Nauki Biologiczne i Rolnicze

Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences


Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences | 2024 | vol. 27 | No 2

Pobierz PDF Pobierz RIS Pobierz Bibtex


The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of humic substances on performance and selected blood biochemical parameters in turkeys. A total of twenty 6-week-old turkey hybrids (Big 6) were divided into two groups. The first group of turkeys was fed the basal diet without any supplementation of humic substances as a control group. The second group was fed the basal diet supplemented with 5 g of humic substances per kg of diet. The study lasted 35 days, until the 11th week of age of the turkeys. The addition of humic substances had no effect on the live body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, or growth rate of turkeys. Similarly, the monitored blood biochemical parameters, except for the levels of P, Mg, and Na, were not significantly affected by the addition of humic substances. The addition of humic substances led to a significant decrease in the concentration of P (p˂0.05), Mg (p˂0.05), and Na (p˂0.01) in the blood serum of turkeys. It was concluded that the addition of humic substances may lead to a reduction of some mineral substances in the blood of animals, which may be due to their chelating effects. This may indicate a reduced availability of some biologically important minerals for the body, which could subsequently manifest itself in some health issues and a decrease in animal production. During the duration of our study, there were no signs of disturbance in the health of the animals. In view of the achieved results, further studies will be necessary to determine the appropriate concentration and duration of administration of the monitored preparation and to evaluate its influence on the availability of nutrients and feed conversion and its possible use as a safe non-antibiotic growth stimulator in turkey nutrition.
Przejdź do artykułu


Abdel-Mageed MA (2012) Effect of dietary humic substances supplementation on performance and immunity of Japanese quail. Egypt Poult Sci J 32: 645-660.

Agboola AF, Omidiwura BR, Amole AO, Olanrewaju OA, Adeniran YE (2021) Influence of humic acid supplemented diets on intestinal micro-biome and laying performance of egg-type chicken. Nig J Anim Prod 48: 276-286.

Agina OA, Ezema WS, Nwishienyi CN (2015) Haemato-biochemical profile of apparently healthy domestic turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in Nsukka, Enugu state, Nigeria. Anim Res Int 12: 2120-2129.

Arif M, Rehman A, Saeed M, Abd El-Hack ME, Arain MA, Haseebarshad M, Zakria HM, Abbasi IH (2016) Impacts of dietary humic acid sup-plementation on growth performance, some blood metabolites and carcass traits of broiler chicks. Indian J Anim Sci 86: 1073-1078.

Avci M, Denek N, Kaplan O (2007) Effects of humic acid at different levels on growth performance, carcass yields and some biochemical parame-ters of quails. J Anim Vet Adv 6: 1-4.

Bezuglova O, Klimenko A (2022) Application of humic substances in agricultural industry. Agronomy 12: 584.

Bujňák L, Hreško Šamudovská A, Mudroňová D, Naď P, Marcinčák S, Maskaľová I, Harčárová M, Karaffová V, Bartkovský M (2023) The effect of dietary humic substances on cellular immunity and blood characteristics in piglets. Agriculture 13: 636.

Celik K, Uzatici A, Akin AE (2008) Effects of dietary humic acid and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on performance and biochemical parameters of broiler chickens. Asian J Anim Vet Adv 3: 344-350.

da Costa CM, dos Santos RC, Lima ES (2006) A simple automated procedure for thiol measurement in human serum samples. J Bras Patol Med Lab 42: 345-350.

Domínguez-Negrete A, Gómez-Rosales S, de Lourdes Angeles M, López-Hernández LH, Reis-de Souza TC, López-García Y, Zavala-Franco A, Téllez-Isaias G (2019) Effect of the addition of humic substances as growth promoter in broiler chickens under two feeding regimens. Animals 9: 1101.

ELnaggar AS, El-Kelawy MI (2018) Effect of humic acid supplementation on productive performance, blood constituents, immune response and carcass characteristics of sasso chicken. Egyptian J Anim Prod 55: 75-84.

European Commission (2009) Commission Regulation (EC) No 152/2009 of 27 January 2009 laying down the methods of sampling and analysis for the official control of feed. Off J Eur Union 54: 1-130. 2009/152/oj

Gálik B, Hrnčár C, Gašparovič M, Rolinec M, Hanušovský O, Juráček M, Šimko M, Zábranský L, Kovacik A (2023) The effect of humic sub-stances on the meat quality in the fattening of farm pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). Agriculture 13: 295.

Hammod AJ, Zeny ZA, Mahdi AS, Alfertosi KA (2021) Probiotic and humic acid as feed additives and their effects on productive and economic traits of broiler. Indian J Ecol 48: 35-37.

Herzig I, Kozler J, Písaríková B, Fengl M, Jursa V (2001) Effects of a humine acid-based sorbent on the concentration of ammonia in broiler houses. Arch für Geflügelkunde 65: 246-250.

Hreško Šamudovská A, Bujňák L, Zigo F (2022) Carcass characteristic, caecal metabolites and dropping quality in broiler chickens fed diets con-taining a humic substances. Asian J Agric Food Sci 10: 133-138.

Hudák M, Semjon B, Marcinčáková D, Bujňák L, Naď P, Koréneková B, Nagy J, Bartkovský M, Marcinčák S (2021) Effect of broilers chicken diet supplementation with natural and acidified humic substances on quality of produced breast meat. Animals 11: 1087.

Ipek H, Avci M, Iriadam M, Kaplan O, Denek N (2008) Effects of humic acid on some hematological parameters, total antioxidant capacity and laying performance in Japanese quails. Arch Geflugelk 72: 56-60.

Jaďuttová I, Marcinčáková D, Bartkovský M, Semjon B, Harčárová M, Nagyová A, Váczi P, Marcinčák S (2019) The effect of dietary humic substances on the fattening performance, carcass yield, blood biochemistry parameters and bone mineral profile of broiler chickens. Acta Vet Brno 88: 307-313.

Kaya CA, Tuncer SD (2009) The effects of humates on fattening performance, carcass quality and some blood parameters of broilers. J Anim Vet Adv 8: 281-284.

Kovacik A, Gasparovic M, Tvrda E, Tokarova K, Kovacikova E, Rolinec M, Rumanova L, Capcarova M, Galik B (2020) Effects of humic acid diet on the serum biochemistry and oxidative status markers in pheasants. Vet Med 65: 258-268.

Kucukersan S, Kucukersan K, Colpan I, Goncuoglu E, Reisli Z, Yeşilbağ D (2005) The effects of humic acid on egg production and egg traits of laying hen. Vet Med – Czech 50: 406-410.

Lala AO, Okwelum N, Irekhore OT, Ogunlade BA, Adigun AA, Elegbede LA, Oyedeji MM (2016) Haematological and biochemical parameters of broiler chicken supplemented with humic acid in the drinking water. Appl Trop Agric 21: 74–78.

Mao Y (2019) Modulation of the growth performance, meat composition, oxidative status, and immunity of broilers by dietary fulvic acids. Poult Sci 98: 4509-4513.

Marcin A, Naď P, Bujňák L, Skalická M, Hreško Šamudovská A (2023) Amylolytic and cellulolytic activities, the digestibility of dry matter of broiler chickens after feed intake of humic substances. Folia Vet 67: 15-23.

Marcinčáková D, Mačanga J, Nagy J, Marcinčák S, Popelka P, Vašková J, Jaďuttová I, Mellen M (2015) Effect of supplementation of the diet with humic acids on growth performance and carcass yield of broilers. Folia Vet 59: 165-168.

Mirnawati YR, Marlida Y (2013) Effects of humic acid addition via drinking water on the performance of broilers fed diets containing fermented and non-fermented palm kernel cake. Arch Zootech 16: 41-53.

Mudroňová D, Karaffová V, Pešulová T, Koščová J, Maruščáková IC, Bartkovský M, Marcinčáková D, Ševčíková Z, Marcinčák S (2020) The effect of humic substances on gut microbiota and immune response of broilers. Food Agric Immunol 31: 137-149.

Mudroňová D, Karaffová V, Semjon B, Naď P, Koščová J, Bartkovský M, Makiš A, Bujňák L, Nagy J, Mojžišová J, Marcinčák S (2021) Effects of dietary supplementation of humic substances on production parameters, immune status and gut microbiota of laying hens. Agriculture 11: 744.

Nad P, Marcin A, Bujňák L, Skalická M, Gancarčíková S (2021) Evaluation of the growth performance and some blood parameters in broilers with the addition of humic substances in the diet. Acta Fytotech Zootech 24: 150-154.

Omidiwura BR, Olajide OC, Olaniyan OS (2022) Potentials of pepper elder (Peperomia pellucida) and humic acid as feed additives in noiler chicken production. Nig J Anim Prod 49: 86-94.

Ozturk E, Coskun I, Ocak N, Erener G, Dervisoglu M, Turhan S (2014) Performance, meat quality, meat mineral contents and caecal microbial population responses to humic substances administered in drinking water in broilers. Br Poult Sci 55: 668-674.

Ozturk E, Ocak N, Turan A, Erener G, Altop A, Cankaya S (2012) Performance, carcass, gastrointestinal tract and meat quality traits, and selected blood parameters of broilers fed diets supplemented with humic substances. J Sci Food Agric 92: 59-65.

Sahin A, İskender H, Terim KK, Altinkaynak K, Hayirli A, Gonultas A, Kaynar O (2016) The effect of humic acid substances on the thyroid func-tion and structure in lead poisoning. Braz J Poult Sci 18: 649-654.

Scanes CG, Christensen KD (2020) Poultry Science. 5th ed., Waveland Press, Inc., United States of America, p 475.

Semjon B, Marcinčáková D, Koréneková B, Bartkovský M, Nagy J, Turek P, Marcinčák S (2020) Multiple factorial analysis of physicochemical and organoleptic properties of breast and thigh meat of broilers fed a diet supplemented with humic substances. Poult Sci 99: 1750-1760.

Shah MK, Khanal C, Shah S (2023) Effect of different protein diets on the growth performance of turkey. Int J Food Sci Agric 7: 79-84. Stevenson FJ (1994) Humus chemistry: genesis, composition, reactions. Wiley-Inter-Science, New York, NY, USA, pp 34-41.

Suchy P, Herzig I, Pisarikova B (1999) The use of sorbents on the basis of humic acids to reduce ammonia levels in stable environment. Vet Med-Czech 44: 331-338.

Szabo A, Mezes M, Horn P, Sütő Z, Bázár GY, Romvari R (2005) Developmental dynamics of some blood biochemical parameters in the growing turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Acta Vet Hung 53: 397-409.

Šamudovská A, Demeterová M (2010) Effect of diet supplemented with natural humic compounds and sodium humate on performance and select-ed metabolic variables in broiler chickens. Acta Vet Brno 79: 385-393.

Taklimi SM, Ghahri H, Isakan MA (2012) Influence of different levels of humic acid and esterified glucomannan on growth performance and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens. Agric Sci 3: 663-668.

Trckova M, Matlova L, Hudcova H, Faldyna M, Zraly Z, Dvorska L, Beran V, Pavlik I (2005) Peat as a feed supplement for animals: a re-view. Vet Med - Czech 50: 361-377.

Vašková J, Stupák M, Vidová Ugurbaş M, Žatko D, Vaško L (2023) Therapeutic efficiency of humic acids in intoxications. Life 13: 971.

Veselá L, Kubal M, Kozler J, Innemanová P (2005) Structure and properties of natural humic substances of the oxyhumolite type. Chem Listy 99: 711-717.

Zhang AR, Pirzado SA, Liu GH, Chen ZM, Chang WH, Cai HY, Bryden WL, Zheng AJ (2020) Dietary supplementation with sodium humate improves egg quality and immune function of laying hens. J Appl Anim Nutr 8: 93-99.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

Hreško Šamudovská
L. Bujňák
A. Marcin
T. Mihok
M. Harčárová
L. Zábranský
P. Naď

  1. Department of Animal Nutrition and Husbandry, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Kosice, Komenskeho 73, 041 81 Kosice, Slovak Republic
  2. Department of Animal Husbandry Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Technology, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Studentska 1668, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
Pobierz PDF Pobierz RIS Pobierz Bibtex


Campylobacter spp. are the leading causes of ovine abortions leading to severe economic losses and a source of bacterial food borne illness in humans, posing a major public health concern. This study reports an increase in Brucella negative abortions in sheep farms in Kashmir, India in the last few years. Screening of sheep farms was carried to rule out Campylobacter abortion. Three Government sheep breeding farms in the Kashmir valley and some other private flocks were screened for the presence of C. jejuni and C. fetus subsp. fetus. A total of 217 samples comprising of 200 swabs (rectal and vaginal swabs; 100 each) from clinically healthy animals, ten vaginal swabs from cases of abortion and seven abomasal contents of the aborted fetuses were collected from sheep breeding farm Khimber (District, Srinagar), sheep breeding farm Goabal, the Mountain Research Centre for sheep and goats (MRCSG, SKUAST-K) (District, Ganderbal) and from private sheep breeders were screened. In the present study a total of 15.2% of samples were positive for different Campylobacter spp. by PCR. C. jejuni and C. coli were detected individually or coexisting by PCR in the rectal swabs from all farms, while C. fetus subsp. fetus was detected only in the vaginal swabs from private sheep farms and abortion samples. Additionally, C. jejuni was also isolated from vaginal swabs. A total of 5, 20 and 18 samples were confirmed positive by PCR for C. fetus subsp. fetus, C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. The Campylobacter isolates obtained in the present study were screened for flaA, cdtB, cadF, wlaN, pldA, virB and dnaJ virulence determinants. However, the isolates harboured flaA, cdtB and cadF virulence determinants only. The recovery of virulent Campylobacter isolates from healthy sheep fecal swabs in the present study may have longer human health implications. The presence of abortive strains of C. jejuni and C fetus subsp. fetus in sheep farms has long term economic implications in the Kashmir valley. This study emphasizes the need for efforts to be taken on farms to prevent animal infections and minimizing human exposure to these pathogens through proper hygiene and production practices as suggested by World Organization for Animal Health (OIE).
Przejdź do artykułu


Abdallah M, Abaza MA, Fathy RR, Youseef AG, Sobhy M, Abd Elhamid HS, Ahmed W (2022) Detection of some virulence and antibiotic re-sistance genes in Campylobacter jejuni isolated from poultry and human. Egypt J Hosp Med 1: 6373-6381.

Acik MN, Cetinkaya B (2006) Heterogeneity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains from healthy sheep. Vet Microbiol 115: 370-375.

Adesiyun AA, Kaminjolo JS, Loregnard R, Kitson-Piggott W (1992) Campylobacter infections in calves, piglets, lambs and kids in Trinidad. Br Vet J 148: 547-556.

Agerholm JS, Aalbaek B, Fog-Larsen AM, Boye M, Holm E, Jensen TK, Lindhardt T, Larsen LE, Buxton D (2006) Veterinary and medical as-pects of abortion in Danish sheep. APMIS 114: 146-152.

Bacon DJ, Alm RA, Burr DH, Hu L, Kopecko DJ, Ewing CP, Trust TJ, Guerry P (2000) Involvement of a plasmid in virulence of Campylobacter jejuni 81-176. Infect Immun 68: 4384-4390.

Bang DD, Nielsen EM, Scheutz F, Pedersen K, Handberg K, Madsen M (2003) PCR detection of seven virulence and toxin genes of Campylo-bacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from Danish pigs and cattle and cytolethal distending toxin production of the iso-lates. J Appl Microbiol 94: 1003-1014.

Bisma G, Sabia Q, Zahid AK, Ahmad WS, Nabi MS, Ahmad MF, Isfaqul HM, Aasim H, Ali RM, Shafkat MK, Rafia M (2018) RFLP analysis of flagellin (Fla) gene of Campylobacter jejuni from ovines of Kashmir, India. J Food Saf 38: 12509.

Bolton FJ, Coates D (1983) A study of the oxygen and carbon dioxide requirements of thermophilic campylobacters. J Clin Pathol 36: 829-834.

Brandl MT, Haxo AF, Bates AH, Mandrell RE (2004) Comparison of survival of Campylobacter jejuni in the phyllosphere with that in the rhizo-sphere of spinach and radish plants. Appl Environ Microbiol 70: 1182-1189.

Cardarelli-Leite P, Blom K, Patton CM, Nicholson MA, Steigerwalt AG, Hunter SB, Brenner DJ, Barrett TJ, Swaminathan B (1996) Rapid identi-fication of Campylobacter species by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of a PCR-amplified fragment of the gene coding for 16S rRNA. J Clin Microbiol 34: 62-67.

Chansiripornchai N, Sasipreeyajan, J (2009) PCR detection of four virulence-associated genes of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from Thai broilers and their abilities of adhesion to and invasion of INT-407 cells. J Vet Med Sci 71: 839-844.

Chepkwony MC (2016) Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of zoonotic campylobacter isolated from livestock and rodents in urban informal settlements in Nairobi (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Nairobi).

Chon JW, Hyeon JY, Yim JH, Kim JH, Song KY, Seo KH (2012) Improvement of modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar by supple-mentation with a high concentration of polymyxin B for detection of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in chicken carcass rinses. Appl Environ Microbiol 78: 1624-1626.

Chon JW, Seo KH, Kim B, Jeong D, Song KY (2020) Advanced methods for isolating from and confirming Campylobacter spp. in milk and dairy products. J Dairy Sci Biotechnol 38: 121-133.

Cobo-Diaz JF, Gonzalez del Rio P, Alvarez-Ordonez A (2021) Whole resistome analysis in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli genomes available in public repositories. Front Microbiol 12: 662144.

Datta S, Niwa H, Itoh K (2003) Prevalence of 11 pathogenic genes of Campylobacter jejuni by PCR in strains isolated from humans, poultry meat and broiler and bovine faeces. J Med Microbiol 52: 345-348.

Datta S, Niwa H, Itoh K (2003) Prevalence of 11 pathogenic genes of Campylobacter jejuni by PCR in strains isolated from humans, poultry meat and broiler and bovine faeces. J Med Microbiol 52: 345-348.

Denis M, Soumet C, Rivoal K, Ermel G, Blivet D, Salvat G, Colin P (1999) Development of am- PCR assay for simultaneous identification of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. Lett Appl Microbiol 29: 406-410.

Dorsch MA, Casaux ML, Calleros L, Araoz V, Caffarena RD, Monesiglio C, Barcellos M, da Silva Silveira C, Perdomo Y, Banchero G, Uzal FA (2022) Placentitis and abortion caused by a multidrug resistant strain of Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus in a sheep in Uruguay. Rev Ar-gent Microbiol 54: 25-30.

Findik A, Ica T, Onuk EE, Percin D, Kevenk TO, Ciftci A (2011) Molecular typing and cdt genes prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from various sources. Trop Anim Health Prod 43: 711-719.

Ge B, Wang F, Sjolund-Karlsson M, McDermott PF (2013) Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter: susceptibility testing methods and re-sistance trends. J Microbiol Methods 95: 57-67.

Gharbi M, Bejaoui A, Ben Hamda C, Jouin A, Ghedira K, Zrelli C, Hamrouni S, Aouadhi C, Bessoussa G, Ghram A, Maaroufi A (2018) Preva-lence and antibiotic resistance patterns of Campylobacter spp. isolated from broiler chickens in the North of Tunisia. Biomed Res Int 2018: 1-7.

Gilbert M, Brisson JR, Karwaski MF, Michniewicz J, Cunningham AM, Wu Y, Young NM, Wakarchuk WW (2000) Biosynthesis of ganglioside mimics in Campylobacter jejuni OH4384: identification of the glycosyltransferase genes, enzymatic synthesis of model compounds, and char-acterization of nanomole amounts by 600-mhz (1)h and (13)c NMR analysis. J Biol Chem 275: 3896-3906.

Guerry P (1997) Nonlipopolysaccharide surface antigens of Campylobacter species. J Infect Dis 176: S122-124.

Hamali H, Fallah S, Joozani RJ, Zare P, Noorsaadat G (2014) Detection of Campylobacter spp. in sheep aborted fetuses by PCR. Trends Life Sci 3: 49-56.

Harvey SM, Greenwood JR (1983) Relationships among catalase-positive campylobacters determined by deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 33: 275-284.

Hedstrom OR, Sonn RJ, Lassen ED, Hultgren BD, Crisman RO, Smith BB, Snyder SP (1987) Pathology of Campylobacter jejuni abortion in sheep. Vet Pathol 24: 419-426.

Hickey TE, McVeigh AL, Scott DA, Michielutti RE, Bixby A, Carroll SA, Bourgeois AL, Guerry P (2000) Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal dis-tending toxin mediates release of interleukin-8 from intestinal epithelial cells. Infect Immun 68: 6535-6541.

Jeon B, Itoh K, Ryu S (2005) Promoter analysis of cytolethal distending toxin genes (cdtA, B, and C) and effect of a luxS mutation on CDT pro-duction in Campylobacter jejuni. Microbiol Immunol 49: 599-603.

Joens LA, Haesebrouck F, Pasmans F (2010) Campylobacter and Helicobacter In: Gyles CL, Prescott JF, Songer JG, Theon CO (eds) Pathogen-esis of bacterial infections in animals. Med Microbiol. 4th ed., Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, pp 483-501.

Kirkbride CA (1993) Diagnoses in 1784 ovine abortions and stillbirths. J Vet Diagn Invest 5: 398-402.

Konkel ME, Gray SA, Kim BJ, Garvis SG, Yoon J (1999) Identification of the enteropathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli based on the cadF virulence gene and its product. J Clin Microbiol 37: 510-517.

McFadyean J,Stockman S (1913) Report of the deparmental committee appointed by the board of agriculture and fisheries to enquire into epizootic abortion, part iii (pp 1-64). Hermajesty’s Stationary office, London. books /edition / Report of the Departmental Commit-tee.

Mearns R (2007) Abortion in sheep 1. Investigation and principal causes. In Practice 29: 40-46.

Monteville MR, Yoon JE, Konkel ME (2003) Maximal adherence and invasion of INT 407 cells by Campylobacter jejuni requires the CadF out-er-membrane protein and microfilament reorganization. Microbiol 149: 153-165.

Muller J, Schulze F, Muller W, Hänel I (2006) PCR detection of virulence-associated genes in Campylobacter jejuni strains with differential ability to invade Caco-2 cells and to colonize the chick gut. Vet Microbiol 113: 123-129.

Padungton P, Kaneene JB (2003) Campylobacter spp. in human, chickens, pigs and their antimicrobial resistance. J Vet Med Sci 65: 161-70.

Perez-Perez, GI, Blaser, MJ (1996) Campylobacter and Helicobacter. Carlton LG, John F, Prescott JF, Songer JG, Thoen CO (eds) Pathogenesis of bacterial infections in animals. Med Microbiol. 4th ed., Blackwell Publishing, pp 483-501.

Poropatich KO, Walker CLF, Black RE (2010) Quantifying the association between Campylobacter infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome: a systematic review. J Health Popul Nutr 28: 545-552.

Rahimi E, Kazemeini HR, Safaei S, Allahbakhshi K, Momeni M, Riahi M (2010) Detection and identification of Campylobacter spp. from retail raw chicken, turkey, sheep and goat meat in Ahvaz, Iran. Afr J Microbiol Res 4: 1620-1623.

Raji MA, Adekeye JO, Kwaga JK, Bale JO (2000) Bioserogroups of Campylobacter species isolated from sheep in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Small Rumin Res 37: 215-221.

Reay DJM (1908) Report of the Departmental Committee appointed by the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries to inquire into and report upon the subject of agricultural education in England and Wales. In: Parliament.,Printed for HMSO, by McCorquodale & Co., Ltd.. 1908.

Reddy S, Zishiri OT (2018) Genetic characterisation of virulence genes associated with adherence, invasion and cytotoxicity in Campylobacter spp. isolated from commercial chickens and human clinical cases. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 85: 1507.

Rozynek E, Dzierzanowska-Fangrat K, Jozwiak P, Popowski J, Korsak D, Dzierzanowska D (2005) Prevalence of potential virulence markers in Polish Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates obtained from hospitalized children and from chicken carcasses. J Med Microbiol 54: 615-619.

Sahin O, Plummer PJ, Jordan DM, Sulaj K, Pereira S, Robbe-Austerman S, Wang L, Yaeger MJ, Hoffman LJ, Zhang Q (2008) Emergence of a tetracycline-resistant Campylobacter jejuni clone associated with outbreaks of ovine abortion in the United States. J Clin Microbiol 46: 1663-1671.

Sahin O, Yaeger M, Wu Z, Zhang Q (2017) Campylobacter-associated diseases in animals. Annu Rev Anim Biosci 5: 21-42.

Salama SM, Garcia MM, Taylor DE (1992) Differentiation of the subspecies of Campylobacter fetus by genomic sizing. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 42: 446-450.

Steinhauserova I, Ceskova J, Fojtikova K,Obrovska I (2001) Identification of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. by phenotypic and molecular methods. J Appl Microbiol 90: 470-475.

Wang G, Clark CG, Taylor TM, Pucknell C, Barton C, Price L, Woodward DL, Rodgers FG (2002) Colony multiplex PCR assay for identification and differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, C. upsaliensis, and C. fetus subsp. fetus. J Clin Microbiol 40: 4744-4747.

Wieczorek K, Osek J (2013) Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms among Campylobacter. Bio Med Res Int doi: 10.1155/2013/340605. Wieczorek K, Osek J (2008) Identification of virulence genes in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolates by PCR. Bull Vet Inst Puławy 52: 211-216.

Xue F, Jiang Y, Xu F, Zhang X, Luan J, Zhu C, Chen H (2009) Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter from red-crowned cranes in Chi-na. J Anim Vet Adv 8: 2442-2446.

Yaeger MJ, Sahin O, Plummer PJ, Wu Z, Stasko JA, Zhang Q (2021) The pathology of natural and experimentally induced Campylobacter jejuni abortion in sheep. J Vet Diagn Invest 33: 1096-1105.

Yoo JH, Choi NY, Bae YM, Lee JS, Lee SY (2014) Development of a selective agar plate for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh pro-duce. Int J Food Microbiol 189: 67-74.

Yuki N (2001) Infectious origins of, and molecular mimicry in, Guillain-Barré and Fisher syndromes. Lancet Infect Dis 1: 29-37.

Zilbauer M, Dorrell N, Wren BW, Bajaj-Elliott M (2008) Campylobacter jejuni-mediated disease pathogenesis: an update. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102: 123-129.

Ziprin RL, Young CR, Byrd JA, Stanker LH, Hume ME, Gray SA, Kim BJ, Konkel ME (2001) Role of Campylobacter jejuni potential virulence genes in cecal colonization. Avian Dis 45: 549-557.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

M. Hafiz
S. Qureshi
M. Gulzar
Z. Kashoo
M. Sharief Banday
S. Farooq
M. Altaf Bhat
P. Dar
S.A. Hussain
S.M. Andrabi
M.I. Hussain
G. Badroo
F. ud Din

  1. Campylobacter Laboratory; Division of Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir (SKUAST-K), Shuhama (Aulesteng)-19006, Jammu and Kashmir, India
  2. Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Soura, Srinagar- 190011, Jammu and Kashmir, India
  3. Division of Veterinary Public Health and Epidemiology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Kashmir (SKUAST-K) Shuhama (Aulesteng) Srinagar-19006, Jammu and Kashmir, India
  4. Division of Animal Biotechnology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Sher-e -Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir (SKUAST-K) Shuhama (Aulesteng) Srinagar-19006, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Pobierz PDF Pobierz RIS Pobierz Bibtex


Infectious keratoconjunctivitis is an infectious disease that negatively affects animal welfare causing systemic or local clinical signs in small ruminants and causes significant economic losses in herds. It is important to determine the etiologic agent causing the infection in the development of the protection and control strategies against the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of infectious keratoconjunctivitis cases in small ruminants raised in Siirt province in Türkiye. Infectious keratoconjunctivitis was graded according to the symptoms determined by clinical examination. The presence of Chlamydia spp., Mycoplasma spp. and Moraxella ovis was investigated by PCR in swab samples obtained from the animals with keratoconjunctivitis. Infectious keratoconjunctivitis was detected in 263 (19.86%) of 1324 animals examined in the study. Of the animals with infectious keratoconjunctivitis, 163 (61.97%) were sheep and 100 (38.02%) were goats. The detection rate of infectious keratoconjunctivitis was higher in sheep than goats. In 56 (21.29%), 109 (41.44%), 67 (25.47%), and 31 (11.78%) of the cases, findings of stage 1, 2, 3, and 4 infectious keratoconjunctivitis were detected, respectively. Of the eye swab samples taken from 263 animals with infectious keratoconjunctivitis, 5 (1.90%) were positive for Mycoplasma spp. and 6 (2.28%) were positive for M. ovis. It was determined that the distribution of the bacterial agents varied according to the stage of infectious keratoconjunctivitis. No statistically significant correlation was found in the distribution of bacterial agents among identified samples according to species, sex, age, and infectious keratoconjunctivitis stage of the animals. It was thought that the data obtained in the study would contribute to the studies for protection and control by determining the incidence and aetiology of infectious keratoconjunctivitis cases observed in small ruminants.
Przejdź do artykułu


Abdullah FF, Naidu NR, Sadiq MA, Abba Y, Tijjani A, Mohammed K, Chung EL, Norsidin MJ, Lila MA, Haron AW, Aziz A, Saharee OA (2015) Prevalence of Moraxella ovis infection in goats under the Ladang Angkat Programme, Universiti Putra Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study. IOSR-JAVS 8: 99-102.

Adamowicz MS, Stasulli DM, Sobestanovich EM, Bille TW (2014) Evaluation of methods to improve the extraction and recovery of DNA from cotton swabs for forensic analysis. PLoS ONE 9: e116351.

Aguilar XF, Cabezón Ó, Marco I, Mentaberre G, Frey J, Lavín S, López-Olvera JR (2013) Mycoplasma conjunctivae in domestic small ruminants from high mountain habitats in Northern Spain. BMC Vet Res 9: 253. Åkerstedt J, Hofshagen M (2004) Bacteriological investigation of infectious keratoconjunctivitis in Norwegian sheep. Acta Vet Scand 45: 19-26.

Akın F, Samsar E (2005) Göz hastalıkları. Medipres Matbaacılık Ltd. Şti, Malatya, pp 120-121.

Berri M, Rekiki A, Boumedine KS, Rodolakis A (2009) Simultaneous differential detection of Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila pecorum and Coxiella burnetii from aborted ruminant’s clinical samples using multiplex PCR. BMC Microbiol 9(1): 130.

Boileau MJ, Gilmour MA (2012) Diseases of the eye. In: Pugh DG, Baird AN (eds) Sheep and goat medicine. Elsevier Inc, Missouri.
Cakir L, Gümüşsoy KS, Kutsal O, Tunc AS (2014) Evaluation of brush cytology (cytospin technique) and cultural results in the diagnosis of kera-toconjunctivitis in a goat herd. Ankara Univ Vet Fak Derg 61: 35-41.

Egwu GO (1992) In vitro antibiotic-sensitivity of Mycoplasma conjunctivae and some bacterial species causing ovine infectious kera-to-conjunctivitis. Small Rumin Res 7: 85-92.

Fernández-Aguilar X, Cabezón O, Marco I, Mentaberre G, Frey J, Lavín S, López-Olvera JR (2013) Mycoplasma conjunctivae in domestic small ruminants from high mountain habitats in Northern Spain. BMC Vet Res 9: 253.

Fernández-Aguilar X, Rossi L, Cabezón O, Giorgino A, Llopis VI, Frey J, López-Olvera JR (2017) Infectious keratoconjunctivitis and occurrence of Mycoplasma conjunctivae and Chlamydiaceae in small domestic ruminants from Central Karakoram, Pakistan. Vet Rec 181: 237-244.

Gelormini G, Gauthier D, Vilei EM, Crampe JP, Frey J, Ryser-Degiorgis MP (2017) infectious keratoconjunctivitis in wild Caprinae: merging field observations and molecular analyses sheds light on factors shaping outbreak dynamics. BMC Vet Res 13: 67.

Giacometti M, Janovsky M, Belloy L, Frey J (2002) Infectious keratoconjunctivitis of ibex, chamois and other Caprinae. Rev Sci Tech 21: 335-345.

Giacometti M, Nicolet J, Johansson KE, Naglic T, Degiorgis MP, Frey J (1999) Detection and identification of Mycoplasma conjunctivae in infec-tious keratoconjunctivitis by PCR based on the 16S rRNA Gene. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B 46: 173-180.

Gray A, Kuffel A, Daeid NN (2023) An improved rapid method for DNA recovery from cotton swabs. Forensic Sci Int Genet 64: 102848.

Gülaydın Ö, Öztürk C, Ekin İH, İlhan Z, İlhan F (2023) Investigation of selected bacterial agents causing sheep abortion in the Van Province by RT-PCR and histopathological methods. Acta Vet Brno 92: 69-77.

Gülmez Sağlam A, Erkılıç EE, Büyük F, Kırmızıgül AH, Gökçe G, Balyen L, Akyüz E, Aydın U, Özba B, Otlu S (2018) Moraxella ovis and Mycoplasma conjunctivae isolation from an ovine infectious keratoconjunctivitis outbreak and fortified treatment approaches. Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg 24: 551-556.

Gupta S, Chahota R, Bhardwaj B, Priyanka P, Verma S, Sharma M (2014) Identification of Chlamydiae and Mycoplasma species in ruminants with ocular infections. Lett Appl Microbiol 60: 135-139.

Hosie BD (2007) Ocular diseases. In: Aitken ID (ed) Diseases of sheep. Blackwell Publishing, USA
Işık R, Durmuş AS (2020) Prevalance of eye diseases in the sheep and goats in Siirt and its surrounding region. FU Sag Bil Vet Derg 34: 127-132.

Işık Y, Ceylan C, Erol M (2018) Infectious keratoconjunctivitis of small ruminants. BAUN Sag Bil Derg 7: 112-116.

Jelocnik M, Laurence M, Murdoch FR, Polkinghorne A (2019) Detection of Chlamydiaceae in ocular swabs from Australian pre-export feedlot sheep. Aust Vet J 97: 401-403.

Karthik K, Manimaran K, Mahaprabhu R, Shoba K (2017) Isolation of Moraxella sp. from cases of keratoconjunctivitis in an organized sheep farm of India. Open J Vet Med 7: 138-143.

Lierz M, Hagen N, Harcourt-Brown N, Hernandez-Divers SJ, Lüschow D, Hafez HM (2007) Prevalence of mycoplasmas in eggs from birds of prey using culture and a genus-specific mycoplasma polymerase chain reaction. Avian Pathol 36: 145-150.

Loison A, Gaillard JM, Jullien JM (1996) Demographic patterns after an epizootic of keratoconjunctivitis in a chamois population. J Wildl Manage 60: 517-527.

Mayer D, Degiorgis MP, Meier W, Nicolet J, Giacometti M (1997) Lesions associated with infectious keratoconjunctivitis in alpine ibex. J Wildl Dis 33: 413-419.

Motha MXJ, Frey J, Hansen MF, Jamaludin R, Tham KM (2003) Detection of Mycoplasma conjunctivae in sheep affected with conjunctivitis and infectious keratoconjunctivitis. N Z Vet J 51: 186-190.

Naglić T, Hajsig D, Frey J, Šeol B, Busch K, Lojkić M (2000) Epidemiological and microbiological study of an outbreak of infectious keratocon-junctivitis in sheep. Vet Rec 147: 72-75.

Nordentoft S, Kabell S, Pedersen K (2011) Real-time detection and identification of Chlamydophila species in veterinary specimens by using SYBR green-based PCR assays. Appl Environ Microbiol 77: 6323-6330.

Pantchev A, Sting R, Bauerfeind R, Tyczka J, Sachse K (2009) New real-time PCR tests for species-specific detection of Chlamydophila psittaci and Chlamydophila abortus from tissue samples. Vet J 181: 145-150.

Pantchev A, Sting R, Bauerfeind R, Tyczka J, Sachse K (2010) Detection of all Chlamydophila and Chlamydia spp. of veterinary interest using species-specific real-time PCR assays. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 33: 473-484.

Polkinghorne A, Borel N, Becker A, Lu ZH, Zimmermann DR, Brugnera E, Pospischil A, Vaughan L (2009) Molecular evidence for chlamydial infections in the eyes of sheep. Vet Microbiol 135: 142-146.

Quinn PJ, Markey BK, Leonard FC, FitzPatrick ES, Fanning S, Hartigan PJ (2011) Veterinary microbiology and microbial disease. 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons Ltd., UK, pp: 300-308.

Rodolakis A, Laroucau K (2015) Chlamydiaceae and chlamydial infections in sheep or goats. Vet Microbiol 181: 107-118.

Romano JS, Leijon M, Hagström Å, Jinnerot T, Rockström UK, Tryland M (2019) Chlamydia pecorum associated with an outbreak of infectious keratoconjunctivitis in semi-domesticated reindeer in Sweden. Front Vet Sci 6: 14.

Shahzad W, Munir R, Rana MY, Ahmad R, Khan MS, Akbar G, Mohammad I, Mehmood F (2013) Prevalence, molecular diagnosis and treatment of Mycoplasma conjunctivae isolated from infectious keratoconjunctivitis affected Lohi sheep maintained at Livestock Experiment Station, Ba-hadurnagar, Okara, Pakistan. Trop Anim Health Prod 45: 737-742.

Shen HG, Gould S, Kinyon J, Opriessnig T, O’Connor AM (2011) Development and evaluation of a multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detec-tion and differentiation of Moraxella bovis, Moraxella bovoculi and Moraxella ovis in pure culture isolates and lacrimal swabs collected from conventionally raised cattle. J Appl Microbiol 111: 1037-1043.

Tola S, Idini G, Manunta D, Galleri G, Angioi A, Rocchigiani AM, Leori G (1996) Rapid and specific detection of Mycoplasma agalactiae by polymerase chain reaction. Vet Microbiol 51: 77-84.

Townsend WM (2008) Food and fiberproducing animal ophthalmology. In: Kirk NG (ed) Essentials of veterinary ophthalmology. 2nd ed., Black-well Publishing, UK, pp 379-418.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

A. Gulaydin
O. Gulaydin
M.B. Akgul
N. Sindak
O. Yildirim

  1. Siirt University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Surgery, Siirt/Türkiye
  2. Siirt University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Microbiology, Siirt/Türkiye
Pobierz PDF Pobierz RIS Pobierz Bibtex


In this study, a total of 32 Trueperella pyogenes strains isolated from different disease specimens in cattle, sheep and goats were examined. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates to 10 antimicrobials were determined using the E-test method and MIC values of the antimicrobials were investigated. The genes that play a role in the antimicrobial resistance or virulence of T. pyogenes were determined by PCR using gene specific primers. In the study, all the isolates were susceptible to penicillin and cephalosporin. The highest resistance rate in the isolates was determined against streptomycin (56.25%) and tetracycline (53.12%) and MIC90 values for these antimicrobials were found to be >256 μg/ml and 12 μg/ml, respectively. The ermX gene was found to be positive in 8 (80%) of 10 isolates that were resistant to macrolide group antimicrobials. Among 20 aminoglycoside resistant isolates, aadA1, aadA9, strA-strB, and aac(6’)-aph(2’’) genes were determined in 5 (25%), 14 (70%), 7 (35%) and 1 (5%) of the isolates, respectively. When the presence of virulence-related genes in the isolates was examined, nanP (93.75%), fimA (93.75%) and plo (90.62%) genes were detected in the majority of the isolates. While the cbpA gene was negative in all isolates, the fimG gene was found in a limited number of the isolates (15.62%). It was concluded that streptomycin and tetracycline resistance should be considered in T. pyogenes isolates. Also, nanP, fimA and plo genes may have an important role in the pathogenesis of the infections.
Przejdź do artykułu


Alkasır R, Wang J, Gao J, Ali T, Zhang L, Szenci O, Bajcsy ÁC, Han B (2016) Properties and antimicrobial susceptibility of Trueperella pyogenes isolated from bovine mastitis in China. Acta Vet Hung 64: 1-12.

Billington SJ, Jost BH (2006) Multiple genetic elements carry the tetracycline resistance gene tet(W) in the animal pathogen Arcanobacterium py-ogenes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50: 3580-3587.

Dong WL, Kong LC, Wang Y, Gou CL, Xu B, Ma HX, Gao YH (2017) Aminoglycoside resistance of Trueperella pyogenes isolated from pigs in China. J Vet Med Sci 79: 1836-1839.

Dong WL, Liu L, Odah KA, Atiah LA, Gao YH, Kong LC, Ma HX (2019) Antimicrobial resistance and presence of virulence factor genes in Trueperella pyogenes isolated from pig lungs with pneumonia. Trop Anim Health Prod 51: 2099-2103.

European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) (2019) European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing breakpoint tables for interpretation of MICs and zone diameters. Version 9.0, valid from 2019-01-01.

Fujimoto H, Shimoji N, Sunagawa T, Kubozono K, Nakajima C, Chuma T (2020) Differences in phenotypic and genetic characteristics of Trueperella pyogenes detected in slaughtered cattle and pigs with septicaemia. J Vet Med Sci 82: 626-631.

Galán-Relaño Á, Gómez-Gascón L, Barrero-Domínguez B, Luque I, Jurado-Martos F, Vela AI, Sanz-Tejero C, Tarradas C (2020) Antimicrobial susceptibility of Trueperella pyogenes isolated from food-producing ruminants. Vet Microbiol 242: 108593.

Hadimli HH, Erganiş O, Kav K, Sayın Z (2010) Isolation of Arcanobacterium pyogenes from samples of sheep and cattle and identification by Polimerase Chain Reaction. Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg 16: 611-616.

Hadimli HH, Kav K (2011) The molecular characterization of Arcanobacterium pyogenes strains isolated from samples of sheep and cattle. Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg 17: 893-899.

Hijazin M, Ülbegi-Mohyla H, Alber J, Lämmler C, Hassan AA, Abdulmawjood A, Prenger-Berninghoff E, Weiss R, Zschöck M (2011) Molecu-lar identification and further characterization of Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from bovine mastitis and from various other origins. J Dairy Sci 94: 1813-1819.

Huang T, Song X, Jing J, Zhao K, Shen Y, Zhang X, Yue B (2018) Chitosan-DNA nanoparticles enhanced the immunogenicity of multivalent DNA vaccination on mice against Trueperella pyogenes infection. J Nanobiotechnology 16: 8.

Jost BH, Billington SJ (2005) Arcanobacterium pyogenes: molecular pathogenesis of an animal opportunist. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 88: 87-102.

Jost BH, Field AC, Trinh HT, Songer JG, Billington SJ (2003) Tylosin resistance in Arcanobacterium pyogenes is encoded by an erm X determi-nant. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47: 3519-3524.

Jost BH, Post KW, Songer JG, Billington SJ (2002) Isolation of Arcanobacterium pyogenes from the porcine gastric mucosa. Vet Res Commun 26: 419-425.

Kwiecien E, Stefanska I, Chrobak-Chmiel D, Sałamasznska-Guz A, Rzewuska M (2020) New determinants of aminoglycoside resistance and their association with the class 1 integron gene cassettes in Trueperella pyogenes. Int J Mol Sci 21: 4230.

Liu MC, Wu CM, Liu YC, Zhao JC, Yang YL, Shen JZ (2009) Identification, susceptibility, and detection of integron-gene cassettes of Arcano-bacterium pyogenes in bovine endometritis. J Dairy Sci 92: 3659-3666.

Moreno LZ, Matajira CE, da Costa BL, Ferreira TS, Silva GF, Dutra MC, Gomes VT, Silva AP, Christ AP, Sato MI, Moreno AM (2017) Char-acterization of porcine Trueperella pyogenes by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), molecular typing and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling in Sao Paulo State. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 51: 49-53.

Ozturk D, Turutoglu H, Pehlivanoglu F, Guler L (2016) Virulence genes, biofilm production and antibiotic susceptibility in Trueperella pyogenes isolated from cattle. Israel J Vet Med 71: 36-42.

Quinn PJ, Markey BK, Leonard FC. FitzPatrick ES, Fanning S, Hartigan PJ (2011) Actinobacteria. In: Veterinary microbiology and microbial disease. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., UK, pp 196-206.

Ramos CP, Foster G, Collins MD (1997) Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Actinomyces based on 16S rRNA gene sequences: Description of Arcanobacterium phocae sp. nov., Arcanobacterium bernardiae comb. nov., and Arcanobacterium pyogenes comb. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47: 46-53.

Rezanejad M, Karimi S, Momtaz H (2019) Phenotypic and molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Trueperella pyogenes strains isolated from bovine mastitis and metritis. BMC Microbiol 19: 305.

Ribeiro MG, Risseti RM, Bolanos CA, Caffaro KA, Morais AC, Lara GH, Zamprogna TO, Paes AC, Listoni FJ, Franco MM (2015) Trueperella pyogenes multispecies infections in domestic animals: a retrospective study of 144 cases (2002 to 2012). Vet Q 35: 82-87.

Risseti R.M, Zastempowska E, Twaruzek M, Lassa H, Pantoja JC, de Vargas AP, Guerra ST, Bolanos CA, de Paula CL, Alves AC, Colhado BS, Portilho FV, Tasca C, Lara GH, Ribeiro MG (2017) Virulence markers associated with Trueperella pyogenes infections in livestock and com-panion animals. Lett Appl Microbiol 65: 125-132.

Rogosa M, Cummins CS, Lelliott RA, Keddie RM (1974) Coryneform group of bacteria. In: Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology. The Williams and Wilkins Company, USA, pp 599-632.

Rzewuska M, Czopowicz M, Gawrys M, Markowska-Daniel I, Bielecki W (2016) Relationships between antimicrobial resistance, distribution of virulence factor genes and the origin of Trueperella pyogenes isolated from domestic animals and European bison (Bison bonasus). Microb Pathog 96: 35-41.

Sahan Yapicier O, Ozturk D, Kaya M (2022) Genotypic and phenotypic tetracycline-based properties of Trueperella pyogenes isolates from bovine samples. Vet Res Forum 13: 469-474.

Silva E, Gaivao M, Leitao S, Jost BH, Carneiro C, Vilela CL, da Costa LL, Mateus L (2008) Genomic characterization of Arcanobacterium py-ogenes isolates recovered from the uterus of dairy cows with normal puerperium or clinical metritis. Vet Microbiol 132: 111-118.

Sunde M, Norström M (2005) The genetic background for streptomycin resistance in Escherichia coli influences the distribution of MICs. J Anti-microb Chemother 56: 87-90.

Tamai IA, Mohammadzadeh A, Salehi TZ, Mahmoodi P (2018) Genomic characterisation, detection of genes encoding virulence factors and evalu-ation of antibiotic resistance of Trueperella pyogenes isolated from cattle with clinical metritis. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 111: 2441-2453.

Ulbegi-Mohyla H, Hijazin M, Alber J, Lammler C, Hassan AA, Abdulmawjood A, Prenger-Berninghoff E, Weiss R, Zschock M (2010) Identifi-cation of Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated by post mortem examinations of a bearded dragon and a gecko by phenotypic and genotypic properties. J Vet Sci 11: 265-267.

Uluışık U, Erbaş G (2014) Identification of Trueperella pyogenes from bovine summer mastitis and detection of antibiotic resistances. Anim Health Prod Hyg 3: 294-298.

Urumova V, Lyutzkanov M, Tsachev I, Marutsov P, Zhelev G (2009) Investigations on the involvement of Arcanobacterium pyogenes in various infections in productive and companion animals and sensitivity of isolates to antibacterials. Revue Med Vet 160: 582-585.

Vakulenko SB, Donabedian SM, Voskresenskiy AM, Zervos MJ, Lerner SA, Chow JW (2003) Multiplex PCR for detection of aminoglycoside resistance genes in Enterococci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47: 1423-1426.
Wickhorst JP, Hassan AA, Sheet OH, Eisenberg T, Sammra O, Alssahen M, Lämmler C, Prenger-Berninghoff E, Zschöck M, Timke M, Abdul-mawjood A (2018) Trueperella pyogenes isolated from a brain abscess of an adult roebuck (Capreolus capreolus). Folia Microbiol (Praha) 63: 17-22.

S, Boscán-Ocando J, Nava J (2011) Normal bacterial flora from vaginas of Criollo Limonero cows. Trop Anim Health Prod 43: 291-294.

Zastempowska E, Lassa H (2012) Genotypic characterization and evaluation of an antibiotic resistance of Trueperella pyogenes (Arcanobacterium pyogenes) isolated from milk of dairy cows with clinical mastitis. Vet Microbiol 161: 153-158.

Zhao K, Liu Y, Zhang X, Palahati P, Wang H, Yue B (2011) Detection and characterization of antibiotic resistance-genes in Arcanobacterium pyogenes strains from abscesses of forest musk deer. J Med Microbiol 60: 1820-1826.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

O. Gulaydin
C. Kayikci
A. Gulaydin

  1. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Siirt, Kezer Campus, Veysel Karani District, University Street, Siirt/Türkiye
  2. Department of Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Van Yuzuncu Yil, Bardakci District, 10071 Street, No:6, Van/Türkiye
  3. Department of Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Siirt, Kezer Campus, Veysel Karani District, University Street, Siirt/Türkiye
Pobierz PDF Pobierz RIS Pobierz Bibtex


The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality parameters and selected biochemical markers of canine semen sampled at 24-h intervals over a period of 5 days, preceded by 6 months of sexual abstinence. Full ejaculates were obtained from 6 dogs. Ejaculate volume and total sperm counts in the ejaculate decreased gradually on successive sampling days. The percentage of total motile spermatozoa (TMOT), percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa (PMOT), sperm plasma membrane integrity (SPMI), and sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) increased on successive days of sampling. In addition, ATP content increased in spermatozoa. Total protein content (TPC) and the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AAT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), and acid phosphatase (AcP) decreased in seminal plasma. Repeated ejaculation over a period of 5 days induced changes in the qualitative and quantitative parameters of canine semen. A decrease in the values of some biochemical markers of semen, secreted by the epididymis and the prostate gland, could point to disturbances in the secretory activity of these organs. Canine semen sampled after prolonged sexual abstinence is generally characterized by less desirable quality parameters, and this observation should be taken into consideration when semen is collected for artificial insemination or preservation. Semen quality can be significantly improved by repeating the sampling procedure after 24 hours. One the other hand, repeated sampling on successive days can significantly decrease total sperm counts in the ejaculate. As a result, a sufficient number of semen doses for artificial insemination may not be obtained from a single ejaculate.
Przejdź do artykułu


Bessey OA, Lowry OH, Brock MJ (1946) A method for the rapid determination of alkaline phosphates with five cubic millimeters of serum. J Biol Chem 164: 321-329.

Ciereszko A, Glogowski J, Demianowicz W, Strzeżek J (1994) Stimulation of aspartate aminotransferase from farm animal semen by pyridoxal 5’-phosphate. Anim Reprod Sci 34: 327-341.

Ciereszko A, Strzeżek J (1989) Isolation and characteristics of aspartate aminotransferase from boar spermatozoa. Int J Biochem 21: 1343-1351.

England GCW (1999) Semen quality in dogs and the influence of a short-interval second ejaculation. Theriogenology 52: 981-986.

Farstad W (2009) Cryopreservation of canine semen - new challenges. Reprod Domest Anim 44 (Suppl 2): 336-341.

Feldman EC, Nelson RW (2004) Canine and feline endocrinology and reproduction. 3rd ed., Saunders, Philadelphia, pp: 930-952.

Folková, P, Šichtař, J, Šimoník, O, Dokoupilová, A, Rajmon R (2016) Changes in quality of native and frozen-thawed semen in relation to two collections performed in a 24-hour interval and addition of clarified egg yolk to extender. Scientia Agriculturae Bohemica 47: 60-67.

Garner DL, Johnson LA (1995) Viability assessment of mammalian sperm using SYBR-14 and propidium iodide. Biol Reprod 53: 276-284.

Gobello C, Castex G, Corrada Y (2002) Serum and seminal markers in the diagnosis of disorders of the genital tract of the dog: a mini-review. Theriogenology 57: 1285-1291.

Gunay U, Polat U, Gunes N, Soylu MK, Kil F (2003) The effect of short-interval ejaculation on semen quality and some biochemical parameters in dogs. Revue Med Vet 154: 459-462.

Iguer-Ouada M, Verstegen JP (2001) Long-term preservation of chilled canine semen: effect of commercial and laboratory prepared extenders. Theriogenology 55: 671-684.

Isaacs WB, Coffey DS (1984) The predominant protein of canine seminal plasma is an enzyme. J Biol Chem 259: 11520-11526.

Johnson C, Olivier NB, Nachreiner R, Mullaney T (1999) Effect of 131 I-induced hypothyroidism on indices of reproductive function in adult male dogs. J Vet Intern Med 13: 104-110.

Johnston SD (1991) Performing a complete canine semen evaluation in a small animal hospital. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 21: 545-551.

Kawakami E, Hori T, Tsutsui T (1998) Changes in semen quality and in vitro sperm capacitation during various frequencies of semen collection in dogs with both asthenozoospermia and teratozoospermia. J Vet Med Sci 60: 607-614.

Kordan W, Fraser L, Wysocki P, Strzeżek R, Lecewicz M, Mogielnicka-Brzozowska M, Dziekońska A, Soliwoda D, Koziorowska-Gilun M (2013) Semen quality assessments and their significance in reproductive technology. Pol J Vet Sci 16: 823-833.

Kutzler MA (2005) Semen collection in the dog. Theriogenology 64: 747-754.
Lechner D, Aurich J, Schäfer-Somi S, Herbel J, Aurich C (2021) Combined cryopreservation of canine ejaculates collected at a one-hour interval increases semen doses for artificial insemination without negative effects on post-thaw sperm characteristics. Reprod Domest Anim 56: 1220-1226.

Levitas E, Lunenfeld E, Weiss N, Friger M, Har-Vardi I, Koifman A, Potashnik G (2005) Relationship between the duration of sexual abstinence and semen quality: analysis of 9,489 semen samples. Fertil Steril 83: 1680-1686.

Mann T, Lutwak-Mann C (1981) Biochemistry of seminal plasma and male accessory fluids: applications to andrological problems. In: Mann T, Lutwak-Mann C (eds) Male reproductive function and semen. Themes and trends in physiology, biochemistry and investigative andrology. Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp 269-336.

Mayorga-Torres JM, Agarwal A, Roychoudhury S, Cadavid A, Cardona-Maya WD (2016) Can a short term of repeated ejaculations affect seminal parameters? J Reprod Infertil 17: 177-183.

Niżański W, Partyka A, Prochowska S (2016) Evaluation of spermatozoal function – useful tools or just science. Reprod Domest Anim 51 (Suppl. 1): 37-45.
Nöthling JO, Shuttleworth R (2005) The effect of straw size, freezing rate and thawing rate upon post-thaw quality of dog semen. Theriogenology 63: 1469-1480.

Oettle EE (1993) Sperm morphology and fertility in the dog. J Reprod Fertil Suppl 47: 257-260.

Olar TT, Amann RP, Pickett BW (1983) Relationships among testicular size, daily production and output of spermatozoa, and extragonadal sper-matozoal reserves of the dog. Biol Reprod 29: 1114-1120.

Peña FJ, Ortiz-Rodríguez JM, Gaitskell-Phillips GL, Gil MC, Ortega-Ferrusola C, Martín-Cano FE (2022) An integrated overview on the regula-tion of sperm metabolism (glycolysis-Krebs cycle-oxidative phosphorylation). Anim Reprod Sci 246: 106805.

Reitman S, Frankel S (1957) A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. Am J Clin Pathol 28: 56-63.

Root Kustritz MV (2007). The value of canine semen evaluation for practitioners. Theriogenology 68: 329-337.

Schäfer-Somi S, Fröhlich T, Schwendenwein I (2013) Measurement of alkaline phosphatase in canine seminal plasmaan update. Reprod Domest Anim 48: e10-e12.

Stasiak K, Glogowski J, Demianowicz W, Kowalski R, Nowak-Tkaczyk A, Janicki B (2014) Use of biochemical markers to evaluate the quality of fresh and cryopreserved semen from the arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus). Pol J Vet Sci 17: 427-432.
Strzeżek J, Ciereszko A (1987) Heterogeneity of aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) in bull semen. Comp Biochem Physiol B 86: 373-375.
Strzeżek J, Torska J, Borkowski K, Głogowski J, Wysocki P, Hołody D (1995) The biochemical characteristics of boar seminal plasma during high ejaculation frequency. Reprod Domest Anim 30: 77-84.

Strzeżek R, Janowski T (2003) Enzymatic markers of canine prostate. Med Weter 59: 6-9.

Strzeżek R, Filipowicz K, Stańczak M, Kordan W (2013) Spectrophotometric analysis of the resazurin reduction test as a tool for assessing canine semen quality. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 57: 281-285.

Strzeżek R, Szemplińska K, Filipowicz K, Kordan W (2015) Semen characteristics and selected biochemical markers of canine seminal plasma in various seasons of the year. Pol J Vet Sci 18: 13-18.
Taha MB, Noakes DE, Allen WE (1983) The effect of the frequency of ejaculation on seminal characteristics and libido in the Beagle dog. J Small Anim Pract 24: 309-315.

Thomas CA, Garner DL, DeJarnette JM, Marshall CE (1998) Effect of cryopreservation of bovine sperm organelle function and viability as deter-mined by flow cytometry. Biol Reprod 58: 786-793.

Thomassen R, Sanson G, Krogenæs A, Fougner JA, Andersen Berg K, Farstad W (2006) Artificial insemination with frozen semen in dogs: a retrospective study of 10 years using a non-surgical approach. Theriogenology 66: 1645-1650.

Tremoen NH, Gaustad AH, Andersen-Ranberg I, van Son M, Zeremichael TT, Frydenlund K, Grindflek E, Våge DI, Myromslien FD (2018) Relationship between sperm motility characteristics and ATP concentrations, and association with fertility in two different pig breeds. Anim Reprod Sci 193: 226-234.

Weichselbaum TE (1946) An accurate and rapid method for the determination of proteins in small amounts of blood serum and plasma. Am J Clin Pathol 10: 40-49.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

R. Strzeżek
M. Lecewicz
I. Orzeł
J. Siemieńczuk

  1. Department of Animal Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 5, 10-718 Olsztyn-Kortowo, Poland
Pobierz PDF Pobierz RIS Pobierz Bibtex


This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different dietary supplementation levels with jujube fruit powder on the performance, biochemical parameters, and egg quality characteristics of laying quails. A total of 60 quails (45 days old) were randomly assigned to treatments with different levels of jujube fruit powder: a basal diet (control) and diets supplemented with 5 g/kg (T1), 10 g/kg (T2), with five replicates per treatment (20 quails/treatment and four quails/replicate). The differences between 1-15 and 16-30 days for feed intake (p<0.05), 1-60 days for egg production (p<0.05), 16-30 days for egg weight (p<0.05), and 1-15 and 1-60 days for feed conversion ratio were statistically significant. The highest values for egg width (p<0.01) and egg length (p<0.05) were found in the control group (25.87 and 33.55 mm), while lower values were observed in the T1 and T2 groups. There was no statistical difference between the groups in egg shape index, shell weight, shell ratio, and shell thickness (p>0.05). The yolk height (p<0.05) and yolk diameter (p<0.01) were statistically significant. The differences between the groups for all serum biochemical parameters were insignificant (p>0.05). According to the results of this study, jujube fruit, a rich energy source, can be used as an alternative supplement in poultry diets with positive effects on egg production and feed conversion ratio.
Przejdź do artykułu


Alkan S, Karabağ K, Galic A, Karsli T, Balcioglu MS (2010) Effects of selection for body weight and egg production on egg quality traits in Japa-nese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) of different lines and relationships between these traits. Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg 16: 239-244.

AOAC (1980) Official Methods of Analysis (13th edition) Assosciation of Official Agricultural Chemist, Washington D.C. (Accessed on 3 March 2023)
Aroche R, Martinez Y, Ruan Z, Guan G, Waititu S, Nyachoti CM, Más D, Lan S (2018) Dietary inclusion of a mixed powder of medicinal plant leaves enhances the feed efficiency and immune function in broiler chickens. J Chem 2018:1-6.

Asheg AA, El-Nyhom SM, Ben Naser KM, Kanoun AH, Abouzeed YM (2014) Effect of Arbutus pavarii, Salvia officinalis and Zizyphus vulgaris on growth performance and intestinal bacterial count of broiler chickens. Int J Vet Sci Med: 151-155.

Bove M, Cicero AF, Veronesi M, Borghi C (2017) An evidence- based review on urate-lowering treatments: implications for optimal treatment of chronic hyperuricemia. Vasc Health Risk Manag 13: 23-28.

Cellat M, Alasahan S, Etyemez M, Gokcek, I, Kutlu T, Turkmen M, Guvenc M, Ciftci M (2022) The effects of jujube fruit (Ziziphus Jujuba Mill.) added in the mixed feed on growth performance and oxidative stress parameters in quails raised in different stocking densities. IJVAR 5: 19-6.

Chapman MJ, Le Goff W, Guerin M, Kontush A (2010) Cholesteryl ester transfer protein: at the heart of the action of lipid-modulating therapy with statins, fibrates, niacin, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors. Eur Heart J 31: 149-164.

Crampton EW, Maynard LA (1983) The relation of cellulose and lignin content to nutritive value of animal feeds. J Nutr 15: 383-395.

Duru M, Duru AA, Karadas K, Eyduran E, Cinli H, Tariq MM (2017) Effect of carrot (Daucus carota) leaf powder on external and internal egg characteristics of Hy-Line White laying hens. Pak J Zool 49: 125-132.

Farooq U, Mustafa R, Khalid MF, Auon M, Mahmood U, Wahaab A, Rehman ZU, Huda NU, Bashir MK, Mahmood S and Hussain J (2022) Supplementation of herbal seeds to improve the growth performance and digestion in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica). Agrobiol Rec 10: 19-25.

Gül ET, Olgun O, Yıldız A, Çolak A (2023) Effect of increasing valine level in the diet on performance, egg quality, and serum components in laying quails. Trop Anim Health Prod 55: 54.

Gul ST, Alsayeqh AF ( 2022) Probiotics as an alternative approach to antibiotics for safe poultry meat production. Pak Vet J 42: 285 291.

Gumus E, Sevim B, Olgun O, Kucukersan S (2023) Effects of dietary betaine and protected calcium butyrate supplementation on growth perfor-mance, blood biochemical status, and meat quality in growing Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica). Pol J Vet Sci 26: 377-383.

Gunduz K, Saracoglu O (2014) Changes in chemical composition, total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) fruits at different maturation stages. Acta Sci Pol 13: 187-195.

Hoseinifar SH, Zou HK, Van Doan H, Harikrishnan R, Yousefi M, Paknejad H, Ahmadifar E (2019) Can dietary jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) fruit extract alter cutaneous mucosal immunity, immune related genes expression in skin and growth performance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)? Fish Shellfish Immunol 94: 705-710.

Jiang LL, Gong X, Ji MY, Wang CC, Wang JH, Li MH (2020) Bioactive compounds from plant-based functional foods: A promising choice for the prevention and management of hyperuricemia. Foods 9: 973.

Khalifa MI, Noseer EA (2019) Cholesterol quality of edible eggs produced by quail fed diets containing probiotic and/or ginger (Zingiber offici-nale). Livest Res Rural Dev 31: 165.

Kilinc G, Sezener MG, Gülhan T (2020) The Effects of jujube (zizyphus jujuba mill.) leaf extract on small intestinal microflora and some blood parameters in laying hens. IJAWS 6: 91-99.

Koley TK, Walia S, Nath P, Awasthi OP, Kaur C (2011) Nutraceutical composition of Zizyphus mauritiana lamk (Indian ber): effect of en-zyme-assisted processing. Int J Food Sci Nutr 62: 276-279.

Liu F, Liu X, Wang F, Cui C, Su M, Gao B (2020) Effects of jujube extracts on growth and antioxidant capacity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). China Feed 9: 98-103.

Ma K, Zhao Y, Liu Y, Zhang Z, Hao Y, Zhao G (2017) Effect of jujube powder on lipid metabolism, antioxidant performance and immune func-tion of layers. China Feed 19: 5-8.

Muniz JC, Barreto SL, Viana GS, Mencalha R, Reis RS, Hannas MI, Barbosa LM, Maia RC (2018) Metabolizable energy levels for meat-type quails at starter phase. Braz J Poult Sci 20: 197-202.

Mutlu Sİ, Baykalır Y, Azman MA, Şimşek ÜG, Özçelik M, Bayraktar O, Çiftçi M, Erişir Z (2021) The effects of dietary supplementation of olive leaf extract and eggshell with membrane on performance, egg quality, blood biochemical, and bone parameters in laying Japanese quail. Ankara Univ Vet Fak Derg 68: 251-258.

Nazligül A, Türkyilmaz K, Bardakçioğlu HE (2001) A study on some production traits and egg quality characteristics of Japanese quail. Turk J Vet Anim Sci 25: 1007-1013.

NRC (1999) Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th rev. ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. https://www. (Accessed on 3 March 2023)

Rashwan AK, Karim N, Shishir MR, Bao T, Lu Y, Chen W (2020) Jujube fruit: A potential nutritious fruit for the development of functional food products. J Funct Foods 75: 104205.

Sadava D, Hillis DM, Heller HC, Berenbaum MR (2011) Life: The Science of Biology 9th ed., San Francisco: Freeman, pp 105-114.

Sari M, Tilki M, Saatci M (2016) Genetic parameters of egg quality traits in long-term pedigree recorded Japanese quail. Poult Sci 95(8): 1743-1749.

Shi Q, Han G, Liu Y, Jiang J, Jia Y, Li X (2022) Nutrient composition and quality traits of dried jujube fruits in seven producing areas based on metabolomics analysis. Food Chem 385: 132627.

Simsek UG, Aslan S, Birben N, Altundal B (2020) Examining the effects of adding boric acid at different doses into mixed feed on fattening per-formance, carcass characteristics, and bone quality of Japanese quails. GSC Biol Pharm Sci 13: 1-9.

Ukwu HO, Ezihe CO, Asaa SK, Anyogo ME (2017) Effect of egg weight on external and internal egg quality traits of Isa Brown egg layer chick-ens in Nigeria. JASVM 2: 126-132.

Wang X, Zhao H, You W, Cheng H, Wu L (2010) The effect of adding feed date, soybean hulls or fresh beer residue on milk performance of dairy cows. Feed Ind 31: 27-29.

Xie B, Wang PJ, Yan ZW, Ren YS, Dong KH, Song ZP, Zhang JX, Zhang CX (2018) Growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass traits, body composition, and meat quality of goat fed Chinese jujube (Ziziphus Jujuba Mill) fruit as a replacement for maize in diet. Anim Feed Sci Technol 246: 127-136.

Xu T, Zhou X, Degen A, Yin J, Zhang S, Chen N (2022) The inclusion of jujube by-products in animal feed: A Review. Sustainability 14: 7882. Yang C, Zhu X, Liu W, Huang J, Xie Z, Yang F, Zhang L, Wei Y (2023) Dietary dried jujube fruit powder (djfp) supplementation improves growth performance, antioxidant stability, and meat composition in broilers. Foods 12: 1463.

Yesilbag D (2018) The effect of rosemary and fennel volatile oil on performance and egg quality parameters in layerquail diets. Ankara Üniv Vet Fak Derg 65: 413-418.

Yu L, Jiang BP, Luo D, Shen XC, Guo S, Duan JA, Tang YP (2012) Bioactive components in the fruits of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. against the iın-flammatory irritant action of euphorbia plants. Phytomedicine 19: 239-244.

Zhang J, Zhang M, Liang W, Geng Z, Chen X (2020) Green tea powder supplementation increased viscosity and decreased lysozyme activity of egg white during storage of eggs from Huainan partridge chicken. Ital J Anim Sci 19: 586-592.

Zhao J, Jiao J, Zhao Y, Liu P, Tao W, Tao D (2015) Feasibility analysis of incorporating disabled dates into fattening cattle feed. Contemp. Anim Husb 18: 48–50.

Zhonghua W, Huang X, Quanhai G (2011) Effects of jujube oligosaccarides on production performance and immune function of laying chicken. China Feed 19.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

M. Eroglu
M. Ciftci
U.G. Simsek
S. Akarsu
S. Arslan
M.A. Hames
M. Mutlu

  1. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Siirt University, 56100, Siirt, Turkey
  2. Department of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Firat University, 23119, Elazig, Turkey
  3. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Firat University, 23119, Elazig, Turkey
  4. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Elazığ Directorate of Provincial Agriculture and Forestry, 23040, Elazig, Turkey
  5. Department of Laboratory and Veterinary Medicine, Birecik Vocational School, Harran University, 63400, Birecik, Sanlıurfa, Turkey
  6. Elazıg Veterinary Control Institute, Republıc of Turkey Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, 23200, Elazig, Turkey
Pobierz PDF Pobierz RIS Pobierz Bibtex


The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of thermography in assessing the impact of regular physical effort on changes in the body surface temperature of the upper body parts of young racehorses. The study involved monitoring 33 racehorses aged 3 years in 3 imaging sessions over a period of 3 months. Temperature measurements of the neck and upper part of the forelimbs and hindlimbs from both sides were taken just before and after training. Three regions of interest (ROIs) located at the base of the neck, elbow and quarter on both sides of the body were analysed. Before physical effort, the average temperatures in all ROIs did not differ significantly between the right and left side of the body. After physical effort average surface temperatures of the left side of the elbow and quarter were significantly higher compared to the opposite side and the temperature at the base of the neck was higher on the right side in comparison to the left side (p<0.001). Body surface temperatures of all ROIs after physical effort significantly (p≤0.001) increased, with the greatest increase observed in the elbow (4.7°C) and the lowest in the base of the neck (3ºC). All regions demonstrated a positive correlation between average surface temperatures on the left and right side of the body, before and after training. There was a strong positive correlation between the average temperatures in the analyzed ROIs after physical effort with the strongest correlation between the elbow and quarter (r=0.773) and the weakest between the quarter and base of the neck (r=0.474). In conclusion, our study revealed that thermography remains a feasible diagnostic modality for identifying changes in upper parts of the body in response to physical effort and can therefore provide valuable insights into the assimilation of training regimes by the equine physiology.
Przejdź do artykułu


American Academy of Thermology (2023) Guidelines for Veterinary Thermography. (accessed 16 September 2023).

Čebulj Kadunc N, Frangež R, Kruljc P (2020) Infrared thermography in equine practice. Vet Stanica 51: 109-116.

Čebulj-Kadunc N, Frangež R, Kruljc P (2022) Fluctuations of physiological variables during conditioning of lipizzan fillies before starting under saddle. Animals 12: 836.

Čebulj-Kadunc N, Frangež R, Žgajnar J, Kruljc P (2019) Cardiac, respiratory and thermoregulation parameters following graded exercises in Li-pizzaner horses. Vet Arhiv 89: 11-23.

Charkoudian N (2010) Mechanism and modifiers of reflex induced cutaneous vasodilation and vasoconstriction in humans. J Appl Physiol 109: 1221-1228.

Dutto DJ, Hoyt DF, Cogger EA, Wickler SJ (2004) Ground reaction forces in horses trotting up an incline and on the level over a range of speeds. J Exp Biol 207: 3507-3514.

Hinchcliff KW, Geor RJ, Kaneps AJ (2008) Equine exercise physiology, The science of exercise in the athletic horse, 1st ed., Elsevier Limited, Philadelphia.

Hodgson DR, Davis RE, McConaghy FF (1994) Thermoregulation in the horse in response to exercise. Br Vet J 150: 219-235.

Howell K, Dudek K, Soroko M (2020) Thermal camera performance and image analysis repeatability in equine thermography. Infrared Phys Technol 110: 103447.

Jodkowska E (2005) Body surface temperature as a criterion of the horse predisposition to effort. Zesz Nauk AR Wroc 511: 7-114.

Jodkowska E, Dudek K, Bek-Kaczkowska I (2001) The influence of race training on body surface temperature of horses of various breeds. Rocz Nauk Zoot 14: 63-72.

Jodkowska E, Dudek K, Przewoźny M (2011) The maximum temperatures (Tmax) distribution on the body surface of sport horses. J Life Sci 5: 291-297.

Kastberger G, Stachl R (2003) Infrared imaging technology and biological applications. Beh Res Meth Instr Comp 35: 429-439.

Kold SE, Chappell KA (1998) Use of computerized thermographic image analysis (CTIA) in equine orthopedics: review and presentation of clinical cases. Equine Vet Educ 10: 198-204.

Marlin DJ, Schroter RC, Scott CM, White S, Nyrop KA, Maykutht PL, Harris PA (1999) Sweating and skin temperature responses of normal and anhidrotic horses to intravenous adrenaline. Equine Vet J Suppl 30: 362-369.

Matsui A, Osawa T, Fujikawa H, Asai Y, Matsui T, Yano H (2002) Differences in unit area sweating rate among different areas of the body in exercising horses. J Equine Sci 13: 113-116.

Merla A, Mattei PA, Di Donato L, Romani GL (2010) Thermal imaging of cutaneous temperature modifications in runners during graded exercise. Ann Biomed Eng 38: 158-163.

Palmer SE (1981) Use of portable infrared thermometer as a means of measuring limb surface temperature in the horse. Am J Vet Res 42: 105-108.

Palmer SE (1983) Effect of ambient temperature upon the surface temperature of equine limb. Am J Vet Res 44: 1098-1101.

Purohit RC, McCoy MD (1980) Thermography in the diagnosis of inflammatory processes in the horse. Am J Vet Res 41: 1167-1174.

Purohit RC, Pascoe DD, Turner TA (2006) Use of infrared imaging in veterinary medicine. In: Bronzino JD (ed) The biomedical engineering handbook. CRC Press Taylor and Francis Publication, Boca Raton, pp 1-8.

Redaelli V, Bergero D, Zucca E, Ferrucci F, Costa LN, Crosta L, Luzi F (2014) Use of thermography techniques in equines: principles and applica-tions. J Equine Vet Sci 34: 345-350.

Simmons GH, Wong BJ, Holowatz LA, Kenney WL (2011) Changes in the control of skin blood flow with exercise training: where do cutaneous vascular adaptations fit in? Exp Physiol 96: 822-828.

Simon EL, Gaughan EM, Epp T, Spire M (2006) Influence of exercise on thermographically determined surface temperatures of thoracic and pelvic limbs in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 229: 1940-1944.

Soroko M, Henklewski R, Filipowski H, Jodkowska E (2013) The effectiveness of thermographic analysis in equine orthopedics. J Equine Vet Sci 33: 760-762.

Soroko M, Dudek K, Howell K, Jodkowska E, Henklewski R (2014) Thermographic evaluation of racehorse performance. J Equine Vet Sci 34: 1076-1083.

Soroko M, Howell K, Dudek K (2017a) The effect of ambient temperature on infrared thermographic images of joints in the distal forelimbs of healthy racehorses. J Therm Biol 66: 63-67.

Soroko M, Howell K, Dudek K, Henklewski R, Zielińska P (2017b) The influence of breed, age, gender, training level and ambient temperature on forelimb and back temperature in racehorses. Anim Sci J 88: 347-355.

Soroko M, Howell K, Dudek K, Wilk I, Zastrzeżyńska M, Janczarek I (2018) A pilot study into the utility of dynamic infrared thermography for measuring body surface temperature changes during treadmill exercise in horses. J Equine Vet Sci 62: 44-46.

Soroko M, Śpitalniak-Bajerska K, Zaborski D, Poźniak B, Dudek K, Janczarek I (2019a) Exercise-induced changes in skin temperature and blood parameters in horses. Arch Anim Breed 62: 205-213.

Soroko M, Zaborski D, Dudek K, Yarnell K, Górniak W, Vardasca R (2019b) Evaluation of thermal pattern distributions in racehorse saddles using infrared thermography. PLoS One 14: e0221622

Soroko M, Górniak W, Godlewska M, Howell K (2022) The effect of training on infrared thermographic images of the forelimb and hindlimb joints of healthy racehorses. Pol J Vet Sci 25: 83-92

Soroko- Dubrovina M, Davis Morel M (2023) Equine Thermography in Practice, 2nd ed., Cabi, London – Boston.

Stashak TS (2002) Examination for lameness. In: Stashak TS (ed) Adam’s Lameness in Horses. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 113-183.

Tunley BV, Henson FM (2004) Reliability and repeatability of thermographic examination and the normal thermographic image of the thoracolum-bar region in the horse. Equine Vet J 36: 306-312.

Turner TA (1991) Thermography as an aid to the clinical lameness evaluation. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 7: 311-338.

Turner TA (1996) Thermography as an aid in the localization of upper hindlimb lameness. Pferdeheilkunde 12: 632-634.

Turner TA (2001) Diagnostic thermography. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 17: 95-113.

Turner TA, Fessler JF, Lamp M, Pearce JA, Geddes LA (1983) Thermographic evaluation of horses with podotrochlosis. Am J Vet Res 44: 535-539.

Turner TA, Rantanen NW, Hauser ML (1996) Alternate methods of soft tissue imaging. The equine athlete: tendon, ligament and soft tissue inju-ries. In: Proceedings of the 1996 Dubai International Equine Symposium, Dubai, UAE, pp 165-176.

Witte TH, Knill K, Wilson AM (2004) Determination of peak vertical ground reaction force from duty factor in the horse (Equus caballus). J Exp Biol 207: 3639-3648.

Yanmaz LE, Okumus Z, Dogan E (2007) Instrumentation of thermography and its applications in horses. J Anim Vet Adv 6: 858-862.

Yarnell K, Fleming J, Stratton TD, Brassington R (2014) Monitoring changes in skin temperature associated with exercise in horses on a water treadmill by use of infrared thermography. J Therm Biol 45: 110-116.

Zielińska P, Nicpoń J, Kiełbowicz Z, Soroko M, Dudek K, Zaborski D (2020) Effects of high intensity laser therapy in the treatment of tendon and ligament injuries in performance horses. Animals 10: 1327.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

M. Soroko-Dubrovina
K. Śniegucka
M. Dobrowolski
K.D. Dudek

  1. Institute of Animal Breeding, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Chelmonskiego 38C, 51-630 Wroclaw, Poland
  2. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Łukasiewicza 5/7, 50-367 Wroclaw, Poland
Pobierz PDF Pobierz RIS Pobierz Bibtex


Pseudomonas spp. are a psychrotrophic species associated with milk spoilage caused by its enzymatic activities. The aim of this study was to identify Pseudomonas spp. in raw cow’s milk and to investigate their associated enzymatic properties and the ability to produce pyoverdine pigment. For microbiological analysis, 2 ml of milk samples was taken in sterile sample boxes. Milk sampling was carried out according to the principles of STN EN ISO 707. By identification using the PCR method, of n=320 samples of raw cow milk a total of 73 isolates of Pseudomonas spp. were identified as P. putida (34.25%); P. fragi (13.70%); P. lundensis (9.59%) and Pseudomonas spp. (42.47%). Proteolytic activity determined at a temperature of 7°C was positive from n=20 selected isolates of Pseudomonas spp. (60%) isolates and a temperature of 25°C was positively detected (85%). Lipolytic activity determined at a temperature of 7°C was confirmed in 35% of isolates and a temperature of 25°C it was confirmed in 70% isolates. Pyoverdine pigment production was detected in 65% of isolates. The results reveal the enzymatic activity of Pseudomonas spp. present in raw cow’s milk and its spoilage potential at different temperatures in relation to pigment production.
Przejdź do artykułu


Alves MP, Salgado RL, Eller MR, Dias RS, de Paula SO, de Carvalho AF (2018) Temperature modulates the production and activity of a metallo-protease from Pseudomonas fluorescens 07A in milk. J Dairy Sci 101: 992-999.

Atia RM, Mohamed HA, AboELRoos NA, Awad DA (2023) Growth patterns of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in milk fortified with chitosan and selenium nanoparticles during refrigerated storage. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 11: 312.

Bedeltavana A, Haghkhah M, Nazar A (2010) Phenotypic characterization and PCR-ribotyping of Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates, in tracking contamination routes in the production line of pasteurized milk. Iran J Vet Res 1: 222-232.

Bellassi P, Rocchetti G, Morelli L, Senizza B, Lucini L, Cappa F (2021) A Milk Foodomics Investigation into the Effect of Pseudomonas fluo-rescens Growth under Cold Chain Conditions. Foods 10: 1173.

Burdová O. Hygiene and technology of milk and milk products (2001) 1st ed., Košice.

Caldera L, Franzetti L, Van Coillie E, De Vos P, Stragier P, De Block J, Heyndrickx M (2016) Identification, enzymatic spoilage characterization and proteolytic activity quantification of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from different foods. Food Microbiol 54: 142-153.

Capodifoglio E, Vidal AM, Lima JA, Bortoletto F, D’abreu LF, Gonçalves AC, Vaz CA, Balieiro JC, Netto AS (2016) Lipolytic and proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. isolated during milking and storage of refrigerated raw milk. J Dairy Sci 99: 5214-5223.

Carrascosa C, Millán R, Jaber JR, Lupiola P, Del Rosario-Quintana C, Mauricio C, Sanjuán E (2015) Blue pigment in fresh cheese produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens. Food Control 54: 95-102.

Chauhan M, Kimothi A, Sharma A, Pandey A (2023) Cold adapted Pseudomonas: ecology to biotechnology. Front Microbiol 14: 1218708.

De Jonghe V, Coorevits A, Van Hoorde K, Messens W, Van Landschoot A, De Vos P, Heyndrickx M (2011) Influence of storage conditions on the growth of Pseudomonas species in refrigerated raw milk. Appl Environ Microbiol 77: 460-470.

DeBritto S, Gajbar TD, Satapute P, Sundaram L, Lakshmikantha RY, Jogaiah S, Ito S (2020) Isolation and characterization of nutrient dependent pyocyanin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its dye and agrochemical properties. Sci Rep 10: 1542.

Dogan B, Boor KJ (2003) Genetic diversity and spoilage potential among Pseudomonas spp. isolated from fluid milk products and dairy pro-cessing plants. App Environ Microbiol 69: 130-138.

Du B, Lu M, Liu H, Wu H, Zheng N, Zhang Y, Zhao S, Zhao Y, Gao T, Wang J (2023) Pseudomonas isolates from raw milk with high level proteolytic activity display reduced carbon substrate utilization and higher levels of antibiotic resistance. LWT 181: 114766.

Du B, Meng L, Liu H, Zheng N, Zhang Y, Zhao S, Li M, Wang J (2022) Diversity and proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas species isolated from raw cow milk samples across China. Sci Total Environ 838: 156382.

FDA (2013) UNITED STATES. PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE. Grade” A” Pasteurized Milk Ordinance. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration., 1993.

Franzetti L, Scarpellini M (2007) Characterisation of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from foods. Annals Microbiol 57: 39-47.

Glantz M, Rosenlöw M, Lidmark-Månsson H, Johansen LB, Hartmann J, Höjer A, Waak E, Löfgren R, Saedén KH, Svensson C, Svensson B, Lindau J, Rauh V, Paulsson M (2020) Impact of protease and lipase activities on quality of Swedish raw milk. Int Dairy J 107: 104724.

Grosse C, Brandt N, Antwerpen PV, Wintjens R, Matthijs S (2023) Two new siderophores produced by Pseudomonas sp. NCIMB 10586: The anti-oomycete non-ribosomal peptide synthetase-dependent mupirochelin and the NRPS-independent triabactin. Front Microbiol 14: 1143861.

He H, Dong J, Lee CN, Li Y (2009) Molecular Analysis of Spoilage-Related Bacteria in Pasteurized Milk during Refrigeration by PCR and Dena-turing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. J Food Prot 73: 572-577.

ISO/TS 11059 (2009) Milk and milk products – Method for determining the number of Pseudomonas spp. Technical Standard. cbaeeeb14bddaa50949c46f836e6/ISO-TS-11059-2009.pdf (Accessed on 7 December 2023)

Kelly EJ, Wilson DJ (2016) Pseudomonas aeruginosa mastitis in two goats associated with an essential oil-based teat dip. J Vet Diagn Invest 28: 760-762.

Kothari A, Kumar SK, Singh V, Kumar P, Kaushal K, Pandey A, Jain N, Omar BJ (2022) Association of multidrug resistance behavior of clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa to pigment coloration. Eur J Med Res 27: 120.

Kováčová M, Výrostková J, Dudriková E, Zigo F, Semjon B, Regecová I (2021) Assessment of Quality and Safety of Farm Level Produced Cheeses from Sheep and Goat Milk. Appl Sci 11: 3196.

Kumar H, Franzetti L, Kaushal A, Kumar A (2019) Pseudomonas fluorescens: a potential food spoiler and challenges and advances in its detection. Ann Microbiol 69: 873-883.

Kwan KK, Skura BJ (1985) Identification of Proteolytic Pseudomonads Isolated from Raw Milk. J Dairy Sci 68: 1902-1909.

Li H, Zhang Y, Yuan X, Liu S, Fan L, Zheng X, Wang S, Yuan L, Jiao X (2023) Microbial biodiversity of raw milk collected from Yangzhou and the heterogeneous biofilm-forming ability of Pseudomonas. Int. J Dairy Technol 76: 51-62.

Marchand S, Heylen K, Messens W, Coudijzer K, De Vos P, Dewetick K, Herman L, De Block J, Heyndrickx M (2009) Seasonal influence on heat-resistant proteolytic capacity of Pseudomonas lundensis and Pseudomonas fragi, predominant milk spoilers isolated from Belgian raw milk samples. Environ Microbiol 11: 467-82.

Martin NH, Boor KJ, Wiedmann M (2018) Symposium review: Effect of post-pasteurization contamination on fluid milk quality. J Dairy Sci 101: 861-870.

Meng L, Zhang Y, Liu H, Zhao S, Wang J, Zheng N (2017) Characterization of Pseudomonas spp. and Associated Proteolytic Properties in Raw Milk Stored at Low Temperatures. Front Microbiol 8: 2158.

Meyer JM (2000) Pyoverdines: pigments, siderophores and potential taxonomic markers of fluorescent Pseudomonas species. Arch Microbiol 174: 135-142.

Moon CD, Zhang XX, Matthijs S, Schäfer M, Budzikiewicz H, Rainey PB (2008) Genomic, genetic and structural analysis of pyover-dine-mediated iron acquisition in the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25. BMC Microbiol 8: 7.

Navrhus JA, Bækkelund ON, Tidemann EM, Østlie HM, Abrahamsen RK (2021) Isolates of Pseudomonas spp. from cold-stored raw milk show variation in proteolytic and lipolytic properties. Int Dairy J 123: 105049.

De Oliveira GB, Favarin L, Luchese RH, Mclintosh D (2015) Psychrotrophic bacteria in milk: How much do we really know? Braz J Microbiol 46: 313-321.

Ortiz-Castro R, Pelagio-Flores R, Méndez-Bravo A, Ruiz-Herrera LF, Campos-García J, López-Bucio J (2014) Pyocyanin, a virulence factor produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, alters root development through reactive oxygen species and ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. Mol PlantMicrobe Interact 27: 364-378.

Palleroni NJ (2015) Pseudomonas. In Bergey’s Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria. [online]. 2015. ISBN: 9781118960608 [cit. 2021.11.09]. www: <>. (Accessed on 7 December 2023)

Pilipčinec E, Pistl J, Žilka N, Dorko E, Koščová J, Tkáčiková Ľ, Nemcová R, Benito SI (2018) Special bacteriology of G-negative bacteria, 1st ed., Košice.

Quintieri L, Fanelli F, Caputo L (2019) Antibiotic resistant Pseudomonas spp. spoilers in fresh dairy products: An underestimated risk and the control strategies. Foods 8: 372.

Reetha TL, Manickam R, Puvarajan B (2020) PCR Based detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in mastitic cow milk. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 9.2: 194-199.

Regulation (EC) No 853/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 laying down specific hygiene rules for food of animal origin. R0853-20100715&from=LV (Accessed on 5 February 2023)

Ribeiro Júnior JC, de Oliveira AM, de G Silva F, Tamanini R, de Oliveira ALM, Beloti V (2018) The main spoilage-related psychrotrophic bacte-ria in refrigerated raw milk. J Dairy Sci 101: 75-83.

Samaržija D, Zamberlin Š, Pogačić T (2012) Psychrotrophic bacteria and milk and dairy products quality. Mljekarstvo 62: 77-95.

Scatamburlo TM, Yamazi AK, Cavicchioli VQ, Pieri FA, Nero LA (2015) Spoilage potential of Pseudomonas species isolated from goat milk. J Dairy Sci 98: 759-764.

Spilker T, Coenye T, Vandamme P, LiPuma JJ (2004) PCR-based assay for differentiation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from other Pseudomonas species recovered from cystic fibrosis patients. J Clin Microbiol 42: 2074-2079.

Stevenson RG, Rowe MT, Wisdom GB, Kilpatrick D (2003) Growth kinetics and hydrolytic enzyme production of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from pasteurized milk. J Dairy Res 70: 293-296.

STN EN ISO 6887-5 (2020) Microbiology of the food chain. Preparation of analytical samples, preparation of basic suspension and tenfold dilu-tions for microbiological testing. Part 5: Specific instructions for processing milk and dairy products. Slovak Technical Standard, Slovak Re-public. f442a828e6aa5c40289d3/ISO-6887-5-2020.pdf (Accessed on 7 December 2023)

STN EN ISO 707 (2011) Milk and milk products. Sampling instructions, Slovak Technical Standar: Bratislava, Slovak Republic. 2011.html

Stoeckel M, Lidolt M, Achberger V, Glück C, Krewinkel M, Stressler T, Von Neubeck M, Wenning M, Scherer S, Fischer L, Hinrichs J (2016) Growth of Pseudomonas weihenstephanensis, Pseudomonas proteolytica and Pseudomonas sp. in raw milk: Impact of residual heat-stable enzyme activity on stability of UHT milk during shelf-life. Int Dairy J 59: 20-28.

Tančin V, Mikláš Š, Čobirka M, Uhrinčať M, Mačuhová L (2020) Factors affecting raw milk quality of dairy cows under practical conditions. Potravinarstvo Slovak J Food Sci 14: 744-749.

Vinckx T, Wei Q, Matthijs S, Cornelis P (2010) The Pseudomonas aeruginosa oxidative stress regulator OxyR influences production of pyocya-nin and rhamnolipids: protective role of pyocyanin. Microbiol 156(Pt 3): 678-686.

Vithanage NR, Dissanayake M, Bolge G, Palombo EA, Yeager TR, Datta N (2016) Biodiversity of culturable psychrotrophic microbiota in raw milk attributable to refrigeration conditions, seasonality and their spoilage potential. Int Dairy J 57: 80-90.

Whitfield FB, Jensen N, Shaw KJ (2000) Role of Yersinia intermedia and Pseudomonas putida in the development of a fruity off-flavour in pas-teurized milk. J Dairy Res 67: 561-569.

Xu H, Lin W, Xia H, Xu S, Li Y, Yao H, Bai F, Zhang X, Bai Y, Saris P, Qiao M (2005) Influence of ptsP gene on pyocyanin production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. FEMS Microbiol Lett 253: 103-109.

Yamamoto S, Harayama S (1995) PCR amplification and direct sequencing of gyrB genes with universal primers and their application to the detec-tion and taxonomic analysis of Pseudomonas putida strains. App Environ Microbiol 61: 1104-1109.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

M. Kováčová
J. Výrostková
I. Regecová
E. Dudriková
J. Zahumenská
S. Marcinčák

  1. Department of Food Hygiene Technology and Safety, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Košice, Komenského 73, 041 81 Košice, Slovakia
Pobierz PDF Pobierz RIS Pobierz Bibtex


The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in calcium, phosphorus and some biochemical parameters in dogs with open and closed cervix pyometra, which was then compared with a control group. A total of 62 bitches of age group 5-10 years old irrespective of breed were enrolled into the study. Control group consisted of 22 bitches which were clinically healthy and in luteal phase of the estrus cycle. On clinical examination, pyometra was diagnosed in 40 bitches while 23 out of 40 bitches had open-cervix pyometra and 17 of 40 bitches had closed-cervix pyometra. Evaluation of haematological changes revealed that there was increased white blood cell (WBC), total protein (TP), globulin, alkaline phosphatase (ALKP) while decreased glucose (Glu), albumin (Alb) and albümin globulin ratio in pyometra cases (p<0.001). The highest WBC and ALKP levels were detected in closed-cervix pyometra group (p<0.001). Calcium (Ca+2) levels had significant rise in open-cervix pyometra cases (p<0.05) while phosphorus (Phos) levels had tend to increase in closed-cervix pyometra cases (p=0.08). Also, Ca was directly correlated with Glu, Alb and TP while inversely correlated with WBC and blood urea nitrogen/creatinine (BUN/Crea). However, Phos was significantly associated with BUN and Crea (p<0.001; R=0.915 and R=0.860, respectively). As a result of this study, it was observed that the increased Ca levels in open-cervix cases and the elevated Phos levels in closed-cervix cases, were associated with the biochemical parameters related to hepatic and renal dysfunction in dogs with pyometra.
Przejdź do artykułu


Ahuja AK, Honparkhe M, Sethi GS, Singh N, Jan F, Chauhan P (2019) Association of canine pyometra with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. J Entomol Zool Stud 7: 1409-1412.

Alkan KK, Çiftçi MF, Yeşilkaya ÖF, Satılmış F, Tekindal MA, Alkan H (2020) Evaluation of the relationship between lactate dehydrogenase, complete blood count and some serum biochemical parameters in bitches with pyometra. Eurasian J Vet Sci 36: 204-213.

Althausen TL, Thoenes E (1932) Influence on carbohydrate metabolism of experimentally induced hepatic changes: II. Phosphorus poisoning. Arch Intern Med 50: 58-75.

Asheim A (1963) Renal function in dogs with pyometra. Acta Vet Scand 4: 293-306.

Block GA, Hulbert Shearon TE, Levin NW, Port FK (1998) Association of serum phosphorus and calcium × phosphate product with mortality risk in chronic hemodialysis patients: a national study. Am J Kidney Dis 31: 607-617.

Chung PY, Sitrin MD, Te HS (2003) Serum phosphorus levels predict clinical outcome in fulminant hepatic failure. Liver Transpl 9: 248-253.

Enginler SO, Ateş A, Diren Sığırcı B, Sontaş BH, Sönmez K, Karacam E, Ekici H, Evkuran Dal G, Gürel A (2014) Measurement of C‐reactive protein and prostaglandin F2α metabolite concentrations in differentiation of canine pyometra and cystic endometrial hyperplasia/mucometra. Reprod Domest Anim 49: 641-647.

Fransson BA, Karlstam E, Bergstorm A, Lagerstedt AS, Park JS, Evans MA, Ragle CA (2004) C-reactive protein in the diffentiation of pyometra from cystic endometrial hyperplasia/mucometra in dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 40: 391-399.

Gupta AK, Dhami AJ, Patel SB, Shah RG (2013) Evaluation of clinical biochemistry of blood in bitches affected with pyometra. Indian J Anim Reprod 34: 26-30.

Günay Uçmak Z, İslamoğlu S (2023) Changes in phosphorus and some biochemical parameters in cats with open and closed cervix pyometra. J Istanbul Vet Sci 7: 21-26.

Hagman R (2022) Pyometra in small animals 2.0. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 52: 631-657.

Hagman R, Kindahl H, Lagerstedt AS (2006) Pyometra in bitches induces elevated plasma endotoxin and prostaglandin F2 alpha metabolite levels. Acta Vet Scan 47: 55-67.

Jisna KS, Sivaprasad MS (2020) Canine pyometra: An overview. Raksha Tech Rev 10: 53-56.

Jitpean S, Ambrosen A, Emanuelson U, Hagman R (2017) Closed cervix is associated with more severe illness in dogs with pyometra. BMC Vet Res 13: 11.

Koo OJ, Hong SG, Kang JT, Park JE, Kim MJ, Jang G, Lee BC (2011) Closed-cervix pyometra in young dogs: 2 cases. J Embr Trans 26: 283-286.

Kutzler MA, Krekeler N, Hollinshead F (2012) Pyometra. In: Small animal soft tissue surgery, 1st ed., Eric Monnet. eds. John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, pp 623-634.

Lippi I, Guidi G, Marchetti V, Tognetti R, Meucci V (2014) Prognostic role of the product of serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations in dogs with chronic kidney disease: 31 cases (2008-2010). J Am Vet Med Assoc 245: 1135-1140.

Maharathi SP, Dalai N, Mohapatra S, Mishra SR, Mahapatra APK, Kundu AK, Nath I, Dash S (2020) Haemato-biochemical alterations in pyometra affected bitch. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 9: 1242-1245.

Nak D, Mısırlıoğlu D, Nak Y, Kuzugüden F, Keskin A (2001) Studies on the compaired diagnosis of pyometra with using ultrasonography, laboratory and vaginal cytology findings in bitches. J Fac Vet Med 20: 1-7.

Patil AR, Swamy M, Chandra A, Jawre S (2013) Clinico-haematological and serum biochemical alterations in pyometra affected bitches. Afr J Biotechnol 12: 1564-1570.

Prasad VD, Kumar PR, Sreenu M (2018) Pyometra in bitches: A review of literature. RRJoVST 6: 12-20.

Rautela R, Katiyar R (2019) Review on canine pyometra, oxidative stress and current trends in diagnostics. Asian Pac J Reprod 8: 45-55.

Shah SA, Sood NK, Wani BM, Rather MA, Beigh AB, Amin U (2017) Haemato-biochemical studies in canine pyometra. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 6:14-17.

Shin JY, Kim MJ, Kim ES, Mo EY, Moon SD, Han JH, Cha BY (2015) Association between serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations with non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease in Korean population. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 30: 733-741.

Singh S, Dadhich H, Sharma GD (2006) Haemato-biochemical studies in cystic endometrial hyperplasia pyometra complex in canine. Indian J Vet Pathol 30: 46-48.

Sodikoff CH (1995) Laboratory profiles of small animal diseases: A guide to laboratory diagnosis. 2nd ed., Mosby-Year Book, St.Louis, pp 435.

Thangamani A, Srinivas M, Prasad BC (2018) Pyometra in bitches: a critical analysis. Int J Sci Environ Technol 7: 1072-1078.

Uçmak M, Tek C, Gündüz MC, Sabuncu A, Senunver A, Bagcigil F A, Bakirel T (2012) Optimum timing for operation in bitches with pyometra related to endotoxemia. Turk J Vet Anim Sci 36: 35-42.

Uçmak ZG, Kurban İ, Uçmak M (2021) Assessment of hematological parameters and uterine hemodynamic indices in bitches with pyometra. Acta Sci Vet 49: 1796.

Werner LL, Turnwald GH (1999) Immunologic and plasma protein disorders. In: Willard MD, Tvedten H, Turnwald GH (eds) Small animal clinical diagnosis by laboratory methods. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 248-264.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

İ. Kurban
S. İslamoğlu
Z. Günay Uçmak
E. Namlı
Y.S. Türkan

  1. İstanbul University-Cerrahpaşa, Vocational School of Veterinary Medicine, Istanbul, 34320, Türkiye
  2. İstanbul University-Cerrahpaşa, Institute of Graduate Studies, Istanbul, 34320, Türkiye
  3. İstanbul University-Cerrahpaşa, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Istanbul, 34320, Türkiye
  4. İstanbul University-Cerrahpaşa, Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Istanbul, 34320, Türkiye
Pobierz PDF Pobierz RIS Pobierz Bibtex


Mannose oligosaccharide (MOS) has been shown to promote animal growth, maintain intestinal health, and activate the intestinal immune system. However, the question of whether MOS can stimulate the immune system and alleviate acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)-induced gut damage remains unresolved. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of MOS pretreatment on the immunological and anti-inflammatory capabilities of rats with ASA-induced intestinal injury. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups and were fed with 0 (negative control), 100, 300, 600, and 800 mg/kg·Body weight (BW) of MOS for 3 weeks. From day 8, rats were fed with 200 mg/kg BW of ASA for 14 days to induce intestinal injury. The growth performance, viscera index, serum and intestinal immunity, intestinal inflammation and morphology of ASA-induced intestinal injury rats with or without MOS administration were investigated. In MOS deficient rats, oral treatment of ASA causes severe intestine damage and immunological dysfunction. In a rat model, 600 mg/kg BW MOS can lower the expression of inflammatory markers and effectively increase liver index, serum interleukin-2 (IL-2), lysozyme contents, intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and mucus volume, intestinal villus height, crypt depth and villus height/crypt depth in comparison to the ASA group. These results imply that providing rats with MOS at the appropriate dosage can significantly improve their immune system and successfully shield the intestines from ASA damage. MOS is therefore expected to be a promising gut immunopotentiator for enhancing intestinal health in animals.
Przejdź do artykułu


Agazzi A, Perricone V, Zorini FO, Sandrini S, Mariani E, Jiang XR, Ferrari A, Crestani M, Nguyen TX, Bontempo V, Domeneghini C, Savoini G (2020) Dietary mannan oligosaccharides modulate gut inflammatory response and improve duodenal villi height in post-weaning piglets im-proving feed efficiency. Animals-Basel 10: 1283.

Attia Y, Al-Khalaifah H, Ibrahim M, Al-Hamid A, Al-Harthi M, El-Naggar A (2017) Blood hematological and biochemical constituents, antioxi-dant enzymes, immunity and lymphoid organs of broiler chicks supplemented with propolis, bee pollen and mannan oligosaccharides continu-ously or intermittently. Poult Sci 96: 4182-4192.

Cai GF, Wu Y, Wusiman A, Gu PF, Mao NN, Xu SW, Zhu TY, Feng ZA, Liu ZG, Wang DY (2021) Alhagi honey polysaccharides attenuate intestinal injury and immune suppression in cyclophosphamide-induced mice. Food Funct 12: 6863-6877.

Chen YJ, Wang JR, Qiao HZ, Su LL, Tang GF, Huang J, Zhao YL, Gao WT (2021) Effects of mannose oligosaccharide on repair of intesinal injury induced by aspirin in rats. Chinese J Anim Nutr 33: 3523-3531.

Chen YJ, Wang JR, Su LL, Gao WT, Zhao YL, Duan EZ, Wang JJ, Lou P (2020) Establishment of intestinal injury model induced by aspirin in rat. Chinese J Anim Nutr 32: 898-904. FC2wxXHna7o_p7k4sM_Jux5Js9aCML2rX-FS_b4oA1W Z04DMc8TDAG-ix9iHpZKz38TvlwflnVRE72vt3cTCukc sKWqkFnvOblQjVg3VG0sVTGmq48C4j2IMUmrUT 5K6e3vu0ZnXqJQ78K9Z2gu0pw==&uniplatform=NZ KPT&language=CHS.

Cheng YF, Chen YP, Chen R, Su Y, Zhang RQ, He QF, Wang K, Wen C, Zhou YM (2019) Dietary mannan oligosaccharide ameliorates cyclic heat stress-induced damages on intestinal oxidative status and barrier integrity of broilers. Poult Sci 98: 4767-4776.

Cipriani S, Mencarelli A, Bruno A, Renga B, Distrutti E, Santucci L, Baldelli F, Fiorucci S (2013) Activation of the bile acid receptor GPBAR1 protects against gastrointestinal injury caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and aspirin in mice. Brit J Pharmacol 168: 225-237.

Davis ME, Maxwell CV, Erf GF, Brown DC, Wistuba TJ (2004) Dietary supplementation with phosphorylated mannans improves growth re-sponse and modulates immune function of weanling pigs. J Anim Sci 82: 1882-1891.

de Oliveira AC, Vanelli K, Sotomaior CS, Weber SH, Costa LB (2019) Impacts on performance of growing-finishing pigs under heat stress condi-tions: A meta-analysis. Vet Res Commun 43: 37-43.

de Souza TC, Landín GM, García KE, Barreyro AA, Barrón AM (2012) Nutritional changes in piglets and morphophysiologic development of their digestive tract. Vet Mexico 43: 155-173.

Dos Anjos CM, Gois FD, dos Anjos CM, Rocha VD, de Sa e Castro DE, Allaman IB, Silva FL, Carvalho PL, Meneghetti C, Costa LB (2019) Effects of dietary beta-glucans, glucomannans and mannan oligosaccharides or chlorohydroxyquinoline on the performance, diarrhea, hemato-logical parameters, organ weight and intestinal health of weanling pigs. Livest Sci 223: 39-46.

Elderman M, Sovran B, Hugenholtz F, Graversen K, Huijskes M, Houtsma E, Belzer C, Boekschoten M, de Vos P, Dekker J, Wells J, Faas M (2017) The effect of age on the intestinal mucus thickness, microbiota composition and immunity in relation to sex in mice. PloS One 12: e0184274.

Geraylou Z, Souffreau C, Rurangwa E, De Meester L, Courtin CM, Delcour JA, Buyse J, Ollevier F (2012) Effects of arabinoxy-lan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) on juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) performance, immune responses and gastrointestinal microbial community. Fish Shellfish Immun 33: 718-724.

Giannenas I, Doukas D, Karamoutsios A, Tzora A, Bonos E, Skoufos I, Tsinas A, Christaki E, Tontis D, Florou-Paneri P (2016) Effects of En-terococcus faecium, mannan oligosaccharide, benzoic acid and their mixture on growth performance, intestinal microbiota, intestinal morphol-ogy and blood lymphocyte subpopulations of fattening pigs. Anim Feed Sci Technol 220: 159-167.

Halas V, Nochta I (2012) Mannan oligosaccharides in nursery pig nutrition and their potential mode of action. AnimalsBasel 2: 261-274.
Hogenkamp A, van Vlies N, Thijssen S, Dingjan G, Knipping K, Garssen J, Knippels L (2012) Effects of short-chain galacto- and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides on systemic and local immune status during pregnancy. J Reprod Immunol 94: 161-168.

Hutsko SL, Meizlisch K, Wick M, Lilburn MS (2016) Early intestinal development and mucin transcription in the young poult with probiotic and mannan oligosaccharide prebiotic supplementation. Poult Sci 95: 1173-1178.

Jahanian R, Ashnagar M (2015) Effect of dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharides on performance, blood metabolites, ileal nutrient digestibility, and gut microflora in Escherichia coli-challenged laying hens. Poult Sci 94: 2165-2172.

Jami MJ, Kenari AA, Paknejad H, Mohseni M (2019) Effects of dietary b-glucan, mannan oligosaccharide, Lactobacillus plantarum and their com-binations on growth performance, immunity and immune related gene expression of Caspian trout, Salmo trutta caspius (Kessler, 1877). Fish Shellfish Immunol 91: 202-208.

Kim MW, Kang JH, Shin E, Shim K, Kim MJ, Lee C, Yoon Y, Oh S (2019) Processed Aloe vera gel attenuates non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced small intestinal injury by enhancing mucin expression. Food Funct 10: 6088-6097.

Lai Y, Zhong W, Yu T, Xia ZS, Li JY, Ouyang H, Shan TD, Yang HS, Chen QK (2015) Rebamipide promotes the regeneration of aspirin-induced small-intestine mucosal injury through accumulation of β-catenin. PloS One 10: e0297646.

Li Y, Yue HG, Yang SY, Yuan DD, Li LX, Zhao JH, Zhao LT (2019) Splenomegaly induced by anemia impairs T cell movement in the spleen partially via EPO. Mol Immunol 112: 399-405.

Ma TT, Li C, Zhao FQ, Cao J, Zhang XY, Shen XR (2021) Effects of co-fermented collagen peptide-jackfruit juice on the immune response and gut microbiota in immunosuppressed mice, Food Chem 365: 130487.

Mohammadsadeghi F, Afsharmanesh M, Ebrahimnejad H (2019) The substitution of humic material complex with mineral premix in diet and interaction of that with probiotic on performance, intestinal morphology and microflora of chickens. Livest Sci 228: 1-4.

Mortensen B, Murphy C, O’Grady J, Lucey M, Elsafi G, Barry L, Westphal V, Wellejus A, Lukjancenko O, Eklund AC, Nielsen HB, Baker A, Damholt A, Vlieg JE, Shanahan F, Buckley M (2019) Bifidobacterium breve Bif195 protects against small-intestinal damage caused by ace-tylsalicylic acid in healthy volunteers. Gastroenterology 157: 637-646.

Mourão JL, Pinheiro V, Alves A, Guedes CM, Pinto L, Saavedra MJ, Spring P, Kocher A (2006) Effect of mannan oligosaccharides on the per-formance, intestinal morphology and cecal fermentation of fattening rabbits. Anim Feed Sci Technol 126: 107-120.

Paul AL, Saki AA, Tivey DR (2001) Intestinal structure and function of broiler chickens on diets supplemented with a mannan oligosaccharide. J Sci Food Agric 81: 1186-1192.

Pluske JR, Miller DW, Sterndale SO, Turpin DL (2019) Associations between gastrointestinal-tract function and the stress response after weaning in pigs. Anim Prod Sci 59: 1-8.

Saito H, Sakakibara Y, Sakata A, Kurashige R, Murakami D, Kageshima H, Saito A, Miyazaki Y (2019) Antibacterial activity of lyso-zyme-chitosan oligosaccharide conjugates (LYZOX) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. PloS One 14: e0217504.

Shalaei M, Hosseini SM, Zergani E (2014) Effect of different supplements on eggshell quality, some characteristics of gastrointestinal tract and performance of laying hens. Vet Res Forum 5: 277-286.

Shen YB, Piao XS, Kim SW, Wang L, Liu P, Yoon I, Zhen YG (2009) Effects of yeast culture supplementation on growth performance, intestinal health, and immune response of nursery pigs. J Anim Sci 87: 2614-2624.

Sugimoto N, Yoshida N, Yoshikawa T, Nakamuara Y, Ichikawa H, Naito Y, Kondo M (2000) Effect of vitamin E on aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Dig Dis Sci 45: 599-605.

Sun Z, Wang T, Demelash N, Zheng S, Zhao W, Chen X, Zhen YG, Qin GX (2019) Effect of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on broil-ers: A preliminary study on the effective components of yeast culture. Animals-Basel 10: 68.

Suyama Y, Handa O, Naito Y, Takayama S, Mukai R, Ushiroda C, Majima A, Yasuda-Onozawa Y, Higashimura Y, Fukui A, Dohi O, Okayama T, Yoshida N, Katada K, Kamada K, Uchiyama K, Ishikawa T, Takagi T, Konishi H, Itoh Y (2018) Mucus reduction promotes acetyl salicylic acid-induced small intestinal mucosal injury in rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 498: 228-233.

Tarasenko TN, McGuire PJ (2017) The liver is a metabolic and immunologic organ: a reconsideration of metabolic decompensation due to infection in inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). Mol Genet Metab 121: 283-288.

Thapa P, Farber DL (2019) The role of the thymus in the immune response. Thorac Surg Clin 29: 123-131.

Tiwari UP, Fleming SA, Abdul R, Muhammed S, Jha R, Dilger RN (2020) The role of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides of xylan and mannan in gut health of monogastric animals. J Nutr Sci 9: e21.

Torrecillas S, Makol A, Benítez-Santana T, Caballero MJ, Montero D, Sweetman J, Izquierdo M (2011) Reduced gut bacterial translocation in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed mannan oligosaccharides (MOS). Fish Shellfish Immunol 30: 674-681.

Torrecillas S, Makol A, Caballero MJ, Montero D, Ginés R, Sweetman J, Izquierdo M (2011) Improved feed utilization, intestinal mucus produc-tion and immune parameters in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed mannan oligosaccharides (MOS). Aquac Nutr 17: 223-233.

Wang T, Cheng K, Yu CY, Li QM, Tong YC, Wang C, Yang ZB, Wang T (2021) Effects of a yeast-derived product on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and immune function of broilers. Poult Sci 100: 101343.

Watanabe T, Fujiwara Y, Chan FK (2020) Current knowledge on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory druginduced small-bowel damage: a comprehen-sive review. J Gastroenterol 55: 481-495.

Wu FY, Cui J, Xia XR, Liu TT, Gu ZL, Chen BJ (2018) Effects of konjac mannan oligosaccharide on nutrient digestibility, immune organ index and serum indices of growing rex rabbits. Feed Industry 39: 8-13. W8yqRzZOI-X3g-xicTfy4lXz9_JSPk9EHmjoHdQK_ u-Cut75hd3j8ylbCvyIB45vnfprAMlnLSTlXjyGkaqjwFW zMnKUzKsgQfJmOXRczTqmO9G8OyU-mqiihg==&uni platform=NZKPT&language=CHS.

Yan SK, Shi RJ, Li L, Ma SB, Zhang HB, Ye J, Wang JM, Pan JR, Wang QX, Jin X, Liu XB, Liu ZG (2019) Mannan oligosaccharide suppresses lipid accumulation and appetite in western‐diet‐induced obese mice via reshaping gut microbiome and enhancing short‐chain fatty acids produc-tion. Mol Nutr Food Res 63: 1900521.

Yi D, Hou YQ, Xiao H, Wang L, Zhang Y, Chen HB, Wu T, Ding BY, Hu CA, Wu GY (2017) N-Acetylcysteine improves intestinal function in lipopolysaccharides-challenged piglets through multiple signaling pathways. Amino Acids 49: 1915-1929.

Yin H, Pan XC, Wang SK, Yang LG, Sun GJ (2014) Protective effect of wheat peptides against small intestinal damage induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in rats. J Integr Agric 13: 2019-2027.

Yu CC, Xiong YJ, Chen DP, Li YL, Xu B, Lin Y, Tang ZY, Jiang CL, Wang L (2017) Ameliorative effects of atractylodin on intestinal inflamma-tion and co-occurring dysmotility in both constipation and diarrhea prominent rats. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 21: 1-9.

Yu Z, Yu RL, Shao JW, Yang Z, Wang H (2019) Study on repair effect of artificial artificial Isaria cicadae on intestinal mucosal injury induced by 5-fluorouracil in rats. China Pharmacy 30: 2973-2979. =FC2wxXHna7qqMRqnMN6Ua4GgXOelY-z4D9_xiRM3h8Ro0tmA_YfLOQGF9aOXNGh0JVU5B3UXfy 9jO-nQgMaes-V1odScSTQOHiNsmmHdR4B 47WqTEWNO8TYeOX8mEA_f_gopAm9uo_Xw 10oTR4opVQ==&uniplatform=NZKPT&language=CHS.

Zhu C, Wang L, Wei SY, Chen Z, Ma XY, Zheng CT, Jiang ZY (2017) Effect of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation on serum anti-oxidant capacity, mucosal sIgA secretions and gut microbial populations in weaned piglets. J Integr Agric 16: 2029-2037.

Zhu ZM, Zhu WM, Lan HB, Cui XD (2014) Research development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Nutritional manipulation and application in aqua feed. Chinese J Anim Nutr 26: 3550-3560. v=FC2wxXHna7rm6nZo2NdW52AMf6cbsAQYhdx 1m9XSgv8J8cFzjOTycdcp_uTikVzlGjYHWMgnkM ROgxB8M1CnOAtA9k57XRl2S3ONt-ay6lTOgtd7wh Fm6XHqw0CUY8yBJMLy_2Egq7TMUL7hbbHn nA==&uniplatform=NZKPT&language=CHS.

Zou JF, Liu C, Jiang S, Qian DW, Duan JN (2021) Cross talk between gut microbiota and intestinal mucosal immunity in the development of ulcerative colitis. Infect Immun 89: e00014-21.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

H. Qiao
Y. Chen
K. Yang
J. Wang
Y. Chou
L. Chen
Y. Zhang
J. Huang
E. Duan
L. Su

  1. College of Biological Engineering, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou, China
Pobierz PDF Pobierz RIS Pobierz Bibtex


The aim of the study was to determine the thickness of choroidal layers in mixed breed dogs suffering from retinal atrophy (RA) and showing symptoms of progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), with the use of SD-OCT. The study was performed on 50 dogs divided into two groups: 25 dogs diagnosed with retinal atrophy (RA) with PRA symptoms aged 1.5-14 years and 25 healthy dogs aged 2-12 years. The dogs were examined using slit-lamp biomicroscopy, tonometry, ophthalmoscopy, fundus camera and SD-OCT (Topcon 3D OCT 2000). Measurements of the choroidal layers: RPE-Bruch membrane-choriocapillaris complex (RPE-BmCc) with tapetum lucidum in tapetal fundus, medium-sized vessel layer, (MSVL), large vessel layer with lamina suprachoroidea and (LVLS) whole choroidal thickness (WCT) were taken manually with the use of the caliper function integrated with the SD-OCT software. The measurements were performed dorsally (D) and ventrally (V) at a distance of 5000-6000 μm, and temporally (T) and nasally (N) at a distance of 4000-7000 μm from the optic disc with enhanced depth scans. The measurements were conducted temporally and nasally both in the tapetal (TempT, Nast) and nontapetal (TempNT, NasNT) fundus. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica 10 software (Mann Whitney U Test). In all dogs affected by retinal atrophy (RA) with PRA symptoms, a statistically significant (p≤0,05) reduction in thickness of MSVL was observed in all the measured regions. A statistically significant reduction in thickness of LVLS and WCT was found in all nontapetal areas (p≤0,05). RA in mixed breed dogs with PRA symptoms was accompanied by choroid disorders such as reduction in thickness of the large vessel layer and decreased whole choroidal thickness in the nontapetal fundus as well as the medium vessel layer in all fundus regions.
Przejdź do artykułu


Adhi M, Regatieri CV, Branchini LA, Zhang JY, Alwassia AA, Duker JS (2013) Analysis of the morphology and vascular layers of the choroid in retinitis pigmentosa using spectral-domain OCT. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 44: 252-259.

André C, Chaudieu G, Thomas A, Jongh O, Jegou JP, Chahory S, Clerc B, Pilorge P, Brenac O (2008) Hereditary retinopathies in the dog: Ge-netic fundamentals and genetic tests. Pratique Médicale et Chirurgicale de l’Animal de Compagnie 43: 75-84.

Balicki I, Szadkowski M, Balicka A, Lew M, Trbolova A (2018) Assessment of generalized progressive retinal atrophy (GPRA) in mixed breed dogs using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD‐OCT) and electroretinography. Abstracts: Annual Scientific Meeting of the European College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists, Florence, Italy May 10‐13, 2018. Veterinary Ophthalmology Vol. 21 Issue 5.

Barnett K C, Curtis R, Millichamp N J (1983): The differential diagnosis of retinal degeneration in the dog and cat. J Small Anim Pract 24: 663-673.

Bruè C, Mariotti C, De Franco E, Fisher Y, Guidotti JM, Giovannini A (2013) Solar Retinopathy: A Multimodal Analysis. Case Rep Ophthalmol Med 2013: 906920.

Brusini P (2018) OCT Glaucoma Staging System: a new method for retinal nerve fiber layer damage classification using spectral-domain OCT. Eye (Lond) 32: 113-119.

Downs LM, Hitti R, Pregnolato S, Mellersh CS (2014) Genetic screening for PRA ‐associated mutations in multiple dog breeds shows that PRA is heterogeneous within and between breeds. Vet Ophthalmol 17: 126-130.

Ekesten B, Komáromy AM, Ofri R, Petersen-Jones SM, Narfström K (2013) Guidelines for clinical electroretinography in the dog: 2012 update. Doc Ophthalmol 127: 79-87.

Finzi A, Cellini M, Strobbe E, Campos EC (2014) ET-1 plasma levels, choroidal thickness and multifocal electroretinogram in retinitis pigmentosa. Life Sci 118: 386-390.

Gabriele ML, Wollstein G, Ishikawa H, Kagemann L, Xu J, Folio LS, Schuman JS (2011) Optical coherence tomography: History, current status, and laboratory work. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52: 2425-2436.

Korte GE, Reppucci V, Henkind P (1984) RPE destruction causes choriocapillary atrophy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 25: 1135-1145.

Lesiuk TP, Braekevelt CR (1983) Fine structure of the canine tapetum lucidum. J Anat. 136: 157-164.

Liu G, Liu X, Li H, Du Q, Wang F (2016) Optical coherence tomographic analysis of retina in retinitis pigmentosa patients. Ophthalmic Res 56: 111-122.

Maggs D, Miller P, Ofri R (2017). In: Slatter’s fundamentals of veterinary ophthalmology. 6th ed., Elsevier Health Sciences, St. Louis, pp 362-372.

McLellan GJ, Rasmussen CA (2012) Optical coherence tomography for the evaluation of retinal and optic nerve morphology in animal subjects: practical considerations. Vet Ophthalmol 15 (Suppl 2): 13-28.

Milam AH, Li ZY, Fariss RN (1998) Histopathology of the human retina in retinitis pigmentosa. Prog Retin Eye Res 17: 175-205.

Murthy RK, Haji S, Sambhav K, Grover S, Chalam KV (2016) Clinical applications of spectral domain optical coherence tomography in retinal diseases. Biomed J 39: 107-120.

Nickla DL, Wallman J (2010) The multifunctional choroid. Prog Retin Eye Res 29: 144-168.

Oh JK, Nuzbrokh Y, Lima de Carvalho JR Jr, Ryu J, Tsang SH (2020) Optical coherence tomography in the evaluation of retinitis pigmentosa. Ophthalmic Genet 41: 413-419.

Poornachandra B, Khurana AK, Sridharan P, Chatterjee P, Jayadev C, Yadav NK, Shetty R (2019) Quantifying microstructural changes in retinitis pigmentosa using spectral domain - optical coherence tomography. Eye Vis (Lond) 6: 13.

Rosolen SG, Rivière ML, Lavillegrand S, Gautier B, Picaud S, LeGargasson JF (2012) Use of a combined slit‐lamp SD‐OCT to obtain anterior and posterior segment images in selected animal species. Vet Ophthalmol 15 (Suppl 2): 105-115.

Saint-Geniez M, Kurihara T, Sekiyama E, Maldonado AE, D’Amore PA (2009) An essential role for RPE-derived soluble VEGF in the mainte-nance of the choriocapillaris. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106: 18751-18756.

Shintani K, Shechtman DL, Gurwood AS (2009) Review and update: Current treatment trends for patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Optometry 80: 384-401.

Singh SR, Vupparaboina KK, Goud A, Dansingani KK, Chhablani J (2019) Choroidal imaging biomarkers. Surv Ophthalmol 64: 312-333.

Xu J, Wang YX, Jiang R, Wei WB, Xu L, Jonas JB (2017) Peripapillary choroidal vascular layers: the Beijing Eye Study. Acta Ophthalmol 95: 619-628.

Zwolska J, Balicki I, Balicka A (2023) Morphological and morphometric analysis of canine choroidal layers using spectral domain optical coher-ence tomography. Int J Environ Res Public Health 20: 3121.

Zwolska J, Szadkowski M, Balicka A, Balicki I (2021) Morphometrical analysis of the canine choroid in relation to age and sex using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Acta Vet Hung 69: 266-273.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

J. Zwolska
I. Balicki
A. Balicka
B. Kuduk

  1. Department and Clinic of Animal Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Głęboka 30, 20-612 Lublin, Poland
  2. Small Animals Clinic,University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Košice, Komenského 73, 040 01 Košice, Slovakia
Pobierz PDF Pobierz RIS Pobierz Bibtex


The environmental impact of methane, a greenhouse gas emitted from ruminants, is a pressing issue and methods to control methane emissions from ruminants are being investigated worldwide. In this study, we investigated the effects of the administration of spent coffee grounds (SCG) on methane production in the rumen in two cows. In the control condition (days 1 and 2), the cows were fed a basic diet twice daily (roughage and concentrate), and in the SCG condition (days 1 and 2) sequentially, the cows were fed the same basic diet and administered SCG into the rumen twice daily. The methane and carbon dioxide concentrations in rumen gas were measured via a fistula after feeding on days 2 in both cases of the study. The measurements were made using a newly developed gas measurement system with a portable gas monitor, and data were obtained for the control condition and SCG condition at each measurement time. The methane ratio at each measurement time was calculated from the methane and carbon dioxide concentrations, and compared between the two conditions. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the two conditions in the methane ratios after the morning (P=0.108) and afternoon feedings (P=0.345). However, the methane ratios before the morning (P=0.043) and afternoon feedings (P=0.008) were significantly lower in the SCG condition than in the control condition, suggesting that the administration of SCG may suppress methane production in the rumen.
Przejdź do artykułu


Bell MJ, Craigon J, Saunders N, Goodman JR, Garnsworthy PC (2018) Does the diurnal pattern of enteric methane emissions from dairy cows change over time? Animal 12: 2065-2070.

Bhatta R, Enishi O, Kurihara M (2007) Measurement of methane production from ruminants. Asian-Aust J Anim Sci 20: 1305-1318.

Czerkawski JW (1986) An introduction to rumen studies, Chapter 10, Transfer of metabolic hydrogen in the rumen. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 173-189.

European Commission (2015) Ban on antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed enters into effect.

Food and agricultural materials inspection center (FAMIC) (2020) Analytical standards of feeds, Chapter 3 (No.1-3, 7). FAMIC, Saitama, Japan,

Johnson KA, Johnson DE (1995) Methane emissions from cattle. J Anim Sci 73: 2483-2492.

Kawai K, Kuruhara K, Matano Y, Akiyama K, Hashimura S, Tanaka S, Kiku Y, Watanabe A, Shinozuka Y (2018) Effects of coffee ground silage feeding in reducing somatic cell count in bovine subclinical mastitis milk. Asian J Anim Vet Adv 13: 377-382.

Kebreab E, Clark K, Wagner-Riddle C, France J (2006) Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from canadian animal agriculture: A review. Can J Anim Sci 86: 135-158.

Knapp JR, Laur GL, Vadas PA, Weiss WP, Tricarico JM (2014) Invited review: Enteric methane in dairy cattle production: Quantifying the op-portunities and impact of reducing emissions. J Dairy Sci 97: 3231-3261.

Kume S, Konaka K, Oshita T (2003) Effect of roughage on methane production and excretion of nitrogen and mineral in dry cattle. Res Bull Natl Agric Res Cent For Hokkaido Reg 178: 21-34.

Murthy PS, Madhava Naidu M (2012) Sustainable management of coffee industry by-products and value addition – A review. Resources, Con-servation and Recycling 66: 45-58.

Rodhe H (1990) A Comparison of the contribution of various gases to the greenhouse effect. Science 248: 1217-1219.

Russell JB, Strobel HJ (1989) Effect of ionophores on ruminal fermentation. Appl Environ Microbiol 55: 1-6.

Shiba N, Tsuneishi E, Matsuzaki M, Shioya S (2003) Effect of linseed oil calcium salt on the methane emission and carcass characteristics of beef cattle. Nihon Chikusan Gakkaiho 74: 37-42.

Socała K, Szopa A, Serefko A, Poleszak E, Wlaź P (2021) Neuroprotective effects of coffee bioactive compounds: A Review. Int J Mol Sci 22: 107. Storm IMLD, Hellwing ALF, Nielsen NI, Madsen J (2012) Methods for measuring and estimating methane emission from ruminants. Animals 2: 160-183.

UNFCCC GHG Data Interface (2019) detailed_data_by_party [accessed on Jan 18, 2022]

Van Soest PJ, McQueen RW (1973) The chemistry and estimation of fibre. Proc Nutr Soc 32: 123-130.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

K. Yamada
K. Kawai
Y. Inui
K. Oda
T. Kurumisawa
Y. Shimizu
Y Shinozuka

  1. Tsukuba Research Laboratories, Tokuyama Corporation, 40 Wadai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 300-4247, Japan
  2. School of Veterinary Medicine, Azabu University, 1-17-1 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 252-5201, Japan
Pobierz PDF Pobierz RIS Pobierz Bibtex


In this study, the relationship between plasma ghrelin levels and muscle atrophy was examined in an experimental diabetic rat model. 56 male Wistar albino rats, aged 8-10 weeks, were used in the study. The rats were divided into 8 groupsD1: one-week diabetes, C1: one-week control, D2: three-week diabetes, C2: three-week control, D3: six-week diabetes, C3: six-week control, D4: eight-week diabetes, C4: eight-week control. To induce diabetes, rats were injected with a single intraperitoneal dose of 45 mg/kg streptozotocin. At the end of the experiments, body weights and fasting blood sugar levels were measured. mTOR and myostatin levels of gastrocnemius muscle and plasma ghrelin levels were measured by ELISA method. Gastrocnemius muscle weight, cross-sectional area and histopathological images were examined. It was observed that the gastrocnemius weights of the D2, D3, D4 groups decreased significantly compared to their controls (p≤0.01). Muscle cross-sectional area decreased significantly in groups D3 and D4 compared to controls (p≤0.01). Muscle mTOR levels were found to be significantly lower in all diabetic groups compared to controls (p≤0.01). Although muscle myostatin levels were higher in the diabetic groups, this increase was only significant in the D4 group. Plasma ghrelin levels were significantly lower in all diabetic groups compared to controls (p≤0.01). A positive correlation was determined between plasma ghrelin levels and the final weights, muscle cross-sectional area, gastrocnemius weights and mTOR levels of the rats. Time-dependent muscle atrophy developed in diabetic rats and there was a relationship between muscle atrophy and plasma ghrelin level. We suggest that ghrelin plays a role in diabetes-induced muscle atrophy as well as cachexia and sarcopenia.
Przejdź do artykułu


Ali S, Garcia JM (2014) Sarcopenia, cachexia and aging: diagnosis, mechanisms and therapeutic options - a mini-review. Gerontology 60: 294-305.

Argilés JM, Campos N, Lopez-Pedrosa JM, Rueda R, Rodriguez-Mañas L (2016) Skeletal muscle regulates metabolism via interorgan crosstalk: roles in health and disease. J Am Med Dir Assoc 17: 789-796.

Ato S, Kido K, Sato K, Fujita S (2019) Type 2 diabetes causes skeletal muscle atrophy but does not impair resistance training‐mediated myonuclear accretion and muscle mass gain in rats. Exp Physiol 104: 1518-1531.

Gortan Cappellari G, Barazzoni R (2019) Ghrelin forms in the modulation of energy balance and metabolism. Eat Weight Disord 24: 997-1013.

Cohen S, Nathan JA, Goldberg AL (2015) Muscle wasting in disease: molecular mechanisms and promising therapies. Nat Rev Drug Discov 14: 58-74.

Coleman SK, Rebalka IA, D’souza DM, Deodhare N, Desjardins EM, Hawke TJ. (2016) Myostatin inhibition therapy for insulin-deficient type 1 diabetes. Sci Rep 6: 32495.

Doustar Y, Salehi I, Mohamadi M, Mohajeri D, Hashemi M (2007) Investigate the effect of regular exercise on diabetic nephropathy in rat. Medi-cal Sci J 17: 187- 193.

D’Souza DM, Al-Sajee D, Hawke TJ (2013) Diabetic myopathy: impact of diabetes mellitus on skeletal muscle progenitor cells. Front Physiol 4: 379.

Elkina Y, von Haeling S, Anker SD, Springer J (2011) The role of myostatin in muscle wasting: an overview. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2: 143-151.

Elsawy M, Emara E (2016) The impact of ghrelin on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers on the liver of diabetic rats. Tanta Med J 44: 163-169.

Evans PL, McMillin SL, Weyrauch LA, Witczak CA (2019) Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Glucose Transport and Glucose Metabolism by Exer-cise Training. Nutrients 11: 2432.

Garcia JM, Cata JP, Dougherty PM, Smith RG (2008) Ghrelin prevents cisplatin-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and cachexia. Endocrinology 149: 455-60.

International Diabetes Federation (2019) IDF Diabetes Atlas. 9th ed. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation.

Kavishankar GB, Lakshmidevi N (2014) Anti-diabetic effect of a novel N-Trisaccharide isolated from Cucumis prophetarum on streptozoto-cin–nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic rats. Phytomedicine 21: 624-630.

Lambertucci AC, Lambertucci RH, Hirabara SM, Curi R, Moriscot AS, Alba-Loureiro TC, Guimarães-Ferreira L, Levada-Pires AC, Vasconcelos DA, Sellitti DF, Pithon-Curi TC (2012) Glutamine supplementation stimulates protein-synthetic and inhibits protein-degradative signaling pathways in skeletal muscle of diabetic rats. PLoS One 7: e50390.

Nguyen MH, Cheng M, Koh TJ (2011) Impaired muscle regeneration in ob/ob and db/db mice. ScientificWorldJournal 11: 1525-1535.

Nowak N, Hohendorff J, Solecka I, Szopa M, Skupien J, Kiec-Wilk B, Mlynarski W, Malecki MT (2015) Circulating ghrelin level is higher in HNF1A-MODY and GCK-MODY than in polygenic forms of diabetes mellitus. Endocrine 50: 643-649.

Perry BD, Caldow MK, Brennan-Speranza TC, Sbaraglia M, Jerums G, Garnham A, Wong C, Levinger P, Asrar Ul Haq M, Hare DL, Price SR, Levinger I (2016) Muscle atrophy in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: roles of inflammatory pathways, physical activity and exercise. Exerc Immunol Rev 22: 94-109.

Porporato PE, Filigheddu N, Reano S, Ferrara M, Angelino E, Gnocchi VF, Prodam F, Ronchi G, Fagoonee S, Fornaro M, Chianale F, Baldanzi G, Surico N, Sinigaglia F, Perroteau I, Smith RG, Sun Y, Geuna S, Graziani A (2013) Acylated and unacylated ghrelin impair skeletal muscle atrophy in mice. J Clin Invest 123(2): 611-622.

Pöykkö SM, Kellokoski E, Hörkkö S, Kauma H, Kesäniemi YA, Ukkola O (2003) Low plasma ghrelin is associated with insulin resistance, hy-pertension, and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 52: 2546-53.

Prodam F, Cadario F, Bellona S, Trovato L, Moia S, Pozzi E, Savastio S, Bona G (2014) Obestatin levels are associated with C-peptide and anti-insulin antibodies at the onset, whereas unacylated and acylated ghrelin levels are not predictive of long-term metabolic control in children with type 1 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 99: E599-607.

Pulkkinen L, Ukkola O, Kolehmainen M, Uusitupa M (2010) Ghrelin in diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Intl J Pept 2010: 248948.

Ramesh B, Pugalendi KV (2009) Antihyperglycemic effect of umbelliferone in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. J Med Food 9: 562-566.

Shankar K, Gupta D, Mani BK, Findley BG, Osborne-Lawrence S, Metzger NP, Liu C, Berglund ED, Zigman JM (2020) Ghrelin protects against insulin-induced hypoglycemia in a mouse model of Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Front in Endocrinol (Lausanne) 11: 606.

Su Z, Robinson A, Hu L, Klein JD, Hassounah F, Li M, Wang H, Cai H, Wang XH. (2015) Acupuncture plus Low-Frequency Electrical Stimula-tion (Acu-LFES) Attenuates Diabetic Myopathy by Enhancing Muscle Regeneration. PLoS One 10: e0134511.

Talbot J, Maves L (2016) Skeletal muscle fiber type: using insights from muscle developmental biology to dissect targets for susceptibility and resistance to muscle disease. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Dev Biol 5: 518-534.

Watson K, Baar K (2014) mTOR and the health benefits of exercise. Semin Cell Dev Biol 36: 130-139.

Wood N, Straw S, Scalabrin M, Roberts L (2021) Skeletal muscle atrophy in heart failure with diabetes: from molecular mechanisms to clinical evidence. ESC Heart Fail 8: 3-15.

Wu CS, Wei Q, Wang H, Kim DM, Balderas M, Wu G, Lawler J, Safe S, Guo S, Devaraj S, Chen Z, Sun Y (2020) Protective Effects of Ghrelin on Fasting-Induced Muscle Atrophy in Aging Mice. J Gerontol A Biology Sci Med Sci 75: 621-630.

Zinna EM, Yarasheski KE (2003) Exercise treatment to counteract protein wasting of chronic diseases. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 6: 87-93.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

D. Aygün Keşim
M. Kelle
F. Aşır
H. Kayhan Kaya
H. Diken
G.Ş. Gökdemir
F. Koç Direk

  1. Department of Physiology, Medical Faculty, Dicle University, Sur, 21280, Diyarbakır, Turkey
  2. Department of Histology and Embryology, Medical Faculty, Dicle University, Sur, 21280, Diyarbakır, Turkey
  3. Department of Physiology, Medical Faculty, Mardin Artuklu University, Artuklu, 47200, Mardin, Turkey
  4. Department of Anatomy, Medical Faculty, Mardin Artuklu University, Artuklu, 47200, Mardin, Turkey
Pobierz PDF Pobierz RIS Pobierz Bibtex


The aim of the study was to analyze differences in the concentration of total arsenic (As) and As(III) in urine depending on the sex of mixed-breed dogs. Therefore, a research hypothesis was put forward that sex is a variable determining the degree and efficiency of urinary arsenic excretion. Two study groups were established: female (group 1) and male (group 2) mixed-breed dogs of similar body weight (9-13 kg) and aged 8-11 years. Urine samples were collected using a device designed specially for this purpose (utility model registered at the Patent Office of the Republic of Poland, no. WUP 13/2023). Samples were wet-digested following the protocol presented in the PN-EN 13805:2014 standard and analysed using an EcaFlow 150 GLP coulometer integrated with an E-53 Au electrode and EcaCell. Arsenic content in dog food was also measured to verify the effect of this variable. Results were analyzed using Statistica 13.1 software. Sex had a significant effect on the urinary arsenic excretion. The levels of total As and As(III) were significantly higher in urine from male dogs (18.45 and 2.92 [μg L-1]; p≤0.05) with compared to urine from female dogs (13.43 and 1.67 [μg L-1], respectively).
Przejdź do artykułu


Ahsan H, Chen Y, Parvez F, Zablotska L, Argos M, Hussain I, Momotaj H, Levy D, Cheng Z, Slavkovich V, Van Geen A, Howe GR, Graziano JH (2006) Arsenic exposure from drinking water and risk of premalignant skin lesions in Bangladesh: baseline results from the health effects of arsenic longitudinal study. Am J Epidemiol 163: 1138-48.

Chang JY, Ahn SC, Lee JS, Kim JY, Jung AR, Park J, Choi JW, Yu SD (2019) Exposure assessment for the abandoned metal mine area contaminated by arsenic. Environ Geochem Health 41: 2443-2458.

Chen H, Liu G, Qiao N, Kang Z, Hu L, Liao J, Yang F, Pang C, Liu B, Zeng Q, Li Y, Li Y (2020) Toxic effects of arsenic trioxide on spermato-gonia are associated with oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, autophagy and metabolomic alterations. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 190: 110063.

Chowdhury UK (2021) Biotransformation of inorganic arsenic: Influence of gender, arsenic dose level, and creatinine formation. Int J of Biochem Pept 1: 17-33.

Ghosh P, Banerjee M, Giri AK, Ray K (2008) Toxicogenomics of arsenic: classical ideas and recent advances. Mutat Res 659: 293-301.

Liao KW, Chien LC, Chen YC, Kao HC (2022) Sex-specific differences in early renal impairment associated with arsenic, lead, and cadmium exposure among young adults in Taiwan. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 29: 52655-52664.

Lindberg AL, Ekström EC, Nermell B, Rahman M, Lönnerdal B, Perrson LA, Vahter M (2008) Gender and age differences in the metabolism of inorganic arsenic in a highly exposed population in Bangladesh. Environ Res 106: 110-120.

Machado-Neves M (2022) Arsenic exposure and its implications in male fertility. Anim Reprod 19: e20220119.

Mukherjee AG, Gopalakrishnan AV (2023) The interplay of arsenic, silymarin, and NF-ĸB pathway in male reproductive toxicity: a review, Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 252: 114614.

POLISH NORM PN-EN-13805:2014. Foodstuffs. Determination of trace elements. Mineralization pressure [in Polish]. 2014.pdf

Smith AH, Arroyo AP, Mazumder DN, Kosnett MJ, Hernandez AL, Beeris M, Smith MM, Moore LE (2000) Arsenic-induced skin lesions among Atacameno people in Northern Chile despite good nutrition and centuries of exposure. Environ Health Perspect 108: 617-620.

Timbrell J (2008) The poison paradox: chemicals as friends and foes. Oxford University Press, p 180.

Waalkes MP, Ward JM, Diwan BA (2004) Induction of tumors of the liver, lung, ovary and adrenal in adult mice after brief maternal gestational exposure to inorganic arsenic: promotional effects of postnatal phorbol ester exposure on hepatic and pulmonary, but not dermal cancers. Carcinogenesis 25: 133-141.

Wei BG, Ye BX, Yu JP, Yang LS, Li HR, Xia YJ, Wu KG (2017) Blood Pressure Associated with Arsenic Methylation and Arsenic Metabolism Caused by Chronic Exposure to Arsenic in Tube Well Water. Biomed Environ Sci 30: 334-342.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

D. Cygan-Szczegielniak
A. Szczech

  1. Department of Animal Physiology and Physiotherapy, Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology, Bydgoszcz University of Science and Technology, Mazowiecka 28, 85-084 Bydgoszcz, Poland
Pobierz PDF Pobierz RIS Pobierz Bibtex


Canine hepatozoonosis is a tick-borne protozoal disease. Two species of Hepatozoon may infect dogs: Hepatozoon americanum and H. canis. The aim of the paper was to attempt to detect the genetic material of H. canis in blood samples collected from dogs suspected to suffer from tick-borne diseases. 107 samples were tested with the use of the real-time PCR technique (Vcheck M Bionote analyser), of which 99 were collected from dogs which never left Polish territory (group 1) and 8 from dogs which spent the holidays with their owners in Turkey (group 2). DNA of H. canis was detected in 1 dog in group 1 (with Ixodes ricinus infestation), and in 2 dogs in group 2 (with Ripicephalus sanguineus infestation). The results obtained indicate that infections with H. canis should be taken into account and included in the differential diagnosis of vector-borne diseases in dogs in Poland, and the accurate identification of the infection agent is crucial for developing the correct treatment regimen and prognosis.
Przejdź do artykułu


Baneth G (2011) Perspectives on canine and feline hepatozoonosis. Vet Parasitol 181: 3-11.

Baneth, G, Weigler B, (1997) Retrospective case-control study of hepatozoonosis in dogs in Israel. J Vet Intern Med 11: 365-370.

Hamel D, Silaghi C, Zapadynska S, Kudrin A, Pfister K (2013) Vector-borne pathogens in ticks and EDTA-blood samples collected from cli-ent-owned dogs, Kiev, Ukraine. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 4: 152–155.

Helm CS, von Samson-Himmelstjerna G, Liesner JM, Kohn B, Müller E, Schaper R, Stefan Pachnicke S, Schulze C, Krücken J (2020) Identical 18S rRNA haplotypes of Hepatozoon canis in dogs and foxes in Brandenburg, Germany. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 11: 101520.

Majláthová V, Hurníková Z, Majláth I, Petko B (2007) Hepatozoon canis infection in Slovakia: imported or autochthonous? Vector Borne Zoono-tic Dis 7: 199-202.

Mitkova B, Hrazdilova K, Novotna M, Jurankova J, Hofmannova L, Forejtek P, Modry D (2017) Autochthonous Babesia canis, Hepatozoon canis and imported Babesia gibsoni infection in dogs in the Czech Republic. Vet Med (Czech) 62: 138-46.

Potter TM, Macintire DK (2010) Hepatozoon americanum: an emerging disease in the south-central/southeastern United States. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 20: 70-76.

Smith TG (1996) The genus Hepatozoon (Apicomplexa: Adeleina). J Parasitol 82: 565-585.

Schäfer I, Müller E, Nijhof AM, Aupperle-Lellbach H, Loesenbeck G, Cramer S, Naucke TJ (2022) First evidence of vertical Hepatozoon canis transmission in dogs in Europe. Parasit Vectors 15: 296.

Szymanski S (1979) Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) – a new member of the Polish fauna of ticks (Parasitiformes, Ixodidae). Bulletin de l’Academie Polonaise des Sciences 27: 555-556.

Tołkacz K, Kretschmer M, Nowak S, Mysłajek RW, Alsarraf M, Wężyk D, Bajer A (2023) The first report on Hepatozoon canis in dogs and wolves in Poland: clinical and epidemiologal features. Parasit Vectors 16: 313.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

B. Dokuzeylül
O. Teodorowski
M. Pisarek
M. Skrzypczak
M. Rutkowska-Szulczyk
Ł. Deneka
S. Winiarczyk
M.E. Or
Ł. Adaszek

  1. Department of Internal Medicine, Veterinary Faculty, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, 34320 Avcilar Campus, Avcilar, Istanbul, Turkey
  2. Department of Epizootiology and Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, 30 Głęboka Street, 20-612 Lublin, Poland
  3. Second Department of Gynaecology, Prof. F. Skubiszewski University School of Medicine, 20-090 Lublin, Poland
  4. Vet Planet Sp. z o.o., 36/2 Brukowa Street, 05-092 Łomianki, Poland
Pobierz PDF Pobierz RIS Pobierz Bibtex


The incidence of chronic enteropathies (CE), in particular food-responsive enteropathies (FRE) in dogs, is on the rise in veterinary practice. The symptoms of these digestive disorders cannot be alleviated with the use of commercial hypoallergenic feeds. The applicability of novel materials in hypoallergenic dog feeds is limited, and edible insects could pose a viable alternative. Insects have a high nutritional value, and their potential can be harnessed to design personalized nutrition strategies. However, the use of insects in animal feeds should be rigorously tested. The aim of this study was to analyze the applicability of edible insects as a source of dietary protein for companion animals, including the current and future prospects. Canine food formulas should be evaluated in a clinical setting. The role edible insects in pet diets and the efficacy of this material in animal nutrition should be examined in advanced clinical trials in gastroenterology, histology, immunology, and microbiology. These efforts are required to guarantee the safety and efficacy of innovative insect-based feeds and to increase their popularity among veterinary practitioners, pet food producers, and animal owners.
Przejdź do artykułu


Abd El-Wahab A, Meyer L, Kölln M, Chuppava B, Wilke V, Visscher C, Kamphues J (2021) Insect larvae meal (Hermetia illucens) as a sustaina-ble protein source of canine food and its impacts on nutrient digestibility and fecal quality. Animals (Basel) 11: 2525.

Aldrich GC, Koppel K (2015) Pet food palatability evaluation: a review of standard assay techniques and interpretation of results with a primary focus on limitations. Animals (Basel) 5: 43-55.

Allenspach K, Vaden SL, Harris TS, Gröne A, Doherr MG, Griot‐Wenk ME, Bischoff SC, Gaschen F (2006) Evaluation of colonoscopic allergen provocation as a diagnostic tool in dogs with proven food hypersensitivity reactions. J Small Anim Pract 47: 21-26.

Areerat S, Chundang P, Lekcharoensuk C, Kovitvadhi A (2021) Possibility of using house cricket (Acheta domesticus) or mulberry silkworm (Bombyx mori) pupae meal to replace poultry meal in canine diets based on health and nutrient digestibility. Animals (Basel) 11: 2680.

Bae S, Lee S, Kim J, Hwang Y (2020) Analysis of consumer receptivity to pet food containing edible insects in South Korea. Korean J Appl En-tomol 59: 139-143.

Bakuła T, Gałęcki R (2021) Strategy of using insects as alternative sources of protein in animal nutrition and possibilities of developing its produc-tion in the territory of the Republic of Poland. 1st ed., ERZET, Olsztyn, pp 139-169.

Barrena R, Sánchez M (2013) Neophobia, personal consumer values and novel food acceptance. Food Qual Pref 27: 72-84.

Beck AM, Fine AH, Coren S, King E, Feldman S, Braun L (2023) Why do we love the pets we have? The role of animals and family. In: The routledge international handbook of human-animal interactions and anthrozoology. routledge, pp 200-213.

Benvenuti E, Pierini A, Bottero E, Pietra M, Gori E, Salvadori S, Marchetti, V (2021) Immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathy and non-responsive enteropathy in dogs: prognostic factors, short-and long-term follow up. Animals (Basel) 11: 2637.

Bloch PH (1995) Seeking the ideal form: Product design and consumer response. J Mark 59: 16-29.

Boldrin M, Levine DK (2002) The case against intellectual property. Am Econ Rev 92: 209-212.

Bosch G, Swanson KS (2021) Effect of using insects as feed on animals: pet dogs and cats. J Insects Food Feed 7: 795-805.

Bosch G, Vervoort JJ, Hendriks WH (2016) In vitro digestibility and fermentability of selected insects for dog foods. Anim Feed Sci Technol 221: 174-184.

Bosch G, Zhang S, Oonincx DG, Hendriks WH (2014) Protein quality of insects as potential ingredients for dog and cat foods. J Nutr Sci 3: e29.

Bueno AD, Motta-Junior JC (2004) Food habits of two syntopic canids, the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), in southeastern Brazil Rev Chil Hist Nat 77: 5-14.

Bussink AP, Speijer D, Aerts JM, Boot RG (2007) Evolution of mammalian chitinase (-like) members of family 18 glycosyl hydrolases. Genetics 177: 959-970.

Chesney CJ (2001) Systematic review of evidence for the prevalence of food sensitivity in dogs. Vet Rec 148: 445-448.

Dagevos H (2021) A literature review of consumer research on edible insects: recent evidence and new vistas from 2019 studies. J Insects Food Feed 7: 249-259.

Dandrieux JR, Mansfield CS (2019) Chronic enteropathy in canines: prevalence, impact and management strategies. Vet Med (Auckl) 10: 203-214.

Deroy O, Reade B, Spence C (2015) The insectivore’s dilemma, and how to take the West out of it. Food Qual Pref 44: 44-55.

Dossey AT, Tatum JT, McGill WL (2016) Modern insect-based food industry: current status, insect processing technology, and recommendations moving forward. In: Insects as Sustainable Food Ingredients. Academic Press, pp 113-152.

Drucker P (2014) Innovation and Entrepreneurship. 1st ed., Routledge, New York, pp: 31-156

EFSA Scientific Committee (2015) Risk profile related to production and consumption of insects as food and feed. EFSA J 13: 4257.

Euromonitor (2019) Premiumisation: How Value-Seeking Trends in the US Will Shape the Future of Pet Food. (Accessed 04.05.2021).

Evason M, Peace M, Munguia G, Stull J (2020) Clients’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to pet nutrition and exercise at a teaching hos-pital. Can Vet J 61: 512-516.

Fasanelli R, Galli I, Riverso R, Piscitelli A (2020) Social representations of insects as food: an explorative-comparative study among millennials and x-generation consumers. Insects 11: 656.

Fediaf Annual Report (2021) (Accessed 20.01.2023).

Ferrantelli V, Riili S, Vicari D, Percipalle M, Chetta M, Monteverde V, Gaglio G, Giardina G, Usai F, Poglayen G (2010) Spirocerca lupi isolated from gastric lesions in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Sicily (Italy). Pol J Vet Sci 13: 465-471.

Forbes SL, Trafford S, Surie M (2018) Pet humanisation: what is it and does it influence purchasing behaviour? J Dairy Vet Sci 5: 1-5.

Formica P (2013) Stories of innovation for the millennial generation: The lynceus long view. 1st ed., Springer, Berlin, pp 2-26.

Gallen C, Pantin-Sohier G, Oliveira D (2022) How can the design thinking process improve an innovative insect-based food experience? Int J Food Des 7: 29-58.

Gałęcki R, Bakuła T, Gołaszewski J (2023) Foodborne diseases in the edible insect industry in Europe – new challenges and old problems. Foods 12: 770.

Gałęcki R, Zielonka Ł, Zasȩpa M, Gołȩbiowska J, Bakuła T (2021) Potential utilization of edible insects as an alternative source of protein in animal diets in Poland. Front Sustain Food Syst 5: 675796.

Gasco L, Józefiak A, Henry M (2021) Beyond the protein concept: health aspects of using edible insects on animals. J Insects Food Feed 7: 715-741.

German AJ, Hall EJ, Day MJ (2001) Immune cell populations within the duodenal mucosa of dogs with enteropathies. J Vet Intern Med 15: 14-25.

Glanemann B, Seo YJ, Priestnall SL, Garden OA, Kilburn L, Rossoni-Serao M, Segarra S, Mochel JP, Allenspach K (2021) Clinical efficacy of prebiotics and glycosaminoglycans versus placebo in dogs with food responsive enteropathy receiving a hydrolyzed diet: a pilot study. PloS One, 16: e0250681.

Graham TM, Milaney KJ, Adams CL, Rock MJ (2019) Are millennials really picking pets over people? Taking a closer look at dog ownership in emerging adulthood. Can J Fam Youth 11: 202-227.

Hankin S (2007) Not a living room sofa: Changing the legal status of companion animals. Faculty Scholarship, p 85.

Harvey RG (1993) Food allergy and dietary intolerance in dogs: a report of 25 cases. J Small Anim Pract 34: 175-179.

Hill CW (1997) Establishing a standard: Competitive strategy and technological standards in winner-take-all industries. Acad Manag Ex 11: 7-25.

Hong J, Han T, Kim YY (2020) Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor Larvae) as an alternative protein source for monogastric animal: a review. Animals (Basel) 10: 2068.

Islam MM, Yang CJ (2017) Efficacy of mealworm and super mealworm larvae probiotics as an alternative to antibiotics challenged orally with Salmonella and E. coli infection in broiler chicks. Poult Sci 96: 27-34.

Jarett JK, Carlson A, Serao MR, Strickland J, Serfilippi L, Ganz HH (2019) Diets with and without edible cricket support a similar level of diver-sity in the gut microbiome of dogs. PeerJ 7: e7661.

Jeromin A (2018) Food allergy: Fact versus fiction. Vet Pract News Published November 5, 2018.

Jin XH, Heo PS, Hong JS, Kim NJ, Kim YY (2016) Supplementation of dried mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva) on growth performance, nutri-ent digestibility and blood profiles in weaning pigs. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 29: 979-986.

Kamleh M, Khosa, DK, Verbrugghe A, Dewey CE, Stone E (2020) A cross‐sectional study of pet owners’ attitudes and intentions towards nutri-tional guidance received from veterinarians. Vet Rec 187: e123.

Kawano K, Shimakura H, Nagata N, Masashi Y, Suto A, Suto Y, Uto S, Ueno H, Hasegawa T, Ushigusa T, Nagai T, Arawatari Y, Miyaji K, Ohmori K, Mizuno T (2016) Prevalence of food-responsive enteropathy among dogs with chronic enteropathy in Japan. J Vet Med Sci 78: 1377-1380.

Kępińska-Pacelik J, Biel W (2022) Insects in pet food industry – hope or threat? Animals (Basel) 12: 1515.

Kinyuru JN, Ndung’u NW (2019) Promoting edible insects in Kenya: historical, present and future perspectives towards establishment of a sus-tainable value chain. J Insects Food Feed 6: 51-58.

Kröger S, Heide C, Zentek J (2020) Evaluation of an extruded diet for adult dogs containing larvae meal from the black soldier fly (Hermetia illu-cens). Anim Feed Sci Technol 270: 114699.

Kucharska B, Malinowska M (2019) Trends in Y generation’s behaviour on the food market. Zeszyty Naukowe SGGW w Warszawie. Polityki Europejskie, Finanse i Marketing 22: 106-119.

Kulkov I, Barner-Rasmussen W, Ivanova-Gongne M, Tsvetkova A, Hellström M, Wikström K (2021) Innovations in veterinary markets: opinion leaders’ social capital. J Bus Ind Mark 36: 1-14.

Lähteenmäki-Uutela A, Marimuthu SB, Meijer N (2021) Regulations on insects as food and feed: a global comparison. J Insects Food Feed 7: 849-856.

Lange KW, Nakamura Y (2021) Edible insects as future food: chances and challenges. J Future Foods 1: 38-46.

Lee KI, Chae Y, Yun T, Koo Y, Lee D, Kim H, So KM, Cho WJ, Kim HJ, Yang MP, Kang BT (2021) Clinical application of insect-based diet in canine allergic dermatitis. Korean J Vet Res 61: e36.

Lincoln J (2018) How do Millennial retail shopping habits for animal feed differ from that of other generations? Doctoral Dissertation. (Accessed 10.12.2022).

Makielski K, Cullen J, O’Connor A, Jergens AE (2019) Narrative review of therapies for chronic enteropathies in dogs and cats. J Vet Intern Med 33: 11-22.

Mancini S, Moruzzo, R, Riccioli F, Paci G (2019) European consumers’ readiness to adopt insects as food. A review. Food Res Int 122: 661-678.

McConnell AR, Paige LE, Humphrey BT (2019) We are family: Viewing pets as family members improves wellbeing. Anthrozoös 32: 459-470.

Mowat AM (2019) The immunopathogenesis of food-sensitive enteropathies. 1st ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 199-226.

Murefu TR, Macheka L, Musundire R, Manditsera FA (2019) Safety of wild harvested and reared edible insects: A review. Food Control 101: 209-224.

Nagata N, Ohta H, Yokoyama N, Teoh YB, Nisa K, Sasaki N, Osuga T, Morishita K, Takiguchi M (2020) Clinical characteristics of dogs with food‐responsive protein‐losing enteropathy. J Vet Intern Med 34: 659-668.

Niyonsaba HH, Höhler J, Kooistra J, Van der Fels-Klerx HJ, Meuwissen MP (2021) Profitability of insect farms. J Insects Food Feed 7: 923-934.

Nowakowski AC, Miller AC, Miller ME, Xiao H, Wu X (2022) Potential health benefits of edible insects. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 62: 3499-3508.

Oakland Veterinary Referral Service Staff (2019). The future is pets: why millennials have the top spot as pet owners. Published January 17, 2019. (Accessed 15.12.2022).

Ojha S, Bußler S, Psarianos M, Rossi G, Schlüter OK (2021) Edible insect processing pathways and implementation of emerging technologies. J Insects Food Feed 7: 877-900.

Okamoto Y, Nose M, Miyatake K, Sekine J, Oura R, Shigemasa Y, Minami S (2001) Physical changes of chitin and chitosan in canine gastroin-testinal tract. Carbohydr Polym 44: 211-215.

Olivry T, Bizikova P (2010) A systematic review of the evidence of reduced allergenicity and clinical benefit of food hydrolysates in dogs with cutaneous adverse food reactions. Vet Dermatol 21: 32-41.

Ortiz JC, Ruiz AT, Morales-Ramos JA, Thomas M, Rojas MG, Tomberlin JK, Yi L, Han R, Giroud L, Jullien RL (2016) Insect mass production technologies. In: Insects as sustainable food ingredients. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 153-201.

Panteli N, Mastoraki M, Lazarina M, Chatzifotis S, Mente E, Kormas KA, Antonopoulou E (2021) Configuration of gut microbiota structure and potential functionality in two teleosts under the influence of dietary insect meals. Microorganisms 9: 699.

Patel S, Suleria HA, Rauf A (2019) Edible insects as innovative foods: Nutritional and functional assessments. Trends Food Sci Technol 86: 352-359.

Paterson S (1995) Food hypersensitivity in 20 dogs with skin and gastrointestinal signs. J Small Anim Pract 36: 529-534.

Prata JC (2022) Survey of pet owner attitudes on diet choices and feeding practices for their pets in Portugal. Animals (Basel) 12: 2775.

Premrov Bajuk B, Zrimšek P, Kotnik T, Leonardi A, Križaj I, Jakovac Strajn B (2021) Insect protein-based diet as potential risk of allergy in dogs. Animals 11: 1942.

Procoli F (2020) Inflammatory bowel disease, food-responsive, antibiotic-responsive diarrhoea, protein losing enteropathy: Acronyms, clinical staging, and treatment of chronic inflammatory enteropathy in dogs. Adv Small Anim Med Care 1: 127-141.

Regulation (EU) 2015/2283 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 November 2015 on Novel Foods, Amending Regulation (EU) No. 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council and Repealing Regulation (EC) No. 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council and Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1852/2001; European Union: Luxemburg, 2001.

Rumpold BA, Schlüter OK (2013) Nutritional composition and safety aspects of edible insects. Mol Nutr Food Res 57: 802-823.

Schumpeter JA (2017) The theory of economic development: An inquiry into profits, capital, credit, interest, and the business cycle. Routledge, New York, pp 15-100.

Selaledi L, Mbajiorgu CA, Mabelebele M (2020) The use of yellow mealworm (T. molitor) as alternative source of protein in poultry diets: a re-view. Trop Anim Health Prod 52: 7-16.

Sheldon JW (2013) Wild dogs: the natural history of the nondomestic canidae. 1st ed., Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 8-203.

Siddiqui SA, Brunner TA, Tamm I, van der Raad P, Patekar G, Bahmid NA, Aarts K, Paul A (2023) Insect-based dog and cat food: A short inves-tigative review on market, claims and consumer perception. J Asia-Pac Entomol 26: 102020.

Siddiqui SA, Zannou O, Karim I, Kasmiati, Awad NMH, Gołaszewski J, Heinz V, Smetana S (2022) Avoiding food neophobia and increasing consumer acceptance of new food trends – a decade of research. Sustainability 14: 10391.

Siel D, Beltrán CJ, Martínez E, Pino M, Vargas N, Salinas A, Pérez O, Pereira I, Ramírez-Toloza G (2022) Elucidating the role of innate and adap-tive immune responses in the pathogenesis of canine chronic inflammatory enteropathy – a search for potential biomarkers. Animals (Basel) 12: 1645.

Simpson JW, Anderson RS, Markwell PJ (1993) Clinical nutrition of the dog and cat. 1st ed., Blackwell Sci. Publ., Oxford, pp 36-95.

Sindermann D, Heidhues J, Kirchner S, Stadermann N, Kühl A (2021) Industrial processing technologies for insect larvae. J Insects as Food Feed 7: 857-875.

Smeets-Peeters M, Watson T, Minekus M, Havenaar R (1998) A review of the physiology of the canine digestive tract related to the development of in vitro systems. Nutr Res Rev 11: 45-69.

Smith AD (2011) Competitive approaches to new product development: A comparison of successful organizations in an unstable economic envi-ronment. Team Perform Manag 17: 124-145.

Souilhac C, Roux C, Vergnet J, Coyla M, Arqué L, Rioux G (2021) Tutored project on how to introduce insects onto French people’s plates? Entomophagy and generation Z in France. Université Toulouse - Jean Jaurès Institut Superieur Du Tourisme, pp 34-78.

Stull VJ, Finer E, Bergmans RS, Febvre HP, Longhurst C, Manter DK, Patz JA, Weir TL (2018) Impact of edible cricket consumption on gut microbiota in healthy adults, a double-blind, randomized crossover trial. Sci Rep 8: 10762.

Suleman S (2011) Comparative advertising, disparagement and trademark infringement: An interface. SSNR 18: 1-33.

Taylor K (2019) Eating insects will soon go mainstream as bug protein is set to explode into an $8 billion business. Bussines Insider. Published January 25, 2019. (Accessed 10.03.2022).

Tolbert MK, Murphy M, Gaylord L, Witzel-Rollins A (2022) Dietary management of chronic enteropathy in dogs. J Small Anim Pract 63: 425-434.

Valdes F, Villanueva V, Durán E, Campos F, Avendaño C, Sánchez M, Domingoz-Araujo C, Valenzuela C (2022) Insects as feed for companion and exotic pets: A current trend. Animals (Basel) 12: 1450.

Van Huis A (2020) Insects as food and feed, a new emerging agricultural sector: a review. J Insects Food Feed 6: 27-44.

Van Huis A (2022) Edible insects: Challenges and prospects. Entomol Res 52: 161-177.

Van Kleef E, Van Trijp HC, Luning P (2005) Consumer research in the early stages of new product development: a critical review of methods and techniques. Food Qual Pref 16: 181-201.

Voge M, Heyneman D (1957) Development of Hymenolepis nana and Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) in the intermediate Host Tribolium confusum. Univ Calif Publ Zool 59: 549-579.

Weru J, Chege P, Kinyuru J (2021) Nutritional potential of edible insects: a systematic review of published data. Int. J Trop Insect Sci 41: 2015-2037.

White BL (2023) Insights-driven development of humanized foods for pets. MMB 6: 1-12.

Wolff J (1937) Unfair Competition by Truthful Disparagement. Yale Law J 47: 1304.

Woodmansey D (2018) Database shows 75% rise in hypoallergenic food demand. Veterinary Times. Published August 15, 2018. (Accessed 16.12.2022).

Woodroffe R, Cleaveland S, Courtenay O, Laurenson MK, Artois M (2004) Infectious disease – infectious disease in the management and conser-vation of wild canids. In: Macdonald DW, Sillero-Zubiri C (eds) Biol Conserv Wild Canids, Eds. Oxford University Press, pp 123-142.

YPulse Survey (2020) 76% of millennials are pet parents –here’s what they’ve been buying for them. Published August 24, 2020. (Accessed 16.12.2022).

Zielińska E, Baraniak B, Karaś M (2017) Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of hydrolysates and peptide fractions obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of selected heat-treated edible insects. Nutrients 9: 970

Żuk-Gołaszewska K, Gałęcki R, Obremski K, Smetana S, Figiel S, Gołaszewski J (2022) Edible insect farming in the context of the EU regulations and marketing – an overview. Insects 13: 446.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

R. Gałęcki
M. Hanuszewska-Dominiak
E. Kaczmar

  1. Department of Veterinary Prevention and Feed Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
  2. Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
  3. Department of Clinical Diagnostics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
Pobierz PDF Pobierz RIS Pobierz Bibtex


The present study was designed to evaluate the protective efficacy of troxerutin against cypermethrin-induced behavioral defects, motor function abnormalities, and oxidative stress in mice. Twenty-four adult female albino mice were randomly divided into four equal groups. The first group served as control, the second group was treated with cypermethrin (20 mg/kg b.w) intraperitoneally at day 21, and the remaining two groups were orally supplemented with TRX (150, 300 mg/kg b.w) for 20 days and with cypermethrin (20 mg/kg b.w) intraperitoneally at day 21. Behavior activities recorded after cypermethrin exposure showed significantly impaired motor function (p≤0.05) as evidenced by the beam balance and pole test. The cypermethrin was also found to cause significant memory dysfunction. Moreover, the oxidative stress in terms of increased tissue malondialdehyde level (p≤0.05) was recorded in the cypermethrin group. The antioxidant activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase were decreased (p≤0.05) after cypermethrin exposure. Troxerutin supplementation significantly improved the cypermethrin- -induced motor impairment and memory dysfunction. The supplementation of troxerutin significantly restored the redox status. Troxerutin attenuates the neurotoxic and behavioral deficits caused by cypermethrin. Furthermore, troxerutin also provides significant protection against cypermethrin-induced oxidative stress by improving the oxidative stress markers.
Przejdź do artykułu


Ali HF, El Sayed NM, Ahmed AA, Hanna PA, Moustafa YM (2020) Nano selenium ameliorates oxidative stress and inflammatory response associated with cypermethrin-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 195: 110479.

Ateşşahin A, Yilmaz S, Karahan I, Pirinçci I, Taşdemir B (2005) The effects of vitamin E and selenium on cypermethrin-induced oxidative stress in rats. Turk J Vet Anim Sci 29: 385-391.

Azarfarin M, Farajdokht F, Babri S, Salehpour F, Taghizadeh M, Mohaddes G (2018) Effects of troxerutin on anxiety- and depressive-like behav-iors induced by chronic mild stress in adult male rats. Iran J Basic Med Sci 21: 781-786.

Badalzadeh R, Chodari L, Ghorbanzadeh V (2017) Troxerutin, a bioflavonoid, improves oxidative stress in blood of streptozotocin-induced type-1 diabetic rats. Iran J Pharm Sci 13: 75-86.

Bali YA, Kaikai NE, Ba-M’hamed S, Bennis M (2019) Learning and memory impairments associated to acetylcholinesterase inhibition and oxida-tive stress following glyphosate based-herbicide exposure in mice. Toxicology 415: 18-25.

Baluchnejadmojarad T, Jamali-Raeufy N, Zabihnejad S, Rabiee N, Roghani M (2017) Troxerutin exerts neuroprotection in 6-hydroxydopamine lesion rat model of Parkinson’s disease: Possible involvement of PI3K/ERβ signaling. Eur J Pharmacol 801: 72-78.

Bayandor P, Farajdokht F, Mohaddes G, Diba R, Hosseindoost M, Mehri K, Zavvari Oskuye Z, Babri S (2019) The effect of troxerutin on anxie-ty-and depressive-like behaviours in the offspring of high-fat diet fed dams. Arch Physiol Biochem 125: 156-162.

Burton GW, Cheeseman KH, Ingold KU, Slater TF (1983) Lipid antioxidants and products of lipid peroxidation as potential tumour protective agents. 261-262.

Colle D, Santos DB, Naime AA, Gonçalves CL, Ghizoni H, Hort MA, Farina M (2020) Early postnatal exposure to paraquat and maneb in mice increases nigrostriatal dopaminergic susceptibility to a Re-challenge with the same pesticides at adulthood: Implications for Parkinson’s dis-ease. Neurotox Res 37: 210-226.

Feldman E (2004) Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. AMDCC Protocols Version. 1.

Flohé L, Günzler WA (1984) Assays of glutathione peroxidase. Methods Enzymol 105: 114-120.

Gabbianelli R, Nasuti C, Falcioni G, Cantalamessa F (2004) Lymphocyte DNA damage in rats exposed to pyrethroids: effect of supplementation with Vitamins E and C. Toxicology 203: 17-26.

Gao C, Song Y, Dou T, Jiang S, Wu H, Seshadri VD, Veeraraghavan VP, Hou P (2021) Troxerutin abrogates ischemic/reperfusion-induced brain injury through ameliorating oxidative stress and neuronal inflammation by inhibiting the expression of NLRP3 in sprague dawley rats. J Envi-ron Pathol Toxicol Oncol 40: 11-19.

Garabadu D, Agrawal N (2020) Naringin exhibits neuroprotection against rotenone-induced neurotoxicity in experimental rodents. Neuromolecular Med 22: 314-330.

Hadwan MH, Abed HN (2016) Data supporting the spectrophotometric method for the estimation of catalase activity. Data Brief 6: 194-199.

Hussien HM, Abdou HM, Yousef MI (2013) Cypermethrin induced damage in genomic DNA and histopathological changes in brain and haema-totoxicity in rats: the protective effect of sesame oil. Brain Res Bull 92: 76-83.

Hussein RM, Mohamed WR, Omar HA (2018) A neuroprotective role of kaempferol against chlorpyrifos-induced oxidative stress and memory deficits in rats via GSK3β-Nrf2 signaling pathway. Pestic Biochem Physiol 152: 29-37.

Ince S, Kucukkurt I, Demirel HH, Turkmen R, Sever E (2012) Thymoquinone attenuates cypermethrin induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice. Pestic Biochem Physiol 104: 229-235.

Jamali-Raeufy N, Kardgar S, Baluchnejadmojarad T, Roghani M, Goudarzi M (2019) Troxerutin exerts neuroprotection against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress and neuroinflammation through targeting SIRT1/SIRT3 signaling pathway. Metab Brain Dis 34: 1505-1513.

Knippenberg S, Thau N, Dengler R, Petri S (2010) Significance of behavioural tests in a transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Behav Brain Res 213: 82-87.

Li H, Xie YH, Yang Q, Wang SW, Zhang BL, Wang JB, Cao W, Bi LL, Sun JY, Miao S (2012) Cardioprotective effect of paeonol and danshensu combination on isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury in rats. PloS One 7: e48872. Luong TN, Carlisle HJ, Southwell A, Patterson PH (2011) Assessment of motor balance and coordination in mice using the balance beam. J Vis Exp e2376.

Madiha S, Batool Z, Tabassum S, Liaquat L, Sadir S, Shahzad S, Naqvi F, Saleem S, Yousuf S, Nawaz A (2021) Quercetin exhibits potent anti-oxidant activity, restores motor and non-motor deficits induced by rotenone toxicity. Plos One 16: e0258928.

Mahmood I, Imadi SR, Shazadi K, Gul A, Hakeem KR (2016) Effects of pesticides on environment. In: Hakeem K, Akhtar M, Abdullah S. (eds) Plant, soil and microbes. Springer, Cham. 253-269.

Meister A (1974) Glutathione; Metabolism and function via the gamma-glutamyl cycle. Life Sci 15: 177-190.

Mezni A, Mhadhbi L, Khazri A, Sellami B, Dellali M, Mahmoudi E, Beyrem H (2020) The protective effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyxes extract against cypermethrin induced oxidative stress in mice. Pestic Biochem Physiol 165: 104463.

C, Brunori G, Eusepi P, Marinelli L, Ciccocioppo R, Gabbianelli R (2017) Early life exposure to permethrin: a progressive animal model of Parkinson’s disease. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 83: 80-86.

Raja B, Saranya D, Prabhu R (2019) Role of flavonoid troxerutin on blood pressure, oxidative stress and regulation of lipid metabolism. Front Biosci (Elite Ed) 11: 121-129.

Rajawat NK, Soni I, Syed F, Verma R, John PJ, Mathur R (2019) Effect of β-cyfluthrin (synthetic pyrethroid) on learning, muscular coordination and oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice. Toxicol Ind Health 35: 358-367.

Righi DA, Palermo-Neto J (2003) Behavioral effects of type II pyrethroid cyhalothrin in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 191: 167-176.

Sankar P, Telang AG, Manimaran A (2012) Protective effect of curcumin on cypermethrin-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol 64: 487-493.

Sharma P, Firdous S, Singh R (2014) Neurotoxic effect of cypermethrin and protective role of resveratrol in Wistar rats. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis 4: 104-111.

Tian YT, Liu ZW, Yao Y, Zhang T, Yang Z (2008) Effects of alpha and theta-cypermethrin insecticide on transient outward potassium current in rat hippocampal CA3 neurons. Pestic Biochem Physiol 90: 1-7.

Wu Y, Jiao Z, Wan Z, Qu S (2021) Role of autophagy and oxidative stress to astrocytes in fenpropathrin-induced Parkinson-like damage. Neuro-chem Int 145: 105000.

Yadav A, Tandon A, Seth B, Goyal S, Singh SJ, Tiwari SK, Agarwal S, Nair S, Chaturvedi RK (2021) Cypermethrin Impairs Hippocampal Neu-rogenesis and Cognitive Functions by Altering Neural Fate Decisions in the Rat Brain. Mol Neurobiol 58: 263-280.

Yaqub A, Faheem I, Anjum KM, Ditta SA, Yousaf MZ, Tanvir F, Raza C (2020) Neurotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles and associated motor func-tion deficits in mice. Appl Nanosci 10: 177-185.

Zamanian M, Hajizadeh MR, Esmaeili Nadimi A, Shamsizadeh A, Allahtavakoli M (2017) Antifatigue effects of troxerutin on exercise endurance capacity, oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinase‐9 levels in trained male rats. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 31: 447-455.

Ziada RM, Nahas AA, Farag A, Kotb GA (2020) Protective Efficacy of Combined Administration of Vitamins C and Curcumin on Cyperme-thrin-Induced Oxidative Stress in Male Albino Rats. Egypt Acad J Biol Sci F Toxicol Pest Control 12: 109-118.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

S. Shehzad
Z. Farooq
S.K. Tahir
M.I. Masood
S.M.M. Anjum
A.A. Saeed
M.S. Yousaf
K.A. Majeed
I. Rabbani
S. Basharat

  1. Department of Physiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Syed Abdul Qadir Jilani (Out Fall) Road, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
  2. Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Syed Abdul Qadir Jilani (Out Fall) Road, Lahore 54000, Pakistan

Ta strona wykorzystuje pliki 'cookies'. Więcej informacji