Nauki Techniczne

International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications

Zawartość

International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications | 2021 | vol. 67 | No 3 |

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Abstrakt

The work considers a one-dimensional time series protocol packet intensity, measured on the city backbone network. The intensity of the series is uneven. Scattering diagrams are constructed. The Dickie Fuller test and Kwiatkowski-Phillips Perron-Shin-Schmitt test were applied to determine the initial series to the class of stationary or nonstationary series. Both tests confirmed the involvement of the original series in the class of differential stationary. Based on the Dickie Fuller test and Private autocorrelation function graphs, the Integrated Moving Average Autoregression Model model is created. The results of forecasting network traffic showed the adequacy of the selected model.
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Bibliografia

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Tansaule Serikov
1
Аinur Zhetpisbayeva
1
Ainur Аkhmediyarova
2
Sharafat Mirzakulova
3
Aigerim Kismanova
1
Aray Tolegenova
1
Waldemar Wójcik
4

  1. S.Seifullin Kazakh AgroTechnical University, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan
  2. Institute of Information and Computational Technologies, Almaty, Kazakhstan
  3. Turan University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
  4. Lublin University of Technology, Poland
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Abstrakt

The quick leakage alarm and the accurate concentration prediction are two important aspects of natural gas safety monitoring. In this paper, a rapid monitoring method of sensor data sharing, rapid leakage alarm and simultaneous output of concentrations prediction is proposed to accelerate the alarm speed and predict the possible impact of leakage. In this method, the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is used to fuse the trend judgment and the CUSUM (cumulative sum) and the Gauss-Newton iteration is used to predict the concentration. The experiment system based on the TGS2611 natural gas sensor was built. The results show that the fusion method is significantly better than the single monitoring method. The alarm time of fusion method was more advanced than that of the CUSUM method and the trend method (being averagely, 10.4% and 7.6% in advance in the CUSUM method and the trend method respectively). The relative deviations of the predicted concentration were the maximum (13.3%) at 2000 ppm (parts per million) and the minimum (0.8%) at 6000 ppm, respectively.
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Bibliografia

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[9] A. X. He, J. Yu, G. F. Wei, Y. Chen, H. Wu, and Z. A. Tang, ”A. Short-time fourier transform and decision tree-based pattern recognition for gas identification using temperature modulated microhotplate gas sensors”, Journal of Sensors Article ID 7603931, 1-12 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/7603931
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Rongli Li
1
Yuexin Fan
2

  1. Faculty of Sanjiang University, Nanjing, China
  2. Faculty of Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, China
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Abstrakt

Advancement in medical technology creates some issues related to data transmission as well as storage. In real-time processing, it is too tedious to limit the flow of data as it may reduce the meaningful information too. So, an efficient technique is required to compress the data. This problem arises in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Electrocardiogram (ECG), Electroencephalogram (EEG), and other medical signal processing domains. In this paper, we demonstrate Block Sparse Bayesian Learning (BSBL) based compressive sensing technique on an Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal. The efficiency of the algorithm is described using the Mean Square Error (MSE) and Structural Similarity Index Measure (SSIM) value. Apart from this analysis we also use different combinations of sensing matrices too, to demonstrate the effect of sensing matrices on MSE and SSIM value. And here we got that the exponential and chi-square random matrices as a sensing matrix are showing a significant change in the value of MSE and SSIM. So, in real-time body sensor networks, this scheme will contribute a significant reduction in power requirement due to its data compression ability as well as it will reduce the cost and the size of the device used for real-time monitoring.
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Bibliografia

[1] Zou, Xiuming, Lei Feng, and Huaijiang Sun. "Compressive Sensing of Multichannel EEG Signals Based on Graph Fourier Transform and Cosparsity." Neural Processing Letters (2019): 1-10.
[2] Tayyib, Muhammad, Muhammad Amir, Umer Javed, M. Waseem Akram, Mussyab Yousufi, Ijaz M. Qureshi, Suheel Abdullah, and Hayat Ullah. "Accelerated sparsity-based reconstruction of compressively sensed multichannel EEG signals." PLoS One 15, no. 1 (2020): e0225397.
[3] Şenay, Seda, Luis F. Chaparro, Mingui Sun, and Robert J. Sclabassi. "Compressive sensing and random filtering of EEG signals using Slepian basis." In 2008 16th European Signal Processing Conference, pp. 1-5. IEEE, 2008.
[4] Gurve, Dharmendra, Denis Delisle-Rodriguez, Teodiano Bastos-Filho, and Sridhar Krishnan. "Trends in Compressive Sensing for EEG Signal Processing Applications." Sensors 20, no. 13 (2020): 3703.
[5] Amezquita-Sanchez, Juan P., Nadia Mammone, Francesco C. Morabito, Silvia Marino, and Hojjat Adeli. "A novel methodology for automated differential diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and the Alzheimer’s disease using EEG signals." Journal of Neuroscience Methods 322 (2019): 88-95.
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[17] Zhang, Zhilin, Tzyy-Ping Jung, Scott Makeig, Bhaskar D. Rao. "Compressed sensing for energy-efficient wireless telemonitoring of noninvasive fetal ECG via block sparse Bayesian learning." IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 60, no. 2 (2012): 300-309.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Vivek Upadhyaya
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mohammad Salim
1

  1. Malaviya National Institute of Technology, India
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Abstrakt

The purpose of the article is a comparison between DC/DC topologies with a wide input voltage range. The research also explains how the implementation of GaN E‑HEMT transistors influences the overall efficiency of the converter. The article presents a process of selection of the most efficient topology for stabilization of the battery storage voltage (9 V – 36 V) at the level of 24 V, which enables the usage of ultracapacitor energy storage in a wide range of applications, e.g., in automated electric vehicles. In order to choose the most suitable topology, simulation and laboratory research were conducted. The two most promising topologies were selected for verification in the experimental model. Each of the converters was constructed in two versions: with Si and with GaN E-HEMT transistors. The paper presents experimental research results that consist of precise power loss measurements and thermal analysis. The performance with an increased switching frequency of converters was also examined.
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Bibliografia

[1] M. Nowak and R. Barlik, „Poradnik inżyniera energoelektronika,” in WNT, Warszawa, pp.161-194, 1998. (in Polish)
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[3] L. Wuidart, “Topologies For Switched Mode Power Supplies,” STMicroelectronics, 1999.
[4] M. Zehendner and M. Ulmann, “Power Topologies Handbook,” Texas Instrument, pp.23-171, 2016.
[5] X. Weng, X. Xiao, W. He, Y. Zhou, Y. Shen, W. Zhao, and Z. Zhao, "Comprehensive comparison and analysis of non-inverting buck boost and conventional buck boost converters" The Journal of Engineering, vol. 2019, no. 16, pp. 3030–3034, 2019. DOI: 10.1049/joe.2018.8373
[6] M. Luthfansyah, S. Suyanto, and A. Bakarr Momodu Bangura, "Evaluation and Comparison of DC-DC Power Converter Variations in Solar Panel Systems Using Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA) Control" E3S Web of Conferences, vol. 190, p. 00026, 2020. DOI: 10.1051/e3sconf/202019000026
[7] B. Amri and M. Ashari, "The comparative study of Buck-boost, Cuk, Sepic and Zeta converters for maximum power point tracking photovoltaic using P&O method" 2015 2nd International Conference on Information Technology, Computer, and Electrical Engineering (ICITACEE), pp. 327-332, 2015. DOI: 10.1109/ICITACEE.2015.7437823
[8] M. V. D. de Sá and R. L. Andersen, "Dynamic modeling and design of a Cúk converter applied to energy storage systems" 2015 IEEE 13th Brazilian Power Electronics Conference and 1st Southern Power Electronics Conference (COBEP/SPEC), pp. 1-6. DOI: 10.1109/COBEP.2015.7420080, 2015
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[11] S. K. Pullabhatla, P. B. Bobba, and S. Yadlapalli, "Comparison of GAN, SIC, SI Technology for High Frequency and High Efficiency Inverters," E3S Web of Conferences, vol. 184, p. 01012, 2020. DOI: 10.1051/e3sconf/202018401012
[12] A. Deihimi and M. E. Mahmoodieh, "Analysis and control of battery‐integrated dc/dc converters for renewable energy applications" IET Power Electronics, vol. 10, no. 14, pp. 1819–1831, 2017. DOI: 10.1049/iet-pel.2016.0832
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[16] P. Grzejszczak , A. Czaplicki , M. Szymczak , R. Barlik „The impact of snubber circuits on switching energy losses in high frequency converters” Przeglad Elektrotechniczny, vol. 96, no. 06, pp 93-97, 2020, (in Polish). DOI: 10.15199/48.2020.06.17
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[18] M. Koszel and P. Grzejszczak, "Power loss estimating in GaN E-HEMT based synchronous buck-boost converter," 2020 Progress in Applied Electrical Engineering (PAEE), 2020, pp. 1-6. DOI: 10.1109/PAEE50669.2020.9158576
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Mikołaj Koszel
1
Piotr Grzejszczak
1
Bartosz Nowatkiewicz
2
Kornel Wolski
1

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics, Poland
  2. Wibar Technology Ltd., Poland
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Abstrakt

A novice advanced architecture of 8-bit analog to digital converter is introduced and analyzed in this paper. The structure of proposed ADC is based on the sub-ranging ADC architecture in which a 4-bit resolution flash-ADC is utilized. The proposed ADC architecture is designed by employing a comparator which is equipped with common mode current feedback and gain boosting technique (CMFD-GB) and a residue amplifier. The proposed 8 bits ADC structure can achieve the speed of 140 megasamples per second. The proposed ADC architecture is designed at a resolution of 8 bits at 10 MHz sampling frequency. DNL and INL values of the proposed design are -0.94/1.22 and -1.19/1.19 respectively. The ADC design dissipates a power of 1.24 mW with the conversion speed of 0.98 ns. The magnitude of SFDR and SNR from the simulations at Nyquist input is 39.77 and 35.62 decibel respectively. Simulations are performed on a SPICE based tool in 90 nm CMOS technology. The comparison shows better performance for this proposed ADC design in comparison to other ADC architectures regarding speed, resolution and power consumption.
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Bibliografia

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[20] Young-Deuk Jeon et al., “A dual-channel pipelined ADC with sub-ADC based on flash-SAR architecture.”, Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs 59, 741-745. (2012). https://doi.org/10.1109/TCSII.2012.2222837
[21] Y. Lin et al.,“ A 9-Bit 150-MS/s Subrange ADC Based on SAR Architecture in 90-nm CMOS.”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers 60, 3, 570-581, (2013). https://doi.org/10.1109/TCSI.2012.2215756
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[23] A. Esmailiyan, F. Schembari and R. B. Staszewski, “A 0.36-V 5-MS/s Time-Mode Flash ADC With Dickson-Charge-Pump- Based Comparators in 28-nm CMOS,”IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers 67, 6, 1789-1802, (2020). https://doi.org/10.1109/TCSI.2020.2969804.
[24] J. Xu, et al., “Low-leakage analog switches for low-speed sample-and-hold circuits”, Microelectronics Journal 76, 22–27, (2018). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mejo.2018.04.008
[25] M. Nazari, L. Sharifi,A. Aghajani, and O. Hashemipour, “A 12-bit high performance current-steering DAC using a new binary to thermometer decoder.”, 2016 24 Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE), Shiraz 2016 1919-1924, (2016). https://doi.org/10.1109/IranianCEE.2016.7585835
[26] H.S. Bindra et al., “A 1.2-V Dynamic Bias Latch-Type Comparator in 65-nm CMOS With 0.4-mV Input Noise.”, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits 53, 7, 1902-1912, (2018). https://doi.org/10.1109/JSSC.2018.2820147
[27] A. Taghizadeh, Z.D. Koozehkanani, J. Sobhi, “A new high-speed lowpower and low-offset dynamic comparator with a current-mode offset compensation technique.”, AEU - Int. J. Electron. Commun. 81, 163–170, (2018). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeue.2017.07.018.
[28] M. Saberi and R. Lotfi,“ Segmented Architecture for Successive Approximation Analog-to-Digital Converters.”, IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems 22, 3, 593-606, (2014). https://doi.org/10.1109/TVLSI.2013.2246592
[29] Y. Haga et al., “Design of a 0.8 Volt fully differential CMOS OTA using the bulk-driven technique.”, 2005 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems 1, 220-223, (2005). https://doi.org/10.1109/ISCAS.2005.1464564.
[30] J. Lagos, B. P. Hershberg, E. Martens, P. Wambacq and J. Craninckx, “A 1-GS/s, 12-b, Single-Channel Pipelined ADC With Dead-Zone- Degenerated Ring Amplifiers,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits 54, 3, 646-658, (2019). https://doi.org/10.1109/JSSC.2018.2889680.
[31] Y. Lim and M. P. Flynn, “A 1 mW 71.5 dB SNDR 50 MS/s 13 bit Fully Differential Ring Amplifier Based SAR-Assisted Pipeline ADC,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits 50, 12, 2901-2911, (2015). https://doi.org/10.1109/JSSC.2015.2463094
[32] B. Murmann, “The successive approximation register ADC: a versatile building block for ultra-low- power to ultra-high-speed applications.”, IEEE Communications Magazine 54, 4, 78-83, (2016). https://doi.org/10.1109/MCOM.2016.7452270
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Anil Khatak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Manoj Kumar
2
Sanjeev Dhull
3

  1. Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, GJUS&T, Hisar, Haryana, India
  2. Faculty of USICT, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi, India
  3. Faculty of ECE, GJUS&T, Hisar, Haryana, India
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Abstrakt

This paper describes a novel Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) bandpass filter using Chebyshev approximation and Half Mode Substrate Integrated Waveguide (HMSIW) modeling technique. The developed 3rd order filter structure uses an inductive iris and an inductive post station in a way it resonates in Ka frequency band serving wireless applications. The paper presents in details steps of the filter design formed by specific analytical equations to extract its different synthesizable parameters including coupling matrix, quality factor and initial geometric dimensions. The ideal frequency response of the filter is determined from an equivalent circuit that uses localized elements developed by AWR Microwave Software. High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) is then employed to model the proposed filter structure and optimize its initial parameters until meeting the target specifications initially fixed in order to provide a high frequency response for the proposed filter design. Finally, the obtained results display a good performance for the proposed filter design and demonstrate a high usefulness for the employed technology that allows a low design volume.
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Bibliografia

[1] M. Bozzi, A. Georgiadis, and K.Wu, “Review of Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) Circuits and Antennas,” IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 5, N 8,pp. 909-920, June 2011.
[2] W. Hong et al., "Structure Mode Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW): A New Guided Wave Structure for Microwave and Millimeter Wave Application,” Proc. Joint 31 st International Conference on Infrared Millimeter Waves and 14 th Intenational Conference on Terahertz Electronics, p.219, Shanghai, Chaina, Sept. 18-22, 2006.
[3] A. Coves, G. Torregrosa-Penalva, A. A. San-Blas, M. A. Sanchez-Soriano, A. Martellosio, E. Bronchalo, and M. Bozzi, “A Novel Band-Pass Filter Based on a Periodically Drilled SIW Structure,” Radio Science, vol. 51, No. 4, pp. 328–336, Apr. 2016.
[4] L. Silvestri, E. Massoni, C. Tomassoni, A. Coves, M. Bozzi, and L. Perregrini, “Modeling and Implementation of Perforated SIW Filters”, 2016 IEEE MTT-S International Conference on Numerical Electromagnetic and Multiphysics Modeling and Optimization (NEMO), pp. 209-210, Beijing, China, Jul. 2016.
[5] D. Dealandes, and K. Wu, Single-substrate integration techniques for planarcircuitsand waveguide filters, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 51(2), 2003, 593–596.
[6] S. Moscato, R. Moro, M. Pasian, M. Bozzi, and L. Perregrini, “Two-material ridge substrate integrated waveguide for ultra-wideband applications,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., vol. 63, no. 10, pp. 3175–3182, Oct. 2015.
[7] Y.-H.Chun, J.-S.Hong, P. Bao, T. J. Jackson, andM. J. Lancaster, Tunable slotted ground structured bandstop filter with BST varactors, IET Microwaves Antennas Propagation 3(5), 2009, 870–876.
[8] J.-S. Hong, Microstrip Filters for RF/Microwave Applications, New York, NY, USA: Wiley, 2011.
[9] Bouhmidi Rachid, Bouras Bouhafs, Chetioui Mohammed “ Multi-Ports Extraction Technique for Microwave Bandpass Filter Optimization”International Journal of Microwave and Optical Technology (IJMOT) Vol 14, N°06, Nouvember 2019, pp 431-439.
[10] X.-P. Chen and K. Wu, “Substrate integrated waveguide filter: Basic design rules and fundamental structure features,” IEEE Microw. Mag., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 108–116, Jul./Aug. 2014.
[11] Damou Mehdi, Nouri Keltouma, Chetioui Mohammed, Boudkhil Abdelhakim and Feham Mohamed “A New Technique of Optimization of HMSIW Bandpass Filter with CAR Cells Using Coupling Matrix”, IJMOT Intenational Journal Microwave Optical Technology, Vol.14, No.2, pp. 66-73, March 2019.
[12] F. Parment, A. Ghiotto, T. P. Vuong, J. M. Duchamp, and K. Wu, “Air-filled substrate integrated waveguide for low-loss and high power handling millimeter-wave substrate integrated circuits,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 1228–1238, Apr. 2015.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Mehdi Damou
1
Yassine Benallou
1
Boualem Mansouri
1
Keltouma Nouri
1
Mohammed Chetioui
2
Abdelhakim Boudkhil
2

  1. Laboratory of Technology of Communication, Faculty of Technology, University of Dr. Tahar Moulay of Saida, Algeria
  2. Laboratory of Telecommunications, Faculty of Technology, University of Abu Bakr Belkaid of Tlemcen, Algeria
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Abstrakt

This paper is focused on multiple soft fault diagnosis of linear time-invariant analog circuits and brings a method that achieves all objectives of the fault diagnosis: detection, location, and identification. The method is based on a diagnostic test arranged in the transient state, which requires one node accessible for excitation and two nodes accessible for measurement. The circuit is specified by two transmittances which express the Laplace transform of the output voltages in terms of the Laplace transform of the input voltage. Each of these relationships is used to create an overdetermined system of nonlinear algebraic equations with the circuit parameters as the unknown variables. An iterative method is developed to solve these equations. Some virtual solutions can be eliminated comparing the results obtained using both transmittances. Three examples are provided where laboratory or numerical experiments reveal effectiveness of the proposed method.
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Bibliografia

[1] A. Guney, G. Önal and T. Atmaca, “New aspect of chromite gravity tailings re-processing”, Minerals Engineering, Vol., 24, no 11, pp. 1527- 1530, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0892-6875(01)00165-0.
[2] W.M. Ambrósa, C.H. Sampaioa, Bogdan G. Cazacliub, Paulo N.Conceiçãoa and Glaydson S.dos Reisab, “Some observations on the influence of particle size and size distribution on stratification in pneumatic jigs”, Powder Technology, Vol. 342, pp. 594-606, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2018.10.029.
[3] M.V. Verkhoturov, “Gravitational enrichment methods”. Moscow: MAX Press, 2006, pp.160- 180. ISBN 5-317-01710-6.
[4] Ya-li Kuang, Jin-Wu Zhuo, Li Wang, Chao Yang, “Laws of motion of particles in a jigging process”, Journal of China University of Mining and Technology, Vol. 18, no 4, pp. 575-579, December 2008. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1006-1266(08)60297-7.
[5] S.Cierpisz. “A dynamic model of coal products discharge in a jig”, Minerals Engineering, Vol. 105, pp. 1-6, 1 May 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mineng.2016.12.010.
[6] B.A. Suleimenov and Ye.A. Kulakova, “The prospects for the use of intelligent systems in the processes of gravitational enrichment”, Informatyka, Automatyka, Pomiary w Gospodarcei Ochronie Środowiska, Vol. 9, no 2, pp. 46-49, 2019. https://doi.org/10.5604/01.3001.0013.2547.
[7] Y.R. Murthy, S.K. Tripathy, C.R. Kumar, “Chrome ore beneficiation challenges & opportunities – A review”, Minerals Engineering, Vol. 24, no 5, pp. 375-380, 2011, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mineng.2010.12.001.
[8] L. Panda, S.K. Tripathy, “Performance prediction of gravity concentrator by using artificial neural network – A case study”. International Journal of Mining Science and Technology, Vol. 24, no 4, pp. 461-465, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmst.2014.05.007.
[9] Y.R. Murthy, S.K. Tripathy, C.R. Kumar, “Chrome ore beneficiation challenges & opportunities-a review”, Minerals Engineering, Vol. 36, no 5, pp. 375-380, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmst.2014.05.007.
[10] T. J. Stich, and J.K. Spoerre and T.Velasco, “The application of artificial neutral networks to monitoring and control of an induction hardening process”, Journal of Industrial Technology, Vol. 16, no 1, pp.168-174, 2015.
[11] L.Panda, A.K. Sahoo, S.K Tripathy and others, “Application of artificial neural network to study the performance of jig for beneficiation of noncoking coal”, Fuel, Vol. 97, pp. 151-156, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2012.02.018.
[12] K. Shravan and R. Venugopal, “Performance analyses of jig for coal cleaning using 3D response surface methodology”, International Journal of Mining Science and Technology, Vol. 27, no 2, pp 333-337, March 2017.
[13] B.A. Suleimenov and E.A. Kulakova, “Development of intelligent system for optimal process control”, Resource–saving technologies of raw–material base development in mineral mining and processing: Multy–authored monograph, Universitas Publishing, Romania, Petrosani: 2020, pp.198-217. URI: ep3.nuwm.edu.ua/id/eprint/18359.
[14] V. Mashkov, A. Smolarz, V. Lytvynenko, and K. Gromaszek, “The problem of system fault-tolerance”, Informatyka, Automatyka, Pomiary w Gospodarce i Ochronie Środowiska, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 41-44, 2014, https://doi.org/10.5604/20830157.1130182
[15] M. S. Islam, P. Nepal and others. “A knowledge-based expert system to assess power plant project cost overrun risks”, Expert Systems With Applications, Vol. 136, pp. 12-32, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2019.06.030.
[16] B.A.Suleimenov and E.A Kulakova, “Creation the knowledge base of the intelligent control system for gravitational enrichment processes using expert information processing methods”, Vestnik KazNRTU, Vol. 5, no 141, pp. 590-597, October 2020.
[17] Ye.A. Kulakova and B.A. Suleimenov, “Development and Research of Intelligent Algorithms for Controlling the Process of Ore Jigging”, International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering Research, Vol. 8, no 9, pp. 6240-6246, September 2020. https://doi.org/10.30534/ijeter/2020/21589202.
[18] N. Siddique. “Intelligent Control”, Springer International Publishing, Switzerland, 2014, pp.54-78. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02135-5.
[19] P.V. de Campos Souza, “Fuzzy neural networks and neuro-fuzzy networks: A review the main techniques and applications used in the literature” Applied Soft Computing. Vol. 92, pp. 106275, July 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asoc.2020.106275.
[20] A.Tripathy, L.Panda, A.K Sahoo, S.K. Biswal, R.K Dwari, A.K. Sahu, “Statistical optimization study of jigging process on beneficiation of fine size high ash Indian non-coking coal”, Advanced Powder Technology, Vol. 27, no 4, pp. 1219-1224, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apt.2016.04.006.
[21] A.K. Mukherjeea and B.K. Mishrab, “An integral assessment of the role of critical process parameters on jigging”, International Journal of Mineral Processing Vol. 81, no 3, pp. 187-200, December 2006. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.minpro.2006.08.005.
[22] N.(K.)M. Faber, “Estimating the uncertainty in estimates of root mean square error of prediction: application to determining the size of an adequate test set in multivariate calibration”, Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, Vol. 49, no 1, pp. 79-89, 6 September 1999, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-7439(99)00027-1.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Yelena Kulakova
1
Waldemar Wójcik
2
Batyrbek Suleimenov
1
Andrzej Smolarz
2

  1. Satbaev University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
  2. Lublin University of Technology, Lublin, Poland
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Abstrakt

The paper suggests an improved method of active power distribution among the gas-diesel generators operating in parallel; the method involves the control of torque and the angular positions of their rotors. The use of the suggested approach to the solution of the active power distribution task in the presence of instability of drive motor speed provides the increase of autonomous power system operation efficacy and rising the power unit’s performance. The authors analyzed the causes of generation of low-frequency fluctuations of generator drive engine speed; in autonomous electric power systems, gas diesel generators are increasingly used as such generator drive engines. It is suggested to use the developed method and structure of the optical device for control of rotation period and the measurement of the generator rotor angle position characterized with high accuracy, as the sensor. The authors developed a schematic diagram of active power distribution among the generators operating in parallel, which uses the cross feedback for gas-powered diesel engine shafts momentum and the generator rotor angle position. They obtained experimental results confirming the efficiency of the suggested active power distribution method and its practical implementation.
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Bibliografia

[1] Kamala, Srinivasarao, Chauhan, Priyesh, Panda, Sanjib, Wilson, Gary, Liu, Xiong, & Gupta, Amit. (2015). Optimal scheduling of diesel generators in offshore support vessels to minimize fuel consumption. In Proc. of the IECON 2015 - 41st Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. Yokohama, Japan, 4726–4231. https://doi.org/10.1109/IECON.2015.7392838
[2] J.M. Prousalidis, G.J. Tsekouras, F. Kanellos. (2011). New challenges emerged from the development of more efficient electric energy generation units. In Proc. IEEE Electric Ship Technologies Symposium (ESTS). Alexandria, Virginia, 374–381. https://doi.org/10.1109/ESTS.2011.5770901
[3] A. Boretti, (2019). Advantages and Disadvantages of Diesel Single and Dual-Fuel Engines. Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering, 5 (64), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmech.2019.00064
[4] V.M. Ryabenkij, A.O. Ushkarenko, V.I. Voskoboenko, (2008). Issledovanie avtokolebatelnykh proczessov chastoty napryazheniya gazodizel-generatorov. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov NUK, 4, 113–118.
[5] G. Evangelos, Giakoumis. (2016). Review of Some Methods for Improving Transient Response in Automotive Diesel Engines through Various Turbocharging Configurations. Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering, 2, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmech.2016.00004
[6] V.M. Ryabenkij, A.O. Ushkarenko, V.I. Voskoboenko, (2009). Oczenka neravnomernosti raspredeleniya aktivnoj moshhnosti mezhdu generatorami pri parallelnoj rabote. Tekhnichna elektrodinamika, Tem. Vipusk, 3, 76–79.
[7] Adem, Celika, Mehmet, Yilmazb, & Omer Faruk, Yildizc. (2020). Improvement of diesel engine startability under low temperatures by vortex tubes. Energy Reports, 6, 17–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egyr.2019.11.027
[8] Ra, Youngchul, Reitz, Rolf, Mcfarlane, Joanna, & Daw, Stuart. (2008). Effects of Fuel Physical Properties on Diesel Engine Combustion Using Diesel and BioDiesel Fuels. SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants, 1, 703–718. https://doi.org/10.4271/2008-01-1379
[9] Yasin, Karagoz, Tarkan, Sandalci, Umit O, Koylu, Ahmet Selim, Dalkilic, & Somchai, Wongwises. (2016). Effect of the use of natural gas-diesel fuel mixture on performance, emissions, and combustion characteristics of a compression ignition engine. Advances in Mechanical Engineering, 8 (4), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1177/1687814016643228
[10] Yoshihiko, Oishi, Riky Stepanus, Situmorang, Rio Arinedo, Sembiring, Hideki, Kawai, & Himsar, Ambarita. (2019). Performance, rate of heat release, and combustion stability of dual fuel mode in a small diesel engine. Energy Science and Engineering, 7, 1333–1351. https://doi.org/10.1002/ese3.352
[11] Irfan, Muhammad, Ermanu, A.H., Suhardi, Diding, Kasan, N., Effendy, Machmud, Pakaya, Ilham, & Faruq, Amrul. (2018). A design of electrical permanent magnet generator for rural area wind power plant. International Journal of Power Electronics and Drive Systems, 9, 269–275. https://doi.org/10.11591/ijpeds.v9n1.pp269-275
[12] Boonyang, Plangklang, Sittichai, Kantawong, & Akeratana, Noppakant. (2013). Study of Generator Mode on Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) for Application on Elevator Energy Regenerative Unit (EERU). Energy Procedia, 34, 382–389. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2013.06.766
[13] A. Ablesimov, V. Yatskovsky, (2013). Stability of automatic control systems. Electronics and Control Systems, 4 (38), 54–59. https://doi.org/10.18372/1990-5548.38.7278
[14] Cheikh, Mansoura, Abdelhamid, Bounifa, Abdelkader, Arisa, & Françoise, Gaillardb. (2001). Gas-Diesel (dual-fuel) modeling in diesel engine environment. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 40 (4), 409–424. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1290-0729(01)01223-6
[15] V. Ryabenkiy, O. Ushkarenko, (2012). Optimization of the Controller`S Parameters of the Gas-diesel Generator Unit. In Proc. International Conference Modern Problems of Radio Engineering, Telecommunications, and Computer Science (TCSET’2012). Lviv, Ukraine, 460–461.
[16] Haes Alhelou, Hassan, Hamedani, Golshan, Mohamad, Esmail, Njenda, Takawira, & Siano, Pierluigi. (2019). A Survey on Power System Blackout and Cascading Events: Research Motivations and Challenges. Energies, 12, 1–28. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12040682.
[17] V. Ryabenkiy, A. Ushkarenko, Al-Suod, Mahmoud Mohammad. (2012). Reduction of Frequency Oscillation of the Gas-diesel Generator Units. In Proc. International Conference Modern Problems of Radio Engineering, Telecommunications, and Computer Science (TCSET’2012). Lviv, Ukraine, 447–448.
[18] Mahmoud Mohammad Salem, Al-suod, A.O. Ushkarenko, O.I. Dorogan, (2015). Optimization of the structure of diesel-generator units of ship power system. International Journal of Advanced Computer Research, 5 (18), 68–74.


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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Abdullah M. Eial Awwad
1
Mahmoud M. S. Al-Suod
1
Alaa M. Al-Quteimat
1
O.O. Ushkarenko
2
Atia AlHawamleh
1

  1. Department of Electrical Power Engineering and Mechatronics, Tafila Technical University, Tafila, Jordan
  2. Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Admiral Makarov National University of Shipbuilding, Mykolaiv, Ukraine
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Abstrakt

Head movement is frequently associated with human motion navigation, and an indispensable aspect of how humans interact with the surrounding environment. In spite of that, the incorporation of head motion and navigation is more often used in the VR (Virtual Reality) environment than the physical environment. This study aims to develop a robot car capable of simple teleoperation, incorporated with telepresence and head movement control for an on-robot real-time head motion mimicking mechanism and directional control, in attempt to provide users the experience of an avatar-like third person’s point of view amid the physical environment. The design consists of three processes running in parallel; Motion JPEG (MJPEG) live streaming to html-Site via local server, Bluetooth communication, and the corresponding movements for the head motion mimicking mechanism and motors which acts in accordance to head motion as captured by the Attitude Sensor and apparent command issued by the user. The design serves its purpose of demonstration with the usage of basic components and is not aimed to provide nor research with regards to user experience.
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Bibliografia

[1] Janice, “What Is Telepresence Technology?”, 2017. Retrieved from: https://www.eztalks.com/video-conference/what-is-telepresence-technology.html
[2] Malczewski. K.,“The Rise of Telepresence Robots for Business and Beyond”, 2014. Retrieved from: https://www.factor- tech.com/roundup/this-week-facial-recognition-used-to-capture-fugitive-spacex-commits-to-city-to-city-rocket-travel-and-uk-reveals-it-launched-a-cyber-attack-on-islamic-state/
[3] Kerruish, E. “Lessons on telepresence from the Mars explorer Rovers: Merleau-Ponty and the open perceptual circuit. Culture”, Theory and Critique, 1-15, 2019.
[4] Mould, R. F., “Chernobyl record: the definitive history of the Chernobyl catastrophe”, CRC Press, 2000.
[5] Kratz, S., Vaughan, J., Mizutani, R., & Kimber, D. „Evaluating stereoscopic video with head tracking for immersive teleoperation of mobile telepresence robots”. In Proceedings of the Tenth Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction Extended Abstracts (pp. 43-44). ACM, 2015.
[6] Wen, M. C., Yang, C. H., Tsai, M. H., & Kang, S. C., “Teleyes: A telepresence system based on stereoscopic vision and head motion tracking”. Automation in Construction, 89, 199-213, 2018.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Tan Jia Wee
1
Herman Wahid
1

  1. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, School of Electrical Engineering, UTM Skudai, Malaysia
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Abstrakt

As we enter the 5G (5th-Generation) era, the amount of information and data has become increasingly tremendous. Therefore, electronic circuits need to have higher chip density, faster operating speed and better signal quality of transmission. As the carrier of electronic components, the design difficulty of high-speed PCB (Printed Circuit Board) is also increasing. Equal-length wiring is an essential part of PCB design. But now, it can no longer meet the needs of designers. Accordingly, in view of the shortcomings of the traditional equal-length wiring, this article proposes two optimization ways: the ”spiral wiring” way and the ”double spiral wiring” way. Based on the theoretical analysis of the transmission lines, the two optimization ways take the three aspects of optimizing the layout and wiring space, suppressing crosstalk and reducing reflection as the main points to optimize the design. Eventually, this article performs simulation and verification of schematic diagram and PCB of the optimal design by using HyperLynx simulation software. The simulation results show that these two ways not only improve the flexibility of the transmission line layout, but also improve the signal integrity of the transmission lines. Of course, this also proves the feasibility and reliability of the two optimized designs.
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Bibliografia

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Kaixing Cheng
1
Zhongqiang Luo
1
Xingzhong Xiong
1
Xiaohan Wei
1

  1. Artificial Intelligence Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Yibin, China
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Abstrakt

It is shown that a number of equivalent choices for the calculation of the spectrum of a sampled signal are possible. Two such choices are presented in this paper. It is illustrated that the proposed calculations are more physically relevant than the definition currently in use.
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Bibliografia

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Andrzej Borys
1

  1. Department of Marine Telecommunications, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia, Poland
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Abstrakt

This paper presents unsupervised change detection method to produce more accurate change map from imbalanced SAR images for the same land cover. This method is based on PSO algorithm for image segmentation to layers which classify by Gabor Wavelet filter and then K-means clustering to generate new change map. Tests are confirming the effectiveness and efficiency by comparison obtained results with the results of the other methods. Integration of PSO with Gabor filter and k-means will providing more and more accuracy to detect a least changing in objects and terrain of SAR image, as well as reduce the processing time.
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Bibliografia


[1] Feng Gao, Junyu Dong, Bo Li, Qizhi Xu, Cui Xie, “Change detection from synthetic aperture radar images based on neighborhood-based ratio and extreme learning machine,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 10(4), 046019 (2016), https://doi.org/10.1117/1.JRS.10.046019.
[2] Turgay Celik, " Unsupervised Change Detection in Satellite Images Using Principal Component Analysis and k-Means Clustering", IEEE geoscience and remote sensing letters, vol. 6, no. 4, October 2009.
[3] Xinzheng Zhang, Guo Liu, Ce Zhang, Peter M. Atkinson, Xiaoheng Tan, Xin Jian, Xichuan Zhou and Yongming Li, " Two-Phase Object-Based Deep Learning for Multi-Temporal SAR Image Change Detection", Remote Sensing. 2020.
[4] Karpenko A.P., Seliverstov E.Yu. Review of the particle swarm optimization method (PSO) for a global optimization problem. Nauka i obrazovanie. MGTU im. N.E. Baumana [Science and Education of the Bauman MSTU], 2009, no. 3 (in Russ.). https://doi.org/10.7463/00309.0116072.
[5] Xinzheng Zhang, Hang Su, Ce Zhang, Peter M. Atkinson, Xiaoheng Tan, Xiaoping Zeng and Xin Jian." A Robust Imbalanced SAR Image Change Detection Approach Based on Deep Difference Image and PCANet", arXiv.org > cs > arXiv:2003.01768, 2020
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Jinan N. Shehab
1
Hussein A. Abdulkadhim
1

  1. University of Diyala, College of Engineering, Dept. of Communication Engineering, Iraq
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Abstrakt

The major difference between a continuous mode optical regenerator (CMOR) and a burst mode optical regenerator (BMOR) is that a BMOR is capable of handling large variations in the input power which makes it useful in optical packet switched and optical burst switched networks. This is due to the optical limiting amplifier (OLA) present in the BMOR. Using computer modelling, the impact of using different OLA non-linear transfer functions on the output bit error rate of a system consisting of a cascade of 2R BMORs has been investigated. The effect of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise introduced in the inter-regenerator links has also been taken into consideration. Also, a brief review of existing OLA designs is presented.
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Bibliografia

[1] O. Leclerc et al., “Optical regeneration at 40 Gb/s and beyond,” J. Light. Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2779–2790, Nov. 2003, doi: 10.1109/JLT.2003.819148.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Yash Deodhar
1
Jeeru Jaya Sankar Reddy
1
Priyanka Desai Kakade
2
Rohan Kakade
3

  1. Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India-576104
  2. Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India-576104
  3. Loughborough University, United Kingdom
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Abstrakt

Future wireless communication networks will be largely characterized by small cell deployments, typically on the order of 200 meters of radius/cell, at most. Meanwhile, recent studies show that base stations (BS) account for about 80 to 95 % of the total network power. This simply implies that more energy will be consumed in the future wireless network since small cell means massive deployment of BS. This phenomenon makes energy-efficient (EE) control a central issue of critical consideration in the design of future wireless networks. This paper proposes and investigates (the performance of) two different energy-saving approaches namely, adaptive-sleep sectorization (AS), adaptive hybrid partitioning schemes (AH) for small cellular networks using smart antenna technique. We formulated a generic base-model for the above-mentioned schemes and applied the spatial Poisson process to reduce the system complexity and to improve flexibility in the beam angle reconfiguration of the adaptive antenna, also known as a smart antenna (SA). The SA uses the scalable algorithms to track active users in different segments/sectors of the microcell, making the proposed schemes capable of targeting specific users or groups of users in periods of sparse traffic, and capable of performing optimally when the network is highly congested. The capabilities of the proposed smart/adaptive antenna approaches can be easily adapted and integrated into the massive MIMO for future deployment. Rigorous numerical analysis at different orders of sectorization shows that among the proposed schemes, the AH strategy outperforms the AS in terms of energy saving by about 52 %. Generally, the proposed schemes have demonstrated the ability to significantly increase the power consumption efficiency of micro base stations for future generation cellular systems, over the traditional design methodologies.
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Bibliografia

[1] F. Qamar, M. U. A. Siddiqui, M. Hindia, R. Hassan, and Q. N. Nguyen, "Issues, Challenges, and Research Trends in Spectrum Management: A Comprehensive Overview and New Vision for Designing 6G Networks," Electronics, vol. 9, no. 9, p. 1416, 2020.
[2] M. N. Hindia, F. Qamar, H. Ojukwu, K. Dimyati, A. M. Al-Samman, and I. S. Amiri, "On Platform to Enable the Cognitive Radio Over 5G Networks," Wireless Personal Communications, vol. 113, no. 2, pp. 1241-1262, 2020.
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[5] T. Abbas, F. Qamar, I. Ahmed, K. Dimyati, and M. B. Majed, "Propagation channel characterization for 28 and 73 GHz millimeter-wave 5G frequency band," in Research and Development (SCOReD), 2017 IEEE 15th Student Conference on, 2017: IEEE, pp. 297-302.
[6] F. Qamar, K. Dimyati, M. N. Hindia, K. A. Noordin, and I. S. Amiri, "A stochastically geometrical poisson point process approach for the future 5G D2D enabled cooperative cellular network," IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 60465-60485, 2019.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

MHD Nour Hindia
1
Faizan Qamar
2
Henry Ojukwu
1
Rosilah Hassan
3
Kaharudin Dimyati
1

  1. Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  2. Faculty of Information Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
  3. Network and Communication Technology (NCT) Lab, Centre for Cyber Security, Fakulti Teknologi & Sains Maklumat (FTSM), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 UKM, Bangi, Selangor Malaysia
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Abstrakt

Compared with traditional cellular networks, wireless ad hoc networks do not have trusted entities such as routers, since every node in the network is expected to participate in the routing function. Therefore, routing protocols need to be specifically designed for wireless ad hoc networks. In this work, we propose an authenticated routing protocol based on small world model (ARSW). With the idea originating from the small world theory, the operation of the protocol we proposed is simple and flexible. Our simulation results show the proposed ARSW not only increases packet delivery ratio, but also reduces packet delivery delay. In particularly, Using authentication theory, the proposed ARSW improves communication security.
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Bibliografia

[1] Elizabeth M. Royer, Chai-Keong Toh. A review of current routing protocols for ad-hoc mobile wireless networks. IEEE Personal Communications, 6(2): 46-55, 1999.
[2] Jorge E. O. T., Molina J. L. B., Miguel A. S. L. Simulation and evaluation of ad hoc networks under different mobility models. Ingeniería E Investigación, 23(3): 44-50, 2003.
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[4] Banala R., Sakthivel M. A review on delay-minimized routing protocol in mobile cognitive ad hoc networks. International Journal of Computer Sciences & Engineering, 6(7): 991-996, 2018.
[5] Prabhavat S. , Narongkhachavana W. , Thongthavorn T. , et al. Low Overhead Localized Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing, 2019, 6(4): 1-15.
[6] Shanmugasundaram D. , Shanavas A. R. M. Avoidance Cosmic Dust implementing in Ad Hoc on-demand Distance Vector (CDA AODV) Routing Protocol [J]. International Journal of Computer Sciences & Engineering, 2019, 7(4): 995-1005.
[7] Kothandaraman D., Chellappan C., . Energy Efficient Node Rank-Based Routing Algorithm in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks. International Journal of Computer Networks & Communications, 2019, 11(1):45-61.
[8] Shanmugasundaram D., Shanavas A. R. M. . Avoidance Cosmic Dust implementing in Ad Hoc on-demand Distance Vector (CDA AODV) Routing Protocol. International Journal of Computer Sciences & Engineering, 2019, 7(4):995-1005.
[9] Kim, C., Talipov, E., & Ahn, B. A reverse aodv routing protocol in ad hoc mobile networks. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 522-531. 2016.
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[20] Tefan G. Small directed strongly regular graphs. Algebra Colloquium, 27(1), 11-30, 2020.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Daxing Wang
1
Leying Xu
1

  1. College of Mathematics and Finance, Chuzhou University
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Abstrakt

The ergodic channel capacity of wireless optical multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system with pulse position modulation (PPM) is investigated. The combined effects of atmospheric turbulence, atmospheric attenuation, pointing error and channel spatial correlation are taken into consideration. The expression of ergodic channel capacity is derived, and is further performed by Wilkinson approximation method for simplicity. The simulation results indicated that the strong spatial correlation has the greatest influence on the ergodic channel capacity, followed by pointing errors and atmospheric turbulence. Moreover, the ergodic channel capacity growth brought by space diversity only performs well under independent and weakly correlated channels. Properly increasing the size and spacing of the receiving apertures is an effective means of effectively increasing the ergodic channel capacity.
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Bibliografia

[1] N. Joshi and P. K. Sharma, “Performance of wireless optical communication in S-distributed turbulence,” IEEE Photonic Technology Letters, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 151-154, Oct. 2016. DOI: 10.1109/LPT.2015.2487605
[2] J. Anshul, and M. R. Bhatnagar, “Free-space optical communication: a diversity-multiplexing trade-off perspective,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 1113-1125, 2019. DOI: 10.1109/TIT.2018.2856116.
[3] P. Kaur, V. K. Jain, and S. Kar, “Performance analysis of free space optical links using multi-input multi-output and aperture averaging in presence of turbulence and various weather conditions,” Communications Iet, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 1104-1109, May. 2015. DOI: 10.1049/iet-com.2014.0926
[4] Y. Zhang, H. Yu, J. Zhang, and Y. Zhu, “Space codes for MIMO optical wireless communications: Error performance criterion and code construction,” IEEE Transcation on Wireless Communication, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 3072-3085, 2017. DOI: 10.1109/TWC.2017.2675398
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Minghua Cao
1
Yue Zhang
1
Zhongjiang Kang
1
Huiqin Wang
1

  1. School of Computer and Communication, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, China
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Abstrakt

Wireless sensor network is a dynamic field of networking and communication because of its increasing demand in critical Industrial and Robotics applications. Clustering is the technique mainly used in the WSN to deal with large load density for efficient energy conservation. Formation of number of duplicate clusters in the clustering algorithm decreases the throughput and network lifetime of WSN. To deal with this problem, advance distributive energy-efficient adaptive clustering protocol with sleep/wake scheduling algorithm (DEACP-S/W) for the selection of optimal cluster head is presented in this paper. The presented sleep/wake cluster head scheduling along with distributive adaptive clustering protocol helps in reducing the transmission delay by properly balancing of load among nodes. The performance of algorithm is evaluated on the basis of network lifetime, throughput, average residual energy, packet delivered to the base station (BS) and CH of nodes. The results are compared with standard LEACH and DEACP protocols and it is observed that the proposed protocol performs better than existing algorithms. Throughput is improved by 8.1% over LEACH and by 2.7% over DEACP. Average residual energy is increased by 6.4% over LEACH and by 4% over DEACP. Also, the network is operable for nearly 33% more rounds compared to these reference algorithms which ultimately results in increasing lifetime of the Wireless Sensor Network.
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Bibliografia

[1] K. Sohraby, D. Minoli, T. Znati, “Wireless sensor networks: technology, protocols, and applications,” John Wiley & Sons, 2007.
[2] K. Pavai, A. Sivagami and D. Sridharan, "Study of Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks,” 2009 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Control and Telecommunication Technologies, Trivandrum, Kerala, 2009, pp. 522-525.
[3] D. Goyal and M. R. Tripathy, "Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey,"2012 Second International Conference on Advanced Computing & Communication Technologies, Rohtak, Haryana, 2012, pp. 474-480.
[4] NasirSaeed, Ahmed Bader, T.Y. Al-Naffouri, Mohamed-slim Alouini, “When Wireless Communication Faces COVID-19: Combating the Pandemic and Saving the Economy,” Research Gate Journal, May 2020.
[5] Jitendra Singh, Rakesh Kumar, “Clustering algorithms for wireless sensor networks: A review,” 2nd International Conference on Computing for Sustainable Global Development, May 2015.
[6] S. Misra and R. Kumar, "A literature survey on various clustering approaches in wireless sensor network," IEEE 2nd International Conference on Communication Control and Intelligent Systems (CCIS), Mathura, 2016, pp. 18-22.
[7] S. Mishra, R. Bano, S. Kumar and V. Dixit, "A literature survey on routing protocol in wireless sensor network," IEEE International Conference on Innovations in Information, Embedded and Communication Systems (ICIIECS), Coimbatore, 2017, pp. 1-4.
[8] Kalyani Wankhede, Sumedha Sirsikar, “Review of Clustering Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks,” International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC), Volume 1, Issue 11, November 2014, pp.126-133.
[9] Sangho Yi, Junyoung Heo, Yookun Cho and Jiman Hong b, “PEACH: Power-efficient and adaptive clustering hierarch protocol for wireless sensor networks,” Computer Communications, ELSEVIER, 23 June 2007, pp. 2842–2852.
[10] K. T. Kim and H. Y. Youn, “Energy-Driven Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (EDACH) for Wireless Sensor Networks,” International Federation of Info. Processing, vol. 3823, Dec. 2005, pp. 1098–1107.
[11] V. Loscri, G. Morabito and S. Marano, “A Two-Level Hierarchy for Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy(TL-LEACH),” IEEE Proceedings of Vehicular Technology Conference, vol. 3, 2005, pp. 1809-1813.
[12] S. Nasr, M. Quwaider, “LEACH Protocol Enhancement for Increasing WSN Lifetime,” 2020 11th International Conference on Information and Communication Systems (ICICS), April 2020, pp. 102-107.
[13] M. Kaddi, Z. Khalili, M. Bruchra, “A Differential Evolution Based Clustering and Routing Protocol for WSN,” 2020 International Conference on Mathematics and Information Technology, March 2020, pp. 190-195.
[14] G. Malshetty, B. Mathapati, “Efficient Clustering in WSN-Cloud using LBSO (Load Based Self Organised) technique,” Third International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics(ICOEI), October 2019, pp. 1243-1247.
[15] K. Dubey, A. Yadav, P. Kumar, P. Shekar, P. Rajput, S. Kumar, “Power Optimization Algorithm for Heterogeneous WSN using Multiple Attributes,” Proceedings of Third International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication (ICCMC), August 2019, pp. 294-299.
[16] O. Younis, S. Fahmy, “HEED: A Hybrid Energy-Efficient Distributed Clustering Approach for Ad Hoc Sensor Networks,” IEEE Transactions on mobile computing, vol. 3(4) , 2004, pp. 1-36
[17] A. Manjeshwar, D. P. Agrawal, “TEEN: A Routing Protocol for Enhanced Efficiency in Wireless Sensor Networks,” 15th International Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium (IPDPS), 23–27 April 2001, pp. 2009–2015.
[18] A. Manjeshwar, D. P. Agrawal, “APTEEN: A Hybrid Protocol for Efficient Routing and Comprehensive Information Retrieval in Wireless Sensor Networks,” 2nd International Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Computing Issues in Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing,” April 2002, pp. 195–202.
[19] Chirihane Gherbi, Zibouda Aliouat, Mohamed Benmohammed, “A Novel Load Balancing Scheduling Algorithm For Wireless Sensor Networks,” Journal of Network And Systems Management (2019) 27, pp. 430–462.
[20] Heinzelman W,Chandrakasan A and Balakrishnan H, "Energy-Efficient Communication Protocols for Wireless Microsensor Networks," Proceedings of the 33rd Hawaaian International Conference on Systems Science (HICSS), January 2000.
[21] JiuqiangXu, Wei Liu, Fenggao Lang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Chenglong Wang, “Distance Measurement Model Based on RSSI in WSN,” Scientific Research Journal on Wireless Sensor Network, August 2010, pp. 606-611
[22] Nazir Babar, Hasbullah Halabi & Madani Sajjad, “Sleep/wake scheduling scheme for minimizing end-to-end delay in multi-hop wireless sensor networks,” EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, 2011, art. no 92. doi: 10.1186/1687-1499-2011-92.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Shankar D. Chavan
1
Shahaji R. Jagdale
1
Dhanashree A. Kulkarni
1
Sneha R. Jadhav
1

  1. Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Technology, Pimpri, Pune
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Abstrakt

In this paper, an asynchronous demodulation method for a four-single sideband (SSB) signal arranged on the frequency axis is developed to support burst mode transmission in a mobile radio path and to achieve greater data throughputs. When a reduced pilot carrier is placed at the center of the 4-SSB signal, it is guarded by lower and upper sidebands, that is, this scheme is classified into a tone-in-band (TIB) system. Digital signal processing (DSP) processors are useful for implementing a Hilbert transform. However, we have for a long time neglected introducing it into the demodulation process of SSB signals.
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Bibliografia

[1] W. C. Jakes, Ed., Microwave Mobile Communications, IEEE Press, 1993, ISBN 0-7803-1069-1
[2] K. Daikoku and K. Suwa, “RZ SSB transceiver with equal-gain combiner for speech and data transmission,” Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM’88, Hollywood, FL, USA, pp.26.4.1-26.4.5, 1988, DOI: 10.1109/GLOCOM.1988.25953
[3] K. Daikoku, “Field test results on JPEG/text file transmission employing RZ SSB transceivers through HF radio channels,” IEE Proc. Communi., vol. 151, no. 1, pp.50-58, 2004, DOI: 10.1049/ip-com:20040347
[4] K. Daikoku, “Hilbert transform applications in asynchronous demodulation for real zero single sideband signals in mobile radio path,” J. Signal Process., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 11–24, Jan. 2021. DOI: 10.2299/jsp.25.11.
[5] S. L. Hahn, Hilbert Transforms in Signal Processing, Artech House, 1996, ISBN 0-9006-886-0
[6] W. T. Webb and L. Hanzo, Modern Quadrature Amplitude Modulation, Pentech Press, 1994, ISBN 0-7273-1701-6
[7] N. C. Davies, “Digital radio and its application in HF (2-30 MHz) band,” Doctor Thesis to the University of Leeds, May 2004.
[8] R. C. Daniels and S. W. Peters, “A new MIMO HF data link: Designing for high data rates and backwards compatibility,” 2013 IEEE MILCOM, San Diego, CA, USA, pp.1-6, 2013, DOI: 1 10.1109/MILCOM.2013.214
[9] M. Kuzlu, H. Dinçer and S. Öztürk, “DSP implementation of underwater communication using SSB modulation with random carrier frequencies,” Sci. Res. Essays, vol. 5, no. 10, pp.1084-1099, 2010, ISSN 1992-2248
[10] T. S. Rappaport, Wireless Communications, Prentice Hall, 1996, ISBN 0-13-461088
[11] S. Sampei, S. Komaki and N. Morinaga, “Adaptive modulation/TDMA scheme for large capacity personal multi-media communication systems,” IEICE Trans. Communi., vol. E77-B, no. 9 pp.1096-1103, 1994.
[12] G. Ohta, M. Nanri, M. Uesugi, T. Sato, H. Tominaga, “A study of new modulation method consisted of orthogonal four SSB elements having a common carrier frequency,” The 11th International Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications (WPMC 2008), Lapland, Finland, 8–11 Sep. 2008.
[13] M. Nanri, “Transmitter and SSB signal generation method,” US Patent Application Publication, Pub. No.: US 2010/0246710 A1, Pub. Date: Sep. 30, 2010.
[14] A. M. Mustafa, Q. N. Nguyen, T. Sato and G. Ohta, “Four single-sideband M-QAM modulation using soft input soft output equalizer over OFDM,” 2018 28th International Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference (ITNAC), Sydney, NSW, Australia, 21-23 Nov. 2018, DOI: 10.1109/ATNAC.2018.8615451
[15] M. M. Alhasani, Q. N. Nguyen, G. Ohta, and T. Sato, “A novel four singlesideband M-QAM modulation scheme using a shadow equalizer for MIMO system toward 5G communications,” Sensors, 2019, 9, 1944; DOI: 10.3390/s19081944
[16] B. Pitakdumrongkija, H. Suzuki, S. Suyama and K. Fukawa, "Single sideband QPSK with turbo equalization for mobile communications," 2005 IEEE 61st VTC’05, Stockholm, Sweden, pp. 538-542, 30 May-1 June 2005, DOI: 10.1109/VETECS.2005.1543349
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Kazuhiro Daikoku
1

  1. Tokyo, Japan
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Abstrakt

The high-speed of train (HST) in combination with the high carrier frequency of HST systems leads to the severe inter carrier interference (ICI) in the HST orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (HST-OFDM) systems. To avoid the complexity in OFDM receiver design for ICI eliminations, the OFDM system parameters such as symbol duration, signal bandwidth, and the number of subcarriers should be chosen appropriately. This paper aims to propose a process of HSTOFDM system performance investigation to determine these parameters in order to enhance spectral efficiency and meet a given quality-of-service (QoS) level. The signal-to-interferenceplus- noise ratio (SINR) has been used as a figure of merit to analyze the system performance instead of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as most of recent research studies. Firstly, using the nonstationary geometry-based stochastic HST channel model, the SINR of each subcarrier has been derived for different speeds of the train, signal bandwidths, and number of subcarriers. Consequently, the system capacity has been formulated as the sum of all the single channel capacity from each sub-carrier. The constraints on designing HST-OFDM system parameters have been thoughtfully analyzed using the obtained expressions of SINR and capacity. Finally, by analyzing the numerical results, the system parameters can be found for the design of HSTOFDM systems under different speeds of train. The proposed process can be used to provide hints to predict performance of HST communication systems before doing further high cost implementations as hardware designs.
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Bibliografia

[1] V. Vahidi and E. Saberinia, “OFDM high speed train communication systems in 5G cellular networks,” in 2018 15th IEEE Annual Consumer Communications & Networking Conference (CCNC). IEEE, 2018, pp. 1–6.
[2] Y. Fu, C. Wang, A. Ghazal, e. M. Aggoune, and M. M. Alwakeel, “Performance investigation of spatial modulation systems under nonstationary wideband high-speed train channel models,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 6163–6174, 2016.
[3] V. Vahidi and E. Saberinia, “Channel estimation for wideband doubly selective UAS channels.” Miami, FL, USA: IEEE, 2017, pp. 1175– 1180.
[4] V. Vahidi, A. P. Yazdanpanah, E. Saberinia, and E. E. Regentova, “Channel estimation, equalisation, and evaluation for high-mobility airborne hyperspectral data transmission,” IET Communications, vol. 10, pp. 2656–2662, 2016.
[5] A. Sanz-G´omara, J. A. Mar´ın-Garc´ıa, and J. I. Alonso, “Performance evaluation of MIMO architectures with moving relays in high-speed railways,” in 2018 48th European Microwave Conference (EuMC), 2018, pp. 716–719.
[6] M. N., R. M.I., K. S., and P. R., OFDM: Principles and Challenges. In: Tarokh V. (eds) New Directions in Wireless Communications Research. Springer, Boston, MA, 2009.
[7] J. Rodriguez-Pineiro, P. Suarez-Casal, M. Lerch, S. Caban, J. A. Garcia- Naya, L. Castedo, and M. Rupp, “LTE downlink performance in high speed trains.” Glasgow: IEEE, 2015, pp. 1–5.
[8] Zhichao Sheng, Yong Fang, and Chen Wang, “A BEM method of channel estimation for OFDM systems in high-speed train environment,” in 2013 International Workshop on High Mobility Wireless Communications (HMWC), 2013, pp. 6–9.
[9] B. Gong, L. Gui, Q. Qin, and X. Ren, “Compressive sensing-based detector design for SM-OFDM massive MIMO high speed train systems,” IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 714–726, 2017.
[10] Z. Sheng, H. D. Tuan, and Y. Fang, “Power allocation for OFDM system in a high-speed train environment,” in 2015 IEEE 26th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), 2015, pp. 650–655.
[11] X. Ren, M. Tao, and W. Chen, “Compressed channel estimation with position-based ICI elimination for high-mobility SIMO-OFDM systems,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 65, no. 8, pp. 6204–6216, 2016.
[12] Y. Xin, Z. Liang, Y. Bai, C. Zhai, and W. Li, “Capacity enhancement using cooperative distributed antenna system in downlink high-speed train environments,” in 2019 11th International Conference on Wireless Communications and Signal Processing (WCSP), 2019, pp. 1–5.
[13] I. Zakia, “Capacity of HAP-MIMO channels for high-speed train communications,” in 2017 3rd International Conference on Wireless and Telematics (ICWT), 2017, pp. 26–30.
[14] N. Lin, X. Huang, and X. Ma, “Analysis of the uplink capacity in the high-speed train wireless communication with full-duplex mobile relay,” in 2016 IEEE 83rd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), 2016, pp. 1–5.
[15] M. K. Bhatt, B. S. Sedani, K. R. Parmar, and M. P. Shah, “Ergodic UL/DL capacity analysis of co-located and distributed antenna configuration for high speed train with massive MIMO system,” in 2017 International Conference on Inventive Computing and Informatics (ICICI), 2017, pp. 458–461.
[16] T. Zhou, C. Tao, L. Liu, J. Qiu, and R. Sun, “High-speed railway channel measurements and characterizations: a review,” Journal of Modern Transportation, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 199–205, 2012. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03325799
[17] F. Kaltenberger, A. Byiringiro, G. Arvanitakis, R. Ghaddab, D. Nussbaum, R. Knopp, M. Bernineau, Y. Cocheril, H. Philippe, and E. Simon, “Broadband wireless channel measurements for high speed trains,” in 2015 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), 2015, pp. 2620–2625.
[18] Y. Bi, J. Zhang, Q. Zhu, W. Zhang, L. Tian, and P. Zhang, “A novel non-stationary high-speed train (HST) channel modeling and simulation method,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 82–92, 2019.
[19] A. Ghazal, C. Wang, H. Haas, M. Beach, X. Lu, D. Yuan, and X. Ge, “A non-stationary MIMO channel model for high-speed train communication systems,” in 2012 IEEE 75th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), 2012, pp. 1–5.
[20] A. Ghazal, C. Wang, B. Ai, D. Yuan, and H. Haas, “A nonstationary wideband MIMO channel model for high-mobility intelligent transportation systems,” IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 885–897, 2015.
[21] L. Liu, C. Tao, J. Qiu, H. Chen, L. Yu, W. Dong, and Y. Yuan, “Position-based modeling for wireless channel on high-speed railway under a viaduct at 2.35 GHz,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 834–845, 2012.
[22] Y. M. Aval, S. K. Wilson, and M. Stojanovic, “On the achievable rate of a class of acoustic channels and practical power allocation strategies for OFDM systems,” IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 785–795, 2015.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Do Viet Ha
1
Trinh Thi Huong
1
Nguyen Thanh Hai
1

  1. Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Transport and Communications (UTC), Hanoi, Vietnam
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Abstrakt

This paper describes successfully formed ohmic contacts to p-type 4H-SiC based on titanium-aluminum alloys. Four different metallization structures were examined, varying in aluminum layer thickness (25, 50, 75, 100 nm) and with constant thickness of the titanium layer (50 nm). Structures were annealed within the temperature range of 800°C - 1100°C and then electrically characterized. The best electrical parameters and linear, ohmic character of contacts demonstrated structures with Al layer thickness equal or greater than that of Ti layer and annealed at temperatures of 1000°C or higher.
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Bibliografia

[1] T. Ohshima, S. Onoda, N. Iwamoto, T. Makino, M. Arai, and Y. Tanak, “Radiation Response of Silicon Carbide Diodes and Transistors,” in Physics and Technology of Silicon Carbide Devices, 2012. DOI: 10.5772/51371.
[2] Y. Zhang, T. Guo, X. Tang, J. Yang, Y. He, and Y. Zhang, “Thermal stability study of n-type and p-type ohmic contacts simultaneously formed on 4H-SiC,” J. Alloys Compd., vol. 731, pp. 1267–1274, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2017.10.086.
[3] Y. Huang, J. Buettner, B. Lechner, and G. Wachutka, “The impact of non-ideal ohmic contacts on the performance of high-voltage SIC MPS diodes,” Mater. Sci. Forum, vol. 963 MSF, pp. 553–557, 2019. DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.963.553.
[4] F. Roccaforte et al., “Ti/Al-based contacts to p-type SiC and GaN for power device applications,” Phys. Status Solidi Appl. Mater. Sci., vol. 214, no. 4, 2017. DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201600357.
[5] M. Rambach, A. J. Bauer, and H. Ryssel, “Electrical and topographical characterization of aluminum implanted layers in 4H silicon carbide,” Phys. Status Solidi Basic Res., vol. 245, no. 7, pp. 1315–1326, 2008. DOI: 10.1002/pssb.200743510.
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[7] T. Abi-Tannous et al., “A Study on the Temperature of Ohmic Contact to p-Type SiC Based on Ti3SiC2 Phase,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 2462–2468, 2016. DOI: 10.1109/TED.2016.2556725.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Agnieszka Martychowiec
1
Norbert Kwietniewski
1
Kinga Kondracka
1
Aleksander Werbowy
1
Mariusz Sochacki
1

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstrakt

Unintentional islanding detection is one the mandatory criterion that must be met by PV inverters before connecting them into the grid. Acceptable time for inverter for islanding detection is less than 2 seconds. In this paper voltage parameters after islanding occurrence and before turning off the inverter are analyzed. In order to simulate islanding state and perform measurements the testing system was build. Three different commercial PV inverters were tested. Measured signals were used to calculate voltage envelope, phasor, frequency and ROCOF. Collected data proved to be helpful to compere different inverters.
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Bibliografia

[1] S. Barczentewicz, A Bień, K. Duda , „The use of PMU data for detecting and monitoring selected electromagnetic disturbances”, International Journal od Electronics and Telecommunication. 2020, https://doi.org/10.24425/ijet.2020.134040
[2] IEEE Standard for Synchrophasor Measurements for Power Systems—Amendment 1: Modification of Selected Performance Requirements, IEEE Standard C37.118.1a, Apr. 2014.
[3] International Standard Synchrophasor for power systems – Measurements, IEC/IEEE 60255-118-1, Edition 1.0, Dec. 2018.
[4] G. A. Dileep, “Survey on smart grid technologies and applications”, Renewable Energy, vol. 146, pp. 2589-2625, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2019.08.092
[5] S. Barczentewicz, T. Lerch, A. Bień, K. Duda, “Laboratory Evaluation of a Phasor-Based Islanding Detection Method”. Energies. 2021; 14(7):1953. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14071953
[6] IEEE 15471-2020 „Standard Conformance Test Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting Distributed Energy Resources with Electric Power Systems and Associated Interfaces”
[7] S. Raza, H. Arof, H. Mokhlis, H. Mohamad, H. Azil Illias, “Passive islanding detection technique for synchronous generators based on performance ranking of different passive parameters”. IET Gener. Transm. Distrib. 2017, 11, 4175–4183, https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-gtd.2016.0806
[8] Z. Lin, T. Xia, Y. Ye, Y. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. Liu, K. Tomsovic, T. Bilke, F. Wen, “Application of wide area measurement systems to islanding detection of bulk power systems.” IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 2013, 28, 2006–2015, https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2013.2250531
[9] S.I. Jang, K.H. Kim, “An islanding detection method for distributed generations using voltage unbalance and total harminic distrotion of current.” IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 2004, 19, 745–752, https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRD.2003.822964
[10] R. Teodorescu, M. Liserre, P. Rodriguez, “Grid Converters for Photovoltaic and Wind Power System” John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, West Sussex, UK; 2011; pp. 93–96
[11] S. Murugesan, M. Venkatakirthiga, “Active Unintentional Islanding Detection Method for Multiple PMSG based DGs.” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 2020, 56, 4700–4708, https://doi.org/10.1109/TIA.2020.3001504
[12] S. Murugesan, V. Murali, “Hybrid Analyzing Technique Based Active Islanding Detection for Multiple DGs.” IEEE Trans. Ind. Inform. 2019, 15, 1311–1320, https://doi.org/10.1109/TII.2018.2846025
[13] D. Sivadas, K. Vasudevan, “An Active Islanding Detection Strategy with Zero Non detection Zone for Operation in Single and Multiple Inverter Mode Using GPS Synchronized Pattern.” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 2020, 67, 5554–5564, https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2019.2931231
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[15] X. Wilson, Z. Guibin, L. Chun, W. Wencong, W. Guangzhu, K. A Jacek, “Power line signaling based technique for anti-islanding protection of distributed generators-Part I: Sheme and analysis.”, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 2007, 22, 1758–1766, https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRD.2007.899618
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[19] K. Duda, T.P. Zieliński, “FIR Filters Compliant with the IEEE Standard for M Class PMU”. Metrol. Meas. Syst. 2016, 23, 623–636, https://doi.org/10.1515/mms-2016-0055

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Szymon Henryk Barczentewicz
1
Tomasz Lerch
1
Andrzej Bień
1

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland
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Abstrakt

The research of robotics needs a good and accurate control. The proposed concept is touch less and non-verbal communication with the use of leap motion controller. The concept has two major parts: first part is “device perceive hand finger moments and send signal”, second part is robotic hand interfaced with PIC microcontroller which receives signal and controls robotic hand. The paper aims to link virtual environment with real time environment. The virtual environment is consisting of leap motion controller and laptop, real time environment is consisting of microcontroller and robotic arm. In real time environment parodist is converts into virtual environment.
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Bibliografia

[1] A. Saudabayev, H.A. Varol, “Sensors for robotic hands: A survey of state of the art”. IEEE Access. 2015;3: 1765-82.
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[10] K. Aditya, P. Chacko, D. Kumari, S. Bilgaiyan, “Recent Trends in HCI: A survey on Data Glove, LEAP Motion and Microsoft Kinect”, In 2018 IEEE International Conference on System, Computation, Automation and Networking (ICSCA) 2018 Jul 6 (pp. 1-5). IEEE.
[11] S. Mitra, T. Acharya, “Gesture recognition: A survey”. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C (Applications and Reviews). 2007 May;37(3): 311-24.
[12] S. Waldherr, R. Romero, S.A. Thrun, A gesture based interface for h”uman-robot interaction. Autonomous Robots”, 2000 Sep 1;9(2): 151-73.
[13] G. Marin, F. Dominio, P. Zanuttigh. Hand gesture recognition with leap motion and kinect devices. In2014 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP) 2014 Oct 27 (pp. 1565-1569). IEEE.
[14] A. Sarkar, K.A. Patel, R.G. Ram, G.K. Capoor, “ Gesture control of drone using a motion controller”. In2016 International Conference on Industrial Informatics and Computer Systems (CIICS) 2016 Mar 13 (pp. 1-5). IEEE.
[15] R .Satheeshkumar and R. Arivoli , ” Real Time Virtual Human Hand For Robotics.” Journal of Computational Information Systems 15.1 (2019): 82-89.
[16] R. Satheeshkumar and R. Arivoli , "Real Time Virtual Human Hand for Diagnostic Robot (DiagBot) Arm Using IOT“ Journal of Advanced Research in Dynamical and Control System, Vol. 12, 01-Special Issue, 2020.
[17] R. Satheeshkumar and R. Arivoli , "Real Time Robotic Arm Control Using Human Hand Gesture Measurement “ Journal of Advanced Research in Dynamical and Control System, Vol. 12, 04-Special Issue, 2020.
[18] R. Satheeshkumar and R. Arivoli, "IOT Integrated Virtual Hand for Robotic Arm Using Leap Motion Controller" The Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera, Vol. 12, 04-Special Issue, 2020.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

R. Satheeshkumar
1
R. Arivoli
1

  1. Annamalai University, India
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Abstrakt

In this article, we propose a new stopping criterion for turbo codes. This criterion is based on the behaviour of the probabilistic values alpha 'α' calculated in the forward recursion during turbo decoding. We called this criterion Sum-α. The simulation results show that the Bit Error Rates BER are very close to those of the Cross-Entropy CE criterion with the same average number of iterations.
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Bibliografia

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[4] R. Y. Shao, S. Lin and M. P. C. Fossorier, “Two simple stopping criteria for turbo decoding, ” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 1117–1120, Aug. 1999.
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[11] F. M. Li and A. Y. Wu, “On the new stopping criteria of iterative turbo decoding by using decoding threshold, ” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 55, no. 11, pp. 5506–5516, Nov. 2007.
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[13] A. Savin, L. Trifina, M. Andrei, “Threshold Based Iteration Stopping Criterion for Turbo Codes and for Scheme Combining a Turbo Code and a Golden Space-Time Block Code,” Advances in Electrical and Computer Engineering, vol.14, no.1, pp.139-142, 2014.
[14] I. Amamra et N. Derouiche, “Enhancement of iterative turbo decoding for HARQ systems,” ICTACT Journal on Communication Technology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 1295-1300, Jun. 2016
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Aissa Ouardi
1

  1. Laboratory Technology of Communication, Department of Electronics, University of Saida Dr. Moulay Tahar, Saida, Algeria
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Abstrakt

With the continuous advances in mobile wireless sensor networks (MWSNs), the research community has responded to the challenges and constraints in the design of these networks by proposing efficient routing protocols that focus on particular performance metrics such as residual energy utilization, mobility, topology, scalability, localization, data collection routing, Quality of Service (QoS), etc. In addition, the introduction of mobility in WSN has brought new challenges for the routing, stability, security, and reliability of WSNs. Therefore, in this article, we present a comprehensive and meticulous investigation in the routing protocols and security challenges in the theory of MWSNs which was developed in recent years.
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Bibliografia

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Ahmed Al-Nasser
1
Reham Almesaeed
1
Hessa Al-Junaid
1

  1. University of Bahrain College of Information Technology, Bahrain

Abstrakt

This article reviews chosen topics related to the development of Information Quantum Technologies in the major areas of measurements, communications, and computing. These fields start to build their ecosystems which in the future will probably coalesce into a homogeneous quantum information layer consisting of such interconnected components as quantum internet, full size quantum computers with efficient error corrections and ultrasensitive quantum metrology nodes stationary and mobile. Today, however, the skepticism expressing many doubts about the realizability of this optimistic view fights with a cheap optimism pouring out of some popular press releases. Where is the truth? Financing of the IQT by key players in research, development and markets substantially strengthens the optimistic side. Keeping the bright side with some reservations, we concentrate on showing the FAST pace of IQT developments in such areas as biological sciences, quantum evolutionary computations, quantum internet and some of its components.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Katarzyna Nałęcz-Charkiewicz
1
Jana Meles
1
Wioleta Rzęsa
1
Andrzej A. Wojciechowski
1
Eryk Warchulski
1
Kacper Kania
1
Justyna Stypułkowska
1
Grzegorz Fluder
1
Ryszard S. Romaniuk
1

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Abstrakt

The recent decades have seen the growth in the fields of wireless communication technologies, which has made it possible to produce components with a rational cost of a few cubic millimeters of volume, called sensors. The collaboration of many of these wireless sensors with a basic base station gives birth to a network of wireless sensors. The latter faces numerous problems related to application requirements and the inadequate abilities of sensor nodes, particularly in terms of energy. In order to integrate the different models describing the characteristics of the nodes of a WSN, this paper presents the topological organization strategies to structure its communication. For large networks, partitioning into sub-networks (clusters) is a technique used to reduce consumption, improve network stability and facilitate scalability.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Sarang Dagajirao Patil
1
Pravin Sahebrao Patil
2

  1. NES Gangamai College of Engineering, Nagaon, Dhule, Maharashta, India
  2. Dept. of E&C Engineering SSVPSBSD College of Engineering Dhule, Maharashtra, India
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Abstrakt

Leaf - a significant part of the plant, produces food using the process called photosynthesis. Leaf disease can cause damage to the entire plant and eventually lowers crop production. Machine learning algorithm for classifying five types of diseases, such as Alternaria leaf diseases, Bacterial Blight, Gray Mildew, Leaf Curl and Myrothecium leaf diseases, is proposed in the proposed study. The classification of diseases needs front face of leafs. This paper proposes an automated image acquisition process using a USB camera interfaced with Raspberry PI SoC. The image is transmitted to host PC for classification of diseases using online web server. Pre-processing of the acquired image by host PC to obtain full leaf, and later classification model based on SVM is used to detect type diseases. Results were checked with a 97% accuracy for the collection of acquired images.
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Bibliografia

[1] A. Akhtar, A. Khanum, S. A. Khan, and A. Shaukat, “Automated plant disease analysis (apda): performance comparison of machine learning techniques,” in 2013 11th International Conference on Frontiers of Information Technology. IEEE, 2013, pp. 60–65.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Hiren Mewada
1
Jignesh Patoliaya
2

  1. Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Al Kobhar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabai
  2. Charotar University of Science and Technology, Changa, India

Abstrakt

The continuous real-time monitoring of diverse physical parameters using biosignals like ECG and EEG requires the biomedical sensors. Such sensor consists of analog frontend unit for which low noise and low power Operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) is essential. In this paper, the novel chopper-stabilized bio-potential amplifier is proposed. The chopper stabilization technique is used to reduce the offset and flicker noise. Further, the OTA is likewise comprised of a method to enhance the input impedance without consuming more power. Also, the ripple reduction technique is used at the output branch of the OTA. The designed amplifier consumes 5.5 μW power with the mid-band gain of 40dB. The pass-band for the designed amplifier is 0.1Hz to 1KHz. The input impedance is likewise boosted with the proposed method. The noise is 42 nV/√H z with CMRR of 82 dB. All simulations are carried out in 180nm parameters.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Ankit Adesara
1
Amisha Naik
1

  1. Nirma University, Indian Institute of Information Technology, Surat, India
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Abstrakt

This paper is focused on multiple soft fault diagnosis of linear time-invariant analog circuits and brings a method that achieves all objectives of the fault diagnosis: detection, location, and identification. The method is based on a diagnostic test arranged in the transient state, which requires one node accessible for excitation and two nodes accessible for measurement. The circuit is specified by two transmittances which express the Laplace transform of the output voltages in terms of the Laplace transform of the input voltage. Each of these relationships is used to create an overdetermined system of nonlinear algebraic equations with the circuit parameters as the unknown variables. An iterative method is developed to solve these equations. Some virtual solutions can be eliminated comparing the results obtained using both transmittances. Three examples are provided where laboratory or numerical experiments reveal effectiveness of the proposed method.
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Bibliografia

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Michał Tadeusiewicz
1
Marek Ossowski
1
Marek Korzybski
1

  1. Lodz University of Technology, Department of Electrical, Electronic, Computer and Control Engineering, Lodz, Poland
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Abstrakt

The article presents the methodology for measuring verification of the phenomenon of fades in the DAB+ SFN. The verification is related to comparing the characteristics of the fades determined theoretically with the occurring fades in the real environment of a large city. The conditions favorable for the occurrence of fading are presented and by selecting the appropriate propagation analysis tool, the places where the occurrence of fading is most likely were selected. In these places an analysis of the characteristics of fades was carried out and the conditions for their verification were determined.
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Bibliografia

[1] WorldDAB, „WorldDAB infographic (Q2 2019)”, https://www.worlddab.org/resources/infographic. (29 03 2020).
[2] S. Kubal, M. Kowal, P. Piotrowski, K. Staniec, “Optimal Transmission Technique for DAB+ Operating in the SFN Network”, in Springer Nature Switzerland, Theory and Applications of Dependable Computer Systems, Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Conference on Dependability of Computer Systems DepCoS-RELCOMEX, June 29 – July 3, 2020, Brunów, Poland.
[3] European Telecommunications Standards Institute, EN 300 401 V2.1.1 Draft ETSI EN 300 401 V2.1.1 Radio Broadcasting Systems; Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) to mobile, portable and fixed receivers, 2016.
[4] European Broadcasting Union, „TR 24 SFN Frequency planning and network implementation with regard to T-DAB and DVB-T,” Genewa, 2013.
[5] R. Zieliński, “Fade analysis in DAB+ SFN network in Wroclaw”, Proc. of the 2019 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC Europe 2019), Barcelona, Spain, September 2– 6, 2019, (978-1-7281-0594-9/19/$31.00 © 2019 IEEE).
[6] D. Plebs, J. Wout., P. Angueira, J.A. Arenas, L. Verloock, L. Martens,: “On the Methodology for Calculating SFN Gain in Digital Broadcast Systems”, IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, Vol. 56, No. 3, September 2010, pp.331-339
[7] K. Staniec, S. Kubal, M. Kowal, P. Piotrowski,: “On the Influence of the Coding Rate and SFN Gain on DAB+ Coverage”, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 2020.
[8] P. Gilski, J. Stefanski, “Subjective and Objective Comparative Study of DAB+ Broadcast System”, Archives of Acoustics, Vol. 42, No. 1, pp. 3–11 (2017), by PAN – IPPT)
[9] S. Brachmański, M. Kin, “Assessment of speech quality in Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB+) system”, AES 134th Convention, Rome, Italy, 2013.
[10] M. Kin, “Subjective evaluation of sound quality of musical recordings transmitted via DAB+ system", in Proc. 134th Audio Engineering Society Convention, Rome, Italy, 2013, pp. 1231{2366.
[11] P. Gilski., J. Stefanski, “Digital Audio Broadcasting or Webcasting: A Network Quality Perspective”, Journal of Telecommunications and Information Technology, 1, 9–15, 2016.
[12] P. Pocta, J.G. Beerends, “Subjective and Objective Assessment of Perceived Audio Quality of Current Digital Audio Broadcasting Systems and WebCasting Applications”, IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, 61, 407–415, 2015.
[13] International Telecommunication Union, ITU-R BS.2214-3, “Planning parameters for terrestrial digital sound broadcasting systems in VHF bands”, 2019.
[14] European Broadcasting Union, TECH 3391, “Guidelines for DAB network planning”, Genewa, 2018.
[15] National Institut of Telecommunications, „LokalDAB,”. https://www.il-pib.pl/pl/projekty-krajowe/projekty-krajowe-ze-srodkow-na-nauke/projekt-localdab, (25 05 2020).
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[17] European Broadcasting Union, TR 016, “Benefits and Limitations of Single Frequency Networks (SFN) for DTT”, 2012.
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[20] R. Zieliński, “Analysis of depth of fades in a single frequency DAB+ network on the example of the network in Wroclaw” (in polish), Przegląd Telekomunikacyjny i Wiadomości Telekomunikacyjne, nr. 6, 2018, str. 320-325
[21] R. Zieliński, “Distribution of fade area in a SFN network on the example of the DAB+ network” (in polish), Przegląd Telekomunikacyjny i Wiadomości Telekomunikacyjne, nr. 8-9, 2018, str. 581-584.
[22] R. Zieliński, “Analysis of the phenomenon of fades in the SFN DAB+ network with three transmitters on the example of the network in Wroclaw” (in polish),. Przegląd Telekomunikacyjny i Wiadomości Telekomunikacyjne, nr. 6, 2019, str. 386-391.
[23] R. Zieliński, “Analysis and Comparision of the Fade Phenomenon in the SFN DAB+ Network With Two and Three Transmitters”, Intl Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications, 2020, Vol. 66, No. 1, str.. 85-92.
[24] International Telecommunication Union, Recommendation ITU-R P.1546-5 : “Method for point-to-area predictions for terrestrial services in the frequency range 30 MHz to 3 000 MHz”, 2013.
[25] I. Michalski, thesis, "Analysis of the distribution of e-m field strength and fades from the SFN DAB+ network in Wroclaw”, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, 2020.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Igor Michalski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ryszard J. Zielinski
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. National Institute of Telecommunications, Poland
  2. Wroclaw University ofScience and Technology, Poland

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