Life Sciences and Agriculture

Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences

Content

Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences | 2021 | vol. 24 | No 3 |

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Abstract

Diarrhea caused by parasitic agents is common in neonatal calves and leads to significant economic losses in cattle farms worldwide. Cryptosporidium spp. is one of the most frequently detected parasitic agents causing diarrhea in neonatal calves. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. on a dairy farm which a has major diarrhea problem. Samples were collected from calves, cows, drinking bowls, and two different artesian water sources, as well as from the environment. All fecal samples were investigated using Kinyoun acid-fast stained slides and real-time PCR targeting the Cryptosporidium spp. COWP gene. In addition, species identification was performed by nested PCR targeting the Cryptosporidium spp. COWP gene and sequencing. Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in 11 calves (30.55%; 11/36) by real-time PCR and the cows were negative. Among real-time PCR positive samples, only five were also found positive by microscopy. Moreover, Cryptosporidium spp. was found in one of the two artesian water sources and five environmental samples by real-time PCR. Among these positive samples, eight were sequenced. According to the RFLP pattern, BLAST and, phylogenetic analyses, all sequenced samples were Cryptosporidium parvum. These findings show the importance of C. parvum as a cause of calf diarrhea on dairy farms.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Karakavuk
1 2
H. Can
3
M. Döşkaya
1
T. Karakavuk
1
S. Erkunt-Alak
3
A.E. Köseoğlu
3
A. Gül
4
C. Ün
3
Y. Gürüz
1
A. Değirmenci-Döşkaya
1

  1. Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Parasitology, Bornova, İzmir, Turkey
  2. Ege University, Ödemiş Vocational School, Veterinary technology programs, Ödemiş, Izmir, Turkey
  3. Ege University Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Molecular Biology Section, Bornova, İzmir, Turkey
  4. Ege University Faculty of Engineering, Department of Bioengineering, Bornova, İzmir, Turkey
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Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effects of feed addition of LAVIPAN PL5 probiotic preparation containing compositions of microencapsulated lactic acid bacteria ( Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus) on production parameters and post-vaccinal immune response in pigs under field condition. The study was performed on 400 pigs in total and 60 pigs from this group were used to evaluate the effect of the product tested on the post-vaccinal response. The animals were divided into two groups: control group, fed without additive of LAVIPAN PL5 and the study group, receiving LAVIPAN PL5 at doses recommended by manufacturer from weaning to the end of fattening. The following parameters were recorded: main production parameters, including weight gains, fattening time (slaughter age) and animal health status during the study (mortality), and specific humoral post-vaccinal response after vaccination against swine erysipelas. The results indicate that the application of LAVIPAN PL5 had positive influence on the animals` productivity and did not significantly affect the post-vaccinal antibody levels and the development and maintenance of the post-vaccinal response, albeit the levels of antibodies were slightly higher in the animal receiving the test preparation. The higher average daily weight gains (by over 3%) which resulted in a 2 kg higher average weight at slaughter and a reduction of the fattening period by 5 days, undoubtedly contributed to significant economic benefits.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Pomorska-Mól
1
H. Turlewicz-Podbielska
1
J. Wojciechowski
2

  1. Department of Preclinical Sciences and Infectious Diseases, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Wołyńska 35, 60-637 Poznań, Poland
  2. VETPOL Sp. z o.o., Grabowa 3, 86-300 Grudziądz, Poland
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Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) models created with computers and educational applications designed using such models are used in the medical field every day. However, there is a lack of macroscopic demonstration applications built with digital 3D models in the field of veterinary pathology. The aim is to build a fully interactive 3D educational web-based augmented reality application, to demonstrate macroscopic lesions in kidneys for educational purposes. We used open source and free software for all 3D modelling, Augmented Reality and website building. Sixteen 3D kidney pathology models were created. Kidney models modelled in 3D and published as WebAR are as follows: normal kidney, unilateral neurogenic shutdown with atrophy, hydronephrosis, hypercalcemia of malignancy tubular nephrosis, interstitial corticomedullary nephritis, renal infarct, multifocal petechial hemorrhages, polycystic kidneys, renal masses, multifocal nephritis, pigmentary nephrosis, papillary necrosis, glucose-related rapid autolysis (pulpy kidney), pyelonephritis, renomegaly and kidney stones. With the workflow shown here, it has been presented as a feasible model application for human pathology and presented to educators, researchers and developers who have 3D models and AR in their field of interest. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study on Web-Augmented Reality application for veterinary pathology education.
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Authors and Affiliations

H.T. Atmaca
1
O.S. Terzi
2

  1. Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Balikesir University, Cagis Yerleskesi, 10145, Balikesir, Turkey
  2. Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ankara University, Ziraat Mahallesi Sehit Omer Halisdemir Bulvari, 06110, Altindag, Ankara, Turkey
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Ovsynch protocol in the treatment of post-service subestrus in individual dairy cows compared to a single administration of PGF2α. The study was performed on 517 Polish Friesian Holstein cows with post-service anestrus over four years in 3 dairy herds under a herd health program. Cows (n=240) diagnosed ultrasonographically as non-pregnant and with a mature corpus were treated with a single PGF2α administration and inseminated at detected estrus. Cows without corpus (n=277) were treated with the Ovsynch protocol. The estrus detection rate after PGF2α administration, percentages of cows pregnant after the treatment and at day 260, intervals from parturition to treatment and from treatment to conception and pregnancy loss rates were calculated. The overall percentage of cows pregnant after treatment did not differ between animals treated with the Ovsynch protocol and with PGF2α (38.9% vs. 42.5%; p>0.05). In herd A the percentage of cows pregnant after treatment was significantly lower (p<0.05) for the Ovsynch group than for the PGF2α group (30.2% vs. 61.2%). In contrast, in herd C the percentage of cows pregnant after treatment was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the Ovsych group than in the PGF2α group (39.6% vs. 28.8%). The overall estrus detection rate after administration of PGF2α was 59.6%. However, it was significantly lower (p<0.05) in herd C (44.7%) than in herds A (79.6%) and B (76.3%). The overall pregnancy loss rate ranged from 5.1% to 13.3% and did not differ significantly between herds and treatment groups (p>0.05). In conclusion, Ovsynch protocol can be a useful alternative for treatment of post-service suboestrus in individual cows in dairy herds with insufficient oestrus detection.
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Bibliography


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Authors and Affiliations

W. Barański
1
A. Nowicki
1
S. Zduńczyk
1

  1. Department of Animal Reproduction with Clinic, University of Warmia and Mazury, ul. Oczapowskiego 14, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
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Abstract

Several pre-analytical factors may influence the accurate measurements of testosterone (T) and therefore, these factors must be a significant concern. This study aimed to examine the effects of 1) time of sample collection, 2) delay to centrifugation, 3) sample matrix types, and 4) device and duration of sample storage on the T concentrations. Blood samples were collected from 34 bucks of Kacang goats. For testing the effect of collection time, 12 pairs of morning and afternoon samples were collected. For testing the effect of delayed centrifugation, 24 samples were subjected to treatments: (i) centrifuged < 1 hour after collection (control group), (ii) centrifuged 6, 12, and 24 hours after collection (test groups). For testing the different sample matrix types, 10 samples were processed as serum and plasma. For testing the effect of sample storage device and duration, 60 samples were subjected to treatments: i) frozen at -20OC (control group), ii) stored in a cooler box, a styrofoam box, and a thermos-flask for two, four, and six days (test groups). T concentrations were measured using a validated testosterone ELISA kit. Concentrations of plasma testosterone (pT) from morning samples were significantly higher compared to afternoon samples (p<0.05). Delayed centrifugation for up to 24 h decreased significantly on pT concentrations (p<0.05). The concentrations of T from serum and plasma did not differ and showed a strong correlation (r=0.981). Storage device and duration affected the T concentrations compared to frozen samples (p<0.05) which T concentrations were stable for up to 4 days in a styrofoam box and a thermos-flask and up to 6 days in a cooler box. In conclusion, the measurement accuracy and stability of T concentrations in goats are affected by collection time, delay to centrifugation, and device and duration of storage.
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Authors and Affiliations

G. Gholib
1
S. Wahyuni
1
A. Abdilla
1
T.P. Nugraha

  1. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh, 23111, Aceh, Indonesia
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Abstract

Periodontitis is a highly prevalent, chronic immune-inflammatory disease of the periodontium that results in the periodontium and alveolar bone loss’s progressive destruction. In this study, the induction of periodontal disease via retentive ligature, lipopolysaccharide, and their combination at three different times were compared in a rat model. Seventy-two Sprague Dawley rats were distributed into four treatment groups: 1) control group with no treatment; 2) application of 4/0 nylon ligature around second maxillary molars; 3) combination of ligature and LPS injection (ligature-LPS); 4) intragingival injection of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide ( Pg-LPS) to the palatal mucosa of the second maxillary molars. Six rats were sacrificed from each group after 7, 14, and 30 days of periodontal disease induction. Alveolar bone loss, attachment loss, number of inflammatory cells, and blood vessels were evaluated histologically. A micro-CT scan was used as a parameter to know the rate of alveolar bone loss. Parametric data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni correction with a significance set at 5%. Non-parametric data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis, followed by multiple comparisons with Bonferroni correction. The histological results revealed significant destructive changes in the periodontal tissues and alveolar bone following the ligature and ligature-LPS induction techniques. These changes were evident as early as seven days, maintained until 14 days post-treatment, and declined with time. The ligature technique was effective in inducing acute periodontal disease. The LPS injection technique did not induce alveolar bone loss, and its combination to ligature added insignificant effects.
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Authors and Affiliations

H. Mustafa
1 2
C.H. Cheng
1
R. Radzi
1
L.S. Fong
1
N.M. Mustapha
1
H.O. Dyary
2

  1. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
  2. College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
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Abstract

Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a single-stranded DNA virus that causes severe and fatal gastrointestinal diseases in dogs. CPV has developed several strategies to evade innate immune response mediated by type I interferons (IFN-I) to achieve a successful infection. The aim of this work was to evaluate the capability of CVP-2c to evade the IFN-I mediated response in infected cells. To establish the role of this response, the gene expression of interferon β (IFNβ), IFIT1, IFIT3, MAVS, and STING were estimated in MDCK cells infected with CPV-2c. Viral replication and gene expression was evaluated by quantitative PCR, also, a treatment with IFN-I (interferon omega) was included to confirm the role of IFN-I during CPV infection. The results revealed that CPV-2c infection stimulates the expression of IFNβ moderately, in these cells. Due to low IFNβ induction, the IFIT1 and IFIT3 expression were also low, and therefore CPV-2c was able to replicate in these cells. However, when the cells were treated with exogenous IFN-I, the IFNβ expression was higher, leading to an increased gene expression of IFIT1 and IFIT3, responsible for antiviral control. The overexpression of these proteins reduced the expression of NS1 and VP2 viral genes and hence viral replication. MAVS and STING expression on infected cells showed a mild increase compared to IFNβ, suggesting that the viral infection could partially modify its expression. All results obtained in this study showed that during CPV-2c infection in MDCK cells, the IFNβ expression was altered since this cytokine is one of the most critical factors for the control and inhibition of viral replication.
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Authors and Affiliations

T. Reyes-Cruz
1
D. Martínez-Gómez
2
A. Verdugo-Rodríguez
3
J. Bustos-Martínez
4
J. López-Islas
2
E.T. Méndez-Olvera
2

  1. Doctorado en Ciencias Biológicas y de la Salud, Autonomous Metropolitan University (UAM), Calzada del Hueso 1100, Villa Quietud, C.P. 04960, Coyoacán, México City, México
  2. Department of Agricultural and Animal Production, Autonomous Metropolitan University, campus Xochimilco (UAM-X), Calzada del Hueso 1100, Villa Quietud, C.P. 04960, Coyoacán, México City, México
  3. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Av. Universidad 3000, C.P. 04510, Coyoacán, México City, México
  4. Department of Health Care, Autonomous Metropolitan University, campus Xochimilco (UAM-X), Calzada del Hueso 1100, Villa Quietud, C.P. 04960, Coyoacán, México City, México
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Abstract

Transmissible Viral Proventriculitis (TVP) is a disease of chickens which contributes to significant production losses. Recent reports indicate the role of chicken proventricular necrosis virus (CPNV) in the development of TVP. However, the relationship between CPNV and TVP is inconclusive and it has been addressed in just a few reports.
Given the above, a study was conducted to identify the relationship between TVP and CPNV prevalence in broiler chickens in Poland.
The study was carried out on 35 proventriculi samples sent for histopathological (HP) examination to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Olsztyn between 2017 and 2019. After HP examination, TVP positive samples were processed for CPNV identification by RT-PCR. TVP was the most common pathological condition of proventriculi (23 cases). CPNV was identified in 10 out of those 23 cases. The average HP score, and the average necrosis and infiltration score for CPNV-positive samples was significantly higher than in CPNV-negative ones. The average age of the CPNV-positive chickens was significantly lower than in CPNV-negative birds.
Our study confirms the role of CPNV in TVP pathogenesis and it seems that preservation of the proventriculi in the early stages of the disease, when the lesions are more pronounced, should result in a greater probability of CPNV detection.
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Bibliography


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Authors and Affiliations

M. Śmiałek
1
M. Gesek
2
D. Dziewulska
1
A. Koncicki
1

  1. Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
  2. Department of Pathological Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
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Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the utility of maximum eye temperature measured by infrared thermography (IRT) as a stress indicator compared with plasma cortisol concentration in Thoroughbred and Arabian racehorses. The study included thirty racehorses undergoing standard training for racing. Measurements of maximum eye temperature and blood collection for plasma cortisol concentration were carried out before training (BT), and within 5 (5AT) and 120 minutes (120AT) after the end of the each training session in three repetitions, with a monthly interval. Both parameters were elevated at 5AT compared to BT (p<0.001). Compared to BT, at 120AT the maximum eye temperature remained elevated (p<0.001) and plasma cortisol concentration decreased (p<0.001). The study indicated significant weak correlations (r=0.220; p<0.001) between both measurements at all time points. The results support the use of IRT technique to monitor the response of horses to stress, potentially improving animal management and welfare.
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Bibliography


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Authors and Affiliations

M. Soroko
1
K. Howell
2
K. Dudek
3
A. Waliczek
4
P. Micek
4
J. Flaga
4

  1. Institute of Animal Breeding, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Chelmonskiego 38C, 51-630 Wroclaw, Poland
  2. Microvascular Diagnostics, Institute of Immunity and Transplantation, Royal Free Hospital, Pond Street, London NW3 2QG, UK
  3. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Wroclaw University of Technology, Lukasiewicza 7/9, 50-231 Wroclaw, Poland
  4. Department of Animal Nutrition and Biotechnology, and Fisheries, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Al. Mickiewicza 24/28, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
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Abstract

Since drug companies are driven by the need to produce profit they are unwilling to make large investments in the development of new drugs if there is no market large enough to justify such investment. For this reason, veterinarians face a major obstacle – the veterinary drug market is not very profitable, which sometimes leads to not having a licensed drug available for treatment in veterinary practice. In this case, the cascade procedure allows veterinarians to, under certain circumstances, prescribe human approved drugs. The aim of our study was to analyze the pattern of human approved drugs prescription for 150 medical records of dogs participating in the survey. The results show that antimicrobial agents were the most commonly prescribed drugs for animals (50%) of all human approved drugs, and beta-lactams (38.6%) were the most widely used antibiotic classes. The most common general conditions for therapeutic use of antimicrobials in this study were digestive, skin and respiratory disorders. Our study shows that the frequency of bacterial culture, susceptibility testing and cytology was very low. Even though the off-label use of human approved drugs in animal practice is regulated by law, the results of this study indicate the need for more specific strategies and guidelines for such use. This may represent a potential for improvement by raising veterinarians’ awareness toward more prudent use of human drugs.
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Authors and Affiliations

D. Tomanic
1
D. Stojanovic
1
B. Belić
1
I. Davidov
1
N. Novakov
1
M. Radinovic
1
N. Kladar
2
Z. Kovacevic
1

  1. University of Novi Sad, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 8, 21 000 Novi Sad, Serbia
  2. University of Novi Sad, Center for Medical and Pharmaceutical Investigations and Quality Control/Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Hajduk Veljkova 3, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
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Abstract

Distribution of tripeptidyl peptidase I (TPPI) activity in the structures of porcine lumbar spinal ganglia (LSG) was studied by enzyme histochemistry on cryostat sections from all the ganglia using the substrate glycyl-L-prolyl-L-methionyl-5-chloro-1-anthraquinonyl hydrazide (GPM-CAH) and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde (NBA) as visualization factor. Light microscopic observations showed TPPI activity in almost all the LSG structures. The enzyme reaction in different cell types was compared semi-quantitatively. Strong reaction was observed in the small neurons, satellite ganglia cells and some nerve fibers. Weak reactivity was found in the large sensory somatic neurons, whereas moderate reaction for TPPI was determined in the middle sensory somatic neurons and some nerve fibers. Statistical analysis by one-way ANOVA showed no significance of difference (when p<0.05) for the number of TPPI positive neurons per mm2. The original data obtained by the enzyme histochemistry method give us a reason to presume that TPPI actively participates in the functions of all the neuronal structures in porcine LSG. According to our results, it could be suggested that TPPI activity is important for the functions of autonomic and somatic sensory neurons.
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Authors and Affiliations

A.P. Vodenicharov
1
M. Dimitrova
2
N.S. Tsandev
1
I.S. Stefanov
3

  1. Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Trakia University of Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
  2. Institute of Experimental Morphology, Pathology and Anthropology with Museum, Bulgarian Academy of Science, Sofia, Bulgaria
  3. Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Trakia University of Stara Zagora, Student Town 6000, Bulgaria
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Abstract

Purpose: To assess the initial therapy of chronic superficial keratitis (CSK) in dogs with the use of dexamethasone and cyclosporine/ dimethyl sulfoxide combination eye drops.
Methods: The study was conducted on 41 dogs – 16 males and 25 females, aged 2 to 9 years, diagnosed with CSK. The disease was treated with two kinds of eye drops containing 0.1% dexamethasone and 0.75% cyclosporine in combination with 30% DMSO, administered three times a day. Prior to the treatment and after 5 weeks of therapy, depigmentation of the third eyelid margin, corneal neovascularization and pigmentation were assessed. The percentage of the corneal surface afflicted with inflammatory processes was calculated with the use of IsoCalc.com’s Get Area software for CorelDRAW12.
Results: The administered therapy resulted in a significant decrease in the mean number of quadrants affected by corneal neovascularization in the right eye from 2.63 prior to treatment to 0.24 after treatment (p<0.001), and the left eye from 2.66 to 0.59 (p<0.001), respectively. Mean corneal surface afflicted with inflammatory processes was statistically significantly reduced from 53.5% to 26.3% (p<0.001) in the case of right corneas, and from 54.5% to 30.2% (p<0.001) in the case of left corneas. Of 77 corneas diagnosed with pigmentation, pigmentation reduction was observed in 54 and pigmentation increase in 27.
Conclusions: Using dexamethasone and cyclosporine/DMSO combination eye drops proved to be a viable initial therapy against CSK, which facilitates reduction of inflammatory processes and neovascularization atrophy, but in many cases does not inhibit the progress of pigmentation.
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Authors and Affiliations

I. Balicki
1
M. Szadkowski
1
A. Balicka
2
J. Zwolska
1

  1. Department and Clinic of Animal Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland
  2. Small Animal Clinic, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Košice, Slovakia
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Abstract

The study aimed to determine the content of selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) in the liver of predominantly plant-eating omnivore wild boar (Sus scrofa), predominantly meat-eating omnivore red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and herbivore red deer (Cervus elaphus), from North-Eastern Poland (Warmia and Mazury), in order to verify the distribution of these elements in the trophic pyramid. Furthermore, the study was used to assess the risk of eating venison. Samples were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The average concentration of Se was 3.9 (p<0.001) and 1.8-fold higher (p<0.001) in the wild boar and red fox, respectively, in comparison to the red deer, and 2.1-fold higher in the wild boar comparing to the red fox (p<0.001). There was no difference in the average concentration of Zn. The average concentration of Cu was 9.3. Concentration of this element was 5.4-fold higher in red deer in comparison to red fox (p<0.001) and 9,34-fold higher than in wild boar (p<0.001).
The average concentration of Cd was 1.9-fold higher in wild boar in comparison to the red fox (p<0.029). Correlation between Cu and Cd concentrations was also observed in the case of the red deer and red fox, while no such correlations were observed between the tested elements in the wild boar. In conclusion, the liver concentrations of these heavy metals in selected wild animas species from the hunting areas of Warmia and Mazury, do not exceed standard safe values for consumers. Moreover, the wild red deer population in North-Eastern Poland is significantly Se deficient.
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Authors and Affiliations

K. Cebulska
1
P. Sobiech
1
D. Tobolski
1
D. Wysocka
1
P. Janiszewski
2
D. Zalewski
2
A. Gugołek
2
J. Illek
3

  1. Department of Internal Disease, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 14, 10-957 Olsztyn, Poland
  2. Department of Fur-bearing Animal Breeding and Game Management, Faculty of Animal Bioengineering, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland
  3. Clinic of Ruminant and Swine Diseases, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic
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Abstract

The study was carried out in 5 dairy herds of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows. The average milk yield was about 9000 kg per year. For each herd, the following fertility parameters were calculated at the start of the program and 4 years later: first- service conception rate, services per conception, length of inter-calving period and culling rate due to infertility. The incidence of silent heat, ovarian cysts, ovarian afunction, retained placenta and clinical endometritis was also recorded. Four years after implementation of the program, the average first-service conception rate increased from 43.2% to 51.2%. In three herds the differences were statistically significant (p<0.05). There was also a decrease in the number of services per pregnancy and in the culling rate due to infertility. Fertility performance was maintained in two herds. The average incidence of silent heat decreased from 38.1% to 29.7% and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05) in three herds. There was no significant reduction in incidence of other reproductive disorders during the 4 years except for clinical endometritis in one herd. The average milk yield increased from 9300 kg to 9530 kg milk per cow per year. In conclusion, the results indicate that the implementation of the integrated veterinary herd health program improved or maintained fertility performance despite an increase in milk yield.
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Authors and Affiliations

W. Barański
1
A. Nowicki
1
S. Zduńczyk
1

  1. Department of Animal Reproduction with Clinic, University of Warmia and Mazury, ul. Oczapowskiego 14, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
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Abstract

Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) is an avian oncogenic retrovirus that causes atrophy of immune organs, such as the spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius, leading to severe immunosuppression. However, there is limited information describing the genes or microRNAs (miRNAs) that play a role in replicating REV-spleen necrosis virus (SNV). Our previous miRNA and RNA sequencing data showed that the expression of gga-miR-222b-5p was significantly upregulated in REV-SNV-infected chicken spleens of 7, 14, and 21 dpi compared to non-infected chicken spleens, but mitogen-activated protein kinase 10 (MAPK10), which is related to innate immunity, had the opposite expression pattern. To understand chicken cellular miRNA function in the virus-host interactions during REV infection, we used quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) to determine whether the expression of gga-miR-222b-5p and MAPK10 in the spleen of specific-pathogen-free chickens at 28, 35, and 42 dpi was consistent with the first 3 time points, and dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to determine the targeting relationship between gga-miR-222b-5p and MAPK10. Results show that MAPK10 was downregulated at all 3 time points; however, significant difference (p<0.01) was noted only at 35 dpi. Moreover, the expression of gga-miR-222b-5p was upregulated; however, significant difference (p<0.01) was observed only at 28 and 35 dpi. A dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that MAPK10 is a direct target of gga-miR-222b-5p. This study suggests that gga-miR-222b-5p may target MAPK10 to promote the REV-SNV-induced tumorigenesis via the RLRs signaling pathway.
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Authors and Affiliations

H. Jiang
1 2 3
S. Gao
4
M. Mao
1 2 3
Y. Diao
1 2 3
Y. Tang
1 2 3
J. Hu
1 2 3

  1. College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, No.61 Daizong Street, Tai’an 271018, China
  2. Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong Agricultural University, No.61 Daizong Street, Tai’an 271018, China
  3. Shandong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Animal Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong Agricultural University, No.61 Daizong Street, Tai’an 271018, China
  4. Unit of Animal Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, No.1 Shizi Shan Street, Wu’han 430070, China
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Abstract

Helicobacter species have been reported in animals, some of which are of zoonotic importance. This study aimed to detect Helicobacter species among human and animal samples using conventional PCR assays and to identify their zoonotic potentials. Helicobacter species was identified in human and animal samples by genus-specific PCR assays and phylogenetic analysis of partial sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The results revealed that Helicobacter species DNA was detected in 13 of 29 (44.83%) of the human samples. H. pylori was identified in 2 (15.38%), and H. bovis was detected in 4 (30.77%), whereas 7 (53.85%) were unidentified. H. bovis and H. heilmannii were prevalent among the animal samples. Phylogenetic analysis revealed bootstrapping of sequences with H. cinaedi in camel, H. rappini in sheep and humans, and Wollinella succinogenes in humans. In conclusion, the occurrence of non-H. pylori infections among human and animal samples suggested zoonotic potentials.
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Authors and Affiliations

A.I. Youssef
1
A. Afifi
2
S. Abbadi
3
A. Hamed
4
M. Enany
2

  1. Animal Hygiene and Zoonoses, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, 41522, 4.5 Km Ring Road, Ismailia, Egypt
  2. Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt
  3. Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Suez University, 43512, Alsalam City, Suez, Egypt
  4. Biotechnology Department, Animal Health Research Institute, P.O. Box 264, Dokki, Giza 12618, Egypt
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Abstract

This article is an attempt to gather available literature regarding the use of tiletamine and zolazepam combination in anaesthesia in dogs and cats. Although tiletamine and zolazepam mixture has been known in veterinary practice for a long time, the increased interest in these drugs has been observed only recently. Tiletamine, similarly to ketamine, is a drug which belongs to the phencyclidine group. Ketamine has considerable popularity in veterinary practice what suggests that other dissociative anaesthetic drugs, such as tiletamine, could also prove effective in cats’ and dogs’ anaesthetic care. Zolazepam is a widely used benzodiazepine known for its muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant properties. While conducting an electronic search for articles regarding the use of tiletamine-zolazepam combination in dogs and cats, it has been discovered that the literature on the subject (tiletamine-zolazepam combination in dogs and cats) is quite scarce. Very few articles were published after 2010. Databases used were: Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed. Most of the adverse effects, including those affecting the cardiovascular, nervous, and respiratory systems, were strictly dose-dependent. Tiletamine-zolazepam combination can be safely used as a premedication agent, induction for inhalation anaesthesia, or an independent anaesthetic for short procedures. Contraindications using tiletamine-zolazepam mixture include central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as epilepsy and seizures, head trauma, penetrative eye trauma, cardiovascular abnormalities (hypertrophy cardiomyopathy in cats, arrythmias or conditions where increase of heart rate is inadvisable), hyperthyroidism, pancreatic deficiencies or kidney failure.
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Authors and Affiliations

P. Kucharski
1
Z. Kiełbowicz
1

  1. Department and Clinic of Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Wroclaw University of Environment and Life Sciences, Pl. Grunwaldzki 51, Wrocław 50-336, Poland

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