Applied sciences

Metrology and Measurement Systems


Metrology and Measurement Systems | 2018 | vol. 25 | No 3

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The paper presents a method of measuring the angle of rotation and twist using a tilted fibre Bragg grating

(TFBG) periodic structure with a tilt angle of 6◦, written into a single-mode optical fibre. It has been shown

that the rotation of the sensor by 180◦ causes a change in the transmission coefficient from 0.5 to 0.84 at

a wavelength of 1541.2 nm. As a result of measurements it was determined that the highest sensitivity can

be obtained for angles from 30◦ to 70◦ in relation to the basic orientation. The change in the transmission

spectrum occurs for cladding modes that change their intensity with the change in the polarization of light

propagating through the grating. The same structure can also be used to measure the twist angle. The

possibility of obtaining a TFBG twist by 200◦ over a length of 10 mm has been proved. This makes it

possible to monitor both the angle of rotation and the twist of an optical fibre with the fabricated TFBG.

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Authors and Affiliations

Sławomir Cięszczyk
Piotr Kisała
Krzysztof Skorupski
Patryk Panas
Jacek Klimek
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The micro-Particle Image Velocimetry (micro-PIV) was used to measure flow velocities in micro-channels

in two passive micromixers: a microfluidic Venturi mixer and a microfluidic spiral mixer, both preceded

by standard “Y” micromixers. The micro-devices were made of borosilicate glass, with micro-engineering

techniques dedicated to micro-PIV measurements. The obtained velocity profiles show differences in the

flow structure in both cases. The micro-PIV enables understanding the micro-flow phenomena and can help

to increase reproducibility of micromixers in mass production.

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Authors and Affiliations

Dariusz Witkowski
Wojciech Kubicki
Jan A. Dziuban
Darina Jašíková
Anna Karczemska
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The paper deals with the preparation and measurement of an experimental polymer graphite cathode that

seems to be a promising and cheap source of electrons utilizing cold field-emission in high- and ultra-high

vacuum. Polymer graphite seems to be a proper material as it contains a large amount of hybridized carbon

with a low degree of surface oxidation and silicon monoxide (SiO). Within the frame of this work, a special

experimental method of tip preparation has been designed and tuned. This method is based on ion milling

inside a dual-beam electron microscope enabling to obtain ultra-sharp tips of a diameter smaller than 100 nm

with a predefined opening angle. The charge transport within experimental samples is evaluated based on

results provided by the noise spectroscopy of the total emission current in the time and frequency domains.

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Authors and Affiliations

Alexandr Knápek
Miroslav Horáček
Jana Chlumská
Tomáš Kuparowitz
Dinara Sobola
Josef Šikula
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Reliable monitoring for detection of damage in epicyclic gearboxes is a serious concern for all industries

in which these gearboxes operate in a harsh environment and in variable operational conditions. In this

paper, autonomous multidimensional novelty detection algorithms are used to estimate the gearbox’ health

state based on vectors of features calculated from the vibration signal. The authors examine various feature

vectors, various sources of data and many different damage scenarios in order to compare novel detection

algorithms based on three different principles of operation: a distance in the feature space, a probability

distribution, and an ANN (artificial neural network)-based model reconstruction approach. In order to compensate

for non-deterministic results of training of neural networks, which may lead to different network

performance, the ensemble technique is used to combine responses from several networks. The methods are

tested in a series of practical experiments involving implanting a damage in industrial epicyclic gearboxes,

and acquisition of data at variable speed conditions.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ziemowit Dworakowski
Kajetan Dziedziech
Adam Jabłoński
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The three-dimensional (3D) coordinate measurement of radio frequency identification (RFID) multi-tag

networks is one of the important issues in the field of RFID, which affects the reading performance of

RFID multi-tag networks. In this paper, a novel method for 3D coordinate measurement of RFID multitag

networks is proposed. A dual-CCD system (vertical and horizontal cameras) is used to obtain images of

RFID multi-tag networks from different angles. The iterative threshold segmentation and the morphological

filtering method are used to process the images. The template matching method is respectively used to

determine the two-dimensional (2D) coordinate and the vertical coordinate of each tag. After that, the

3D coordinate of each tag is obtained. Finally, a back-propagation (BP) neural network is used to model

the nonlinear relationship between the RFID multi-tag network and the corresponding reading distance.

The BP neural network can predict the reading distances of unknown tag groups and find out the optimal

distribution structure of the tag groups corresponding to the maximum reading distance. In the future work,

the corresponding in-depth research on the neural network to adjust the distribution of tags will be done.

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Authors and Affiliations

Zhuang Xiao
Xiaolei Yu
Zhimin Zhao
Wenjie Zhang
Zhenlu Liu
Dongsheng Lu
Dingbang Dong
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The phase jitter enables to assess quality of signals transmitted in a bi-directional, long-distance fibre optic

link dedicated for dissemination of the time and frequency signals. In the paper, we are considering

measurements of jitter using a phase detector the detected frequency signal and the reference signal are

supplied to. To cover the wideband jitter spectrum the detected signal frequency is divided and – because of

the aliasing process – higher spectral components are shifted down. We are also examining the influence of

a residual jitter that occurs in the reference signal generated by filtering the jitter occurring in the same signal,

whose phase fluctuations we intend to measure. Then, we are discussing the evaluation results, which

were obtained by using the target fibre optic time and frequency transfer system.

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Authors and Affiliations

Karol Salwik
Łukasz Śliwczyński
Przemysław Krehlik
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This paper presents a novel sideslip angle estimator based on the pseudo-multi-sensor fusion method. The

kinematics-based and dynamics-based sideslip angle estimators are designed for sideslip angle estimation.

Also, considering the influence of ill-conditioned matrix and model uncertainty, a novel sideslip angle estimator

is proposed based on the wheel speed coupling relationship using a modified recursive least squares

algorithm. In order to integrate the advantages of above three sideslip angle estimators, drawing lessons

from the multisensory information fusion technology, a novel thinking of sideslip angle estimator design is

presented through information fusion of pseudo-multi-sensors. Simulations and experiments were carried

out, and effectiveness of the proposed estimation method was verified.

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Authors and Affiliations

Te Chen
Long Chen
Yingfeng Cai
Xing Xu
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The paper shows a study on the relationship between noise measures and sound quality (SQ) features that

are related to annoyance caused by the traffic noise. First, a methodology to perform analyses related to

the traffic noise annoyance is described including references to parameters of the assessment of road noise

sources. Next, the measurement setup, location and results are presented along with the derived sound quality

features. Then, statistical analyses are performed to compare the measurement results and sound quality

features. The included conclusions are focused on showing that the obtained loudness values, regardless of

the used system, are similar in a statistical sense. Contrarily, sharpness, roughness and fluctuation strength

values differ for the tools employed.

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Authors and Affiliations

Waldemar Paszkowski
Józef Kotus
Tomasz Poremski
Bożena Kostek
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Two low-cost methods of estimating the road surface condition are presented in the paper, the first one

based on the use of accelerometers and the other on the analysis of images acquired from cameras installed

in a vehicle. In the first method, miniature positioning and accelerometer sensors are used for evaluation of

the road surface roughness. The device designed for installation in vehicles is composed of a GPS receiver

and a multi-axis accelerometer. The measurement data were collected from recorded ride sessions taken

place on diversified road surface roughness conditions and at varied vehicle speeds on each of examined

road sections. The data were gathered for various vehicle body types and afterwards successful attempts

were made in constructing the road surface classification employing the created algorithm. In turn, in the

video method, a set of algorithms processing images from a depth camera and RGB cameras were created.

A representative sample of the material to be analysed was obtained and a neural network model for classification

of road defects was trained. The research has shown high effectiveness of applying the digital image

processing to rejection of images of undamaged surface, exceeding 80%. Average effectiveness of identification

of road defects amounted to 70%. The paper presents the methods of collecting and processing the

data related to surface damage as well as the results of analyses and conclusions.

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Authors and Affiliations

Dariusz Grabowski
Maciej Szczodrak
Andrzej Czyżewski
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This paper presents a portable exhaled breath analyser, developed to detect selected diseases. The set-up

employs resistive gas sensors: commercial MEMS sensors and prototype gas sensors made of WO3 gas

sensing layers doped with various metal ingredients. The set-up can modulate the gas sensors by applying

UV light to induce physical changes of the gas sensing layers. The sensors are placed in a tiny gas

chamber of a volume of about 22 ml. Breath samples can be either injected or blown into the gas chamber

when an additional pump is used to select the last breath phase. DC resistance and resistance fluctuations

of selected sensors using separate channels are recorded by an external data acquisition board. Low-noise

amplifiers with a selected gain were used together with a necessary bias circuit. The set-up monitors other

atmospheric parameters interacting with the responses of resistive gas sensors (humidity, temperature, atmospheric

pressure). The recorded data may be further analysed to determine optimal detection methods.

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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Kwiatkowski
Tomasz Chludziński
Janusz Smulko
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Beamforming is an advanced signal processing technique used in sensor arrays for directional signal transmission

or reception. The paper deals with a system based on an ultrasound transmitter and an array of

receivers, to determine the distance to an obstacle by measuring the time of flight and – using the phase

beamforming technique to process the output signals of receivers for finding the direction from which the

reflected signal is received – locates the obstacle. The embedded beam-former interacts with a PID-based

line follower robot to improve performance of the line follower navigation algorithm by detecting and

avoiding obstacles. The PID (proportional-integral-derivative) algorithm is also typically used to control

industrial processes. It calculates the difference between a measured value and a desired set of points, then

attempts to minimize the error by adjusting the output. The overall navigation system combines a PID-based

trajectory follower with a spatial-temporal filter (beamformer) that uses the output of an array of sensors to

extract signals received from an obstacle in a particular direction in order to guide an autonomous vehicle

or a robot along a safe path.

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Authors and Affiliations

Patrick Kapita Mvemba
Aimé Lay-Ekuakille
Simon Kidiamboko
Md Zia Uhr Rahman
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Real-time monitoring of deformation of large structure parts is of great significance and the deformation

of such structure parts is often accompanied with the change of curvature. The curvature can be obtained

by measuring changes of strain, surface curve and modal displacement of the structure. However, many

factors are faced with difficulty in measurement and low sensitivity at a small deformation level. In order

to measure curvature in an effective way, a novel fibre Bragg grating (FBG) curvature sensor is proposed,

which aims at removing the deficiencies of traditional methods in low precision and narrow adjusting. The

sensor combines two FBGs with a specific structure of stainless steel elastomer. The elastomer can transfer

the strain of the structure part to the FBG and then the FBG measures the strain to obtain the curvature.

The performed simulation and experiment show that the sensor can effectively amplify the strain to the

FBG through the unique structure of the elastomer, and the accuracy of the sensor used in the experiment is

increased by 14% compared with that of the FBG used for direct measurement.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ming-Yao Liu
Shi-Guang Zhou
Han Song
Wei-Jian Zhou
Xiong Zhang
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The results of surface texture measurements obtained with the stylus equipment, white light interferometer

and confocal profilometer of the same samples were compared. Machined isotropic and anisotropic surfaces,

of symmetric and asymmetric ordinate distribution were measured. Forms were removed using polynomials.

Sampling intervals and measuring areas during computations of parameters were the same. Discrepancies

between the results obtained with various methods were observed and discussed. It was found that errors of

surface texture measurement with the optical methods depend on the type of surface topography.

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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł Pawlus
Rafał Reizer
Michał Wieczorowski
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The advance of MEMS-based inertial sensors successfully expands their applications to small unmanned

aerial vehicles (UAV), thus resulting in the challenge of reliable and accurate in-flight alignment for airborne

MEMS-based inertial navigation system (INS). In order to strengthen the rapid response capability

for UAVs, this paper proposes a robust in-flight alignment scheme for airborne MEMS-INS aided by global

navigation satellite system (GNSS). Aggravated by noisy MEMS sensors and complicated flight dynamics,

a rotation-vector-based attitude determination method is devised to tackle the in-flight coarse alignment

problem, and the technique of innovation-based robust Kalman filtering is used to handle the adverse impacts

of measurement outliers in GNSS solutions. The results of flight test have indicated that the proposed

alignment approach can accomplish accurate and reliable in-flight alignment in cases of measurement outliers,

which has a significant performance improvement compared with its traditional counterparts.

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Authors and Affiliations

Dingjie Wang
Yi Dong
Qingsong Li
Jie Wu
Yule Wen
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Understanding the factors that influence the quality of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based products is

a scientifically ongoing and relevant topic. Our research focused on the impact of the interior orientation

parameters (IOPs) on the positional accuracy of points in a calibration field, identified and measured in an

orthophoto and a point cloud. We established a calibration field consisting of 20 materialized points and

10 detailed points measured with high accuracy. Surveying missions with a fixed-wing UAV were carried

out in three series. Several image blocks that differed in flight direction (along, across), flight altitude

(70 m, 120 m), and IOPs (known or unknown values in the image-block adjustment) were composed. The

analysis of the various scenarios indicated that fixed IOPs, computed from a good geometric composition,

can especially improve vertical accuracy in comparison with self-calibration; an image block composed

from two perpendicular flight directions can yield better results than an image block composed from a single

flight direction.

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Authors and Affiliations

Dejan Grigillo
Matija Uršič
Matej Bone
Tomaž Ambrožič
Polona Pavlovčič-Prešeren
Mojca Kosmatin-Fras
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Conventionally, the filtering technique for attitude estimation is performed using gyros or attitude dynamics

models. In order to extend the application range of an attitude filter, this paper proposes a quaternionbased

filtering framework for gyroless attitude estimation without an attitude dynamics model. The attitude

estimation system is established based on a quaternion kinematic equation and vector observation models.

The angular velocity in the system is determined through observation vectors from attitude sensors and the

statistical properties of the angular velocity error are analysed. A Kalman filter is applied to estimate the

attitude error such that the effect from the angular velocity error is compensated with its statistical properties

at each sampling moment. A numerical simulation example is presented to illustrate the performance of the

proposed algorithm.

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Authors and Affiliations

Shuo Zhang
Fei Xing
Ting Sun
Zheng You

Instructions for authors

Sample article with Author guidelines

Author guidelines

Types of contributions

Metrology and Measurement Systems welcomes submissions of the following article types:

• invited special issue or review papers presenting the current stage of the knowledge within scope of the journal (about 20 edited pages, approximately 3000 characters each),
• research papers reporting high-quality original scientific or technological advancements (max. 12 pages),
• papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences (max. 12 pages),
• short notes, i.e. book reviews, conference reports, short news (max. 2 pages).

Manuscript preparation

General The text of a manuscript should be written in clear and concise English. The camera-ready format – with attached separate files containing illustrations, tables and photographs – is required. A cover letter with clear explanation of scientific novelty of the paper is strongly recommended. Papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences, or strongly related to previous authors’ works, must be accompanied with a cover letter file, which should explain in details changes made in the manuscript in comparison with the original conference paper and highlight the novelty in reference to other authors’ works.
The main text of a manuscript should be printed on an A4 page (with margins of 2.5 cm) using Times New Roman style with a font size of 12 pt; the paragraphs should start with the indentation of 5 mm, and titles should be written in bold. That text can be divided into sections (numbered 1, 2, …), first-order subsections (numbered 1.1., 1.2., …, written in italics), and – if needed – second-order subsections (numbered 1.1.1., 1.1.2., …, written same as first-order subsections). The only acceptable manuscript formats are in Microsoft Word (.doc, .docx).

The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors. The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors.

Figures (illustrations, photographs) and tables, provided in the camera-ready form suitable for reproduction (which may include reduction), should be additionally submitted (one per page), larger than the final size. While preparing figures we encourage to start with defining expected size and minimum font size that fit to all graphics in the manuscript – using the same style in all of your graphics visually improves the article. Final figure formats must be in one of the following: (vectors) .eps, .pdf, .ai or .cdr, and (bitmaps) .bmp, .gif, .tif or .jpg.
As far as plots, block diagrams, schematics etc. are concerned, we suggest to use one of vector formats to improve quality and scalability. Figures in vector formats must be saved using RGB colours and with fully white background (0% K). Hidden layers are unacceptable. Minimum line thickness printed in a single colour is 0.25 pt (0.09 mm), and 1 pt (0.36 mm) when using more colours. Typically we suggest 0.2-0.5 mm but in particular cases the range 0.1–1.0 mm will be accepted. Lines in plots should be distinguished not only by using different colours but also using different line types and markers, if needed.

All equations must be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Each equation should be preceded and followed by a 6-point spacing. Punctuate equations when they are part of a sentence. Equation numbers should be enclosed in parentheses. Equations should be prepared with the use of MathType or Microsoft Equation editors. The type size in the equation is the same as for the text. To make your equations more compact, you may use the appropriate mathematical symbols or expressions. The symbols used in an equation have to be defined before that equation or immediately after it. Use italics for variables (e.g. i, x, n), physical quantity symbol (e.g. voltage U, temperature T), letter pointers and general function symbols. Do not use italics for constants, indexes, minimum, maximum and trigonometric functions, mathematical operators, differentials, etc. To refer to the equation use “(1)”, not “Eq. (1)” or “equation (1)”, except at the beginning of a sentence where “Equation (1)” should be used. We recommend to use International System of Units SI i.e. metre-kilogram-second system of units. As a decimal separator dot should be used in the entire manuscript (text, figures, tables).

The paper has to be clearly positioned in the context of relevant literature in the field of measurements and instrumentation. Note that lack of references from the main field of Metrology and Measurement Systems interest may suggest that the content of manuscript does not exactly correspond to the scope of metrological journals. It may reduce possibility that a proposed paper will be read by audience society. In such a case our Editorial Board may suggest to send the manuscript to a more appropriate journal. Also note that the use of possibly up-to-date references may indicate importance of your work. Table below gives examples of some relevant and renewable journals related to widely understood metrology.





IOP Publishing


IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement






Measurement Science and Technology

IOP Publishing


Metrology and Measurement Systems



Review of Scientific Instruments

IOP Publishing


IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics



IET Science, Measurement & Technology



Journal of Instrumentation

SISSA, IOP Publishing


Measurement Science Review

Walter de Gruyter


IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Magazine



Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences



Opto-Electronics Review



IEEE Sensors Journal






References should be inserted in the text in square brackets, i.e. [1]; their list, numbered in citation order, should appear at the end of the manuscript. The format of the references should follow the APA 7th edition formatting style, i.e.: for an journal paper – surname(s) and initial(s) of author(s), year in brackets, title of the paper, full journal name, volume, issue (in brackets) and page numbers. Put all author names unless there are more than 20. Otherwise, after the first 19 authors’ names, use an ellipsis in place of the remaining author names. Then, end with the final author’s name (do not place an ampersand before it).

Submission process
Manuscript should be submitted via the Internet Editorial System (IES) – an online submission and peer review system. In order to submit the manuscript via the IES, the authors (first-time users) must create an author account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. The submission of the manuscript in a single file, i.e. “Article File” containing the complete manuscript (with all figures of high quality and tables embedded in the text), is preferred. All figures have to be uploaded in separate files. The generated PDF file has to be approved. The PDF file has lower quality of the embedded figures to limit its size only.
The submission of a manuscript means that its content has not been published previously, it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that – if accepted – it will not be published elsewhere. The Author hereby grants the Polish Academy of Sciences (the Journal Owner) the license for commercial use of the article according to the Open Access License ( CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which has to be signed before publication. The copyright form is available in the IES.
The Authors are urged to suggest 4 to 5 reviewers in their application (with names, affiliations and addresses) with whom the Editorial Board could co-operate while processing the paper. Proposed reviewers should be experts deeply involved in issues related to the subject matter of the paper and they are intended to come from different universities or research centres.
Each submitted manuscript is subject to a single-blind peer-review procedure, and the publication decision is based on the reviewers’ comments. If necessary, the authors may be invited to revise their manuscripts. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to exactly fit the journal style.
An essential criterion for the evaluation of submitted manuscripts is their potential impact on the research field, measured by the number of repeated quotations. Such papers are preferred at the evaluation and publication stages.
Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author by e-mail and should be returned within 48 hours from receipt. The publication in the journal is free of charge. A sample copy of the journal will be sent to the corresponding author free of charge. For colour pages the authors will be charged at the rate of 160 PLN or 80 EUR per page. The payment to the bank account of the main distributor (given in “Subscription Information”) must be completed before the date indicated by the Editorial Office.

Other information
It is possible to include supplementary files related to the article content, such as e.g. developed databases. These files can be then used by other researchers to compare their algorithms using the same input data. For more details about supplementary files please contact the Editorial Board: The biographical statements, at the very end of the article, are not obligatory, however, they are kindly recommended. Each statement should include the author’s full name and brief personal history focused on areas of research and scientific achievements. The biographical statement may not exceed 100 words and should be written using Times New Roman style with a font size of 8 pt.
The publication of your article is a great achievement but then it needs to be further promoted to make it more visible to the research community. Responsibility for this task lies with the Authors and our Editorial Board. We guarantee free access to the article in the Journals PAN of the Polish Academy of Science, including articles in Early Access form (published just after acceptance decision), indexing in popular and renewable databases (e.g. Thomson Scientific Master Journal List, Elsevier’s Scopus, Google Scholar). Furthermore, selected articles are highlighted on the journal website and are reprinted for promotion at conferences and other events. The Authors can share the final form of the article on various social networks and research-sharing platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook, Linkedin, ResearchGate,, SciProfiles. They are also encouraged to update personal and institutional webpages by adding the title and a link of the article. Feel free also to share your work with your colleagues using any other methods that do not conflict with the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license.
For more detailed description about how to write a paper for the Metrology and Measurement Systems journal please look at the Author guidelines for manuscript preparation. We strongly recommend using this file as a template for manuscript preparation.

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