Humanities and Social Sciences

Nauka

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Nauka | 2023 | No 3

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Abstract

Populism is understood here according to the widely accepted definition by C. Mudde as a para-ideology containing two components, anti-elitism and the sovereignty of the people. It expresses itself in the form of social movements, specific forms of policy pursued, which sustains or inspires social conflicts, and at the same time is intended to please the people. Politics is led by a charismatic leader who gains legitimacy through elections, but the conditions of electoral competition are modified in various ways to ensure the success of the populist party and its leader. The article discusses the results of psychological research that deal with the psychological determinants of populist attitudes. They concern the emotionalmotivational and cognitive functioning of those who accept the para-ideology of populism and populist power. The genesis of populism is also discussed, which is related to some important defects in liberal democracies.
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Authors and Affiliations

Janusz Reykowski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Instytut Psychologii PAN, Warszawa
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Abstract

Group identity is both a fundamental issue for social psychology and one of the key explanations of intergroup hostility. In this paper, on the basis of a nationwide survey ( N = 1016), we compare the strength of Poles’ identification with nation, place of residence, occupation and gender, while presenting regional variations in these identifications in Poland. In doing so, we analyze the relationship between acceptance of minority groups and these identifications. We also test whether the three components of national identity: the strength of ties, the ingroup affect, and the cognitive centrality are indeed, as suggested in previous studies, beneficial aspects of identity that have a positive relationship with attitudes toward out-groups. The findings we obtained, among other things, allowed us to look at identification with groups as more complex than was assumed during previous research. Different contents of identification, as well as different components of national identity, are differently associated with acceptance of outgroups. Particular attention is paid to broad, umbrella identifications that have positive associations with acceptance of minorities.
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Authors and Affiliations

Dominik Puchała
1
Michał Bilewicz
1

  1. Wydział Psychologii Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego
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Abstract

The subject of many controversies has been both the understanding of the limits of scientific knowledge and the indication of the “boundary” conditions of orders placed for it. In some cases, we are in favor of widening these boundaries in such a way that they can also include religious and quasi-religious beliefs, while in others we are in favor of narrowing them so that knowledge and faith can be clearly distinguished. In these considerations, I cite examples of positions on both issues that have in the past met with both relatively wide acceptance and serious reservations. It is worth taking a closer look at them, because it turns out that in science nothing is decided once and for all, and what seemed to belong to the past sometimes comes back with even greater force. I show this on two examples of contemporary positions on the issue of understanding the limits of scientific knowledge.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zbigniew Drozdowicz
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Instytut Kulturoznawstwa, Uniwersytetim. Adama Mickiewicza
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Abstract

Psychotherapy as an evidence-based clinical practice is a relatively young field. In defining psychotherapy, we will outline a continuum – from the use of psychological methods to improve well-being to psychotherapy as an evidence-based method of treating mental disorders. We discuss the types of outcome research, metaanalyses and recommendations for practice. Based on the example of research program TRAKT on psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy PTSD conducted in Poland, we will point out important questions of modern psychotherapy regarding the interpretation of research results, patient safety, personalization of treatment and ways of development and its place in the mental healthcare.
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Authors and Affiliations

Agnieszka Popiel
1
ORCID: ORCID
Bogdan Zawadzki
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Centrum Badań Klinicznych i Doskonalenia Psychoterapii,Instytut Psychologii, Uniwersytet SWPS
  2. Wydział Psychologii, UniwersytetWarszawski
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Abstract

Joris-Karl Huysmans, one of the most prominent French writers of the turn of the twentieth century, began his literary career as a naturalist, a promising disciple of Emile Zola. He departed from these ideals in his best-known novel A rebours (1884), considered the “bible of decadence”. Its protagonist, the eccentric misanthrope des Esseintes, withdraws from society to indulge in contemplation in solitude, studying rare prints and seeking beauty in the singular. He appreciates the scandalising works of writers such as Barbey d,Aurevilly and Baudelaire. These authors have been accused of promoting satanism. Durtal, the protagonist of the novel Lă-bas, goes even further, in which we find contemporary echoes of satanism, attempts to revive the ritual of the black mass or a fascination with cruelty. Ultimately, however – and this is best evidenced in subsequent works ( En route, La Cathédrale, L,Oblat) satanism brings disillusionment. A return to the Christian religion, which Huysmans nevertheless interprets in an original way, becomes inevitable.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jan Tomkowski
1

  1. Instytut Badań Literackich PAN, Warszawa
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Abstract

The paper examines Edward Said's critique of Thomas Edward Lawrence view on Arabs and Arabian culture and society. On the one hand some of Said's allegations seems poorly grounded and can be deny with some excerpts from Lawrence's Seven Pillars of Wisdom. On the other hand Said doesn't remark serious shortcomings of Lawrence's outlook of intercultural relations.
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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Gajewski
1

  1. Instytut Badań Literackich PAN,Warszawa
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Abstract

Orhan Pamuk, the winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2006, is one of the most interesting and versatile of contemporary writers whose prose contributes to the understanding of the cultural background of the Orient and the Occident forged out of the juxtaposition of Islam and Christianity. As a might-have-been artist, who is currently an amateur photographer, the author, in an uncommon way, visualizes the continual wonder towards colors in the surrounding reality featuring in his fictional and non-fictional texts. The most important aspects of Pamuk’s works, however, are the journeys near and far and those within oneself, as well as the wanderings through cities, especially those of his native Istanbul. Aside from the returns home and to the motherland, Pamuk contrasts the inspiring voyages out with the voyages into the collective and individual past, in all their historical and political complexity. The present paper is an overview of Orhan Pamuk’s works from the perspective of colors and the aforesaid passages, which remind his readers of travelling as a basic topos of the course of human existence.
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Authors and Affiliations

Liliana Sikorska
1

  1. Wydział Anglistyki, Uniwersytet im. AdamaMickiewicza w Poznaniu
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Abstract

According to a widespread view, reviews in science are an instrument for the selection of ideas and people. The article analyzes the gatekeeping role of habilitation proceedings in Polish sociology, taking into account three main areas: (1) the power held in the field of sociology by individual and institutional selectors, (2) statistics on the results of selection, and (3) the fate of academics rejected in the gatekeeping process. It has been found that (1) in Polish sociology there are leading institutions that play the largest role in awarding habilitation degrees, but unlike in other disciplines, there is no phenomenon of domination in the field of review by specific scholars. (2) In the proceedings from 2013–2019, 12.5% of the proceedings ended with a refusal to grant the degree. In the set, no proceedings with a controversial outcome were found (e.g., conferring a degree with a preponderance of negative reviews or vice versa). In the examination of the review results, no trend of systematic gender discrimination was found. (3) 32% of those who were denied a degree left the scientific community, while 63% are still working at the same university as before the denial.
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Authors and Affiliations

Łukasz Remisiewicz
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Uniwersytet Gdański, Instytut Socjologii
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Abstract

This year the new international guidelines of WIST (The World Federation for Interventional Stroke Treatment) on the physician’s training in the interventional acute stroke treatment were published. WIST multispecialty guidelines outline competency and quality standards for physicians and centers to perform safe and effective endovascular stroke treatment with mechanical thrombectomy. The role of quality control and quality assurance is highlighted. WIST establishes an individualized approach to acquiring clinical knowledge and procedural skills to meet the competency requirements for certification of interventionalists of various disciplines and stroke centers in endovascular treatment. WIST guidelines encourage acquisition of skills using innovative training methods such as structured supervised high-fidelity simulation and procedural performance on human perfused cadaveric models. In Poland in 2018 a pilot program on mechanical thrombectomy was established, however endovascular acute stroke treatment is still underused due to limited patients access to stroke centers and too small number of operators.
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Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Musiałek
1
Rafał Niżankowski
2
Adam Witkowski
3

  1. Klinika Chorób Serca i Naczyń Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego,KSS im. Jana Pawła II, Kraków
  2. SanoScience i małopolski konsultant wojewódzki w dziedzinieangiologii, Kraków
  3. Klinika Kardiologii i AngiologiiInterwencyjnej, Narodowy Instytut Kardiologii w Warszawie
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Abstract

Neuroscience with neurology and psychiatry – the most frequently cited Polish scientists and institutions that employ them. Using Scopus and Web of Science databases we identified the polish scientists with the highest number of publications, citations, and h-index in the field of neuroscience with neurology and psychiatry. 138 such researchers were identified and then assigned to the research units in which they are employed. This type of analysis may allow
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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Pilc
1

  1. Instytut Farmakologii PAN im. Jerzego Majaoraz Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Collegium Medicum
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Abstract

A project containing suggested amendments to the act of 2010 regulating the work of Commission for Research Integrity (CIR) has been forwarded to the Ministry of Education and Science In August 2022 – no decision has been communicated yet. In April 2022 CIR met with President of PAS prof. J. Duszyński. Current organizational and legislative issues have been discussed as well as means to strenghten the work of CRI. A meeting between CRI and Council for Scientific Excellence was held on 1 August 2022 which dealt with the need to modify the legislation relevant for promotion to full professorship. As pointed out earlier by CRI referees should have access to complete scientific output of a candidate (and not only to its fragments selected by a candidate). In addition, the evaluation should also include ethical aspects of a candidate scientific activity.
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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Górski
1
Mieczysław Grabianowski
2

  1. przewodniczący Komisji do sprawEtyki w Nauce
  2. dyrektor Gabinetu Prezesa PAN
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Abstract

Professor Łucjan Krause, a long-term head of the Department of Physics of the University of Windsor died on July 4, 2022 in Windsor, Ontario in Canada. He was an outstanding Polish-Canadian physicist, who made important contributions to the atomic, molecular and optical physics. Born in Poznań on January 8, 1928, as a scout and Home Army soldier (nickname “Leonidas”), he took part in the Warsaw Uprising and after its failure was sent to a POW camp in Bergen-Belsen, in Germany. In 1951 after graduating from King’s College University of London, he emigrated to Canada, where he began his studies of physics at the University of Toronto. In 1955 he obtained in Toronto the PhD degree in physics under the supervision of Professor Harry Welsh in Raman spectroscopy of gases. Then for three years he worked as an associate professor of physics at the Memorial University of Newfoundland in St. John’s. In 1958 he accepted an invitation from the University of Windsor and became a head of its Department of Physics. In Windsor, Krause created a vibrant scientific centre in which he developed research program in experimental studies of inelastic atomic collisions. The main attention was focused on the excitation energy transfer between colliding atoms, the quenching of fluorescence radiation by molecular gases and, more recently, on laser spectroscopy of metal excimers. In 1963 he initiated the cooperation with Professor Aleksander Jabłoński, head of the Chair of Experimental Physics of Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń. Thanks to this cooperation numerous physicists, first from Toruń and later from other Polish scientific centers – as postdoctoral fellows – participated in experiments with the use of advanced laser equipment, not available in Poland at that time. In this way, Łucjan Krause contributed significantly to the development of physics in Poland. In order to pay tribute to his effort and devotion, in 1983 the Senate of Nicolaus Copernicus University awarded Professor Łucjan Krause a doctor honoris causa degree.
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Authors and Affiliations

Józef Szudy
1

  1. Instytut FizykiUMK, Toruń

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