of Warsaw)
David Wilmsen (American University of Sharjah)

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