Humanities and Social Sciences

Polish Psychological Bulletin

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Polish Psychological Bulletin | 2020 | vol. 51 | No 1 |

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Abstract

The study aimed to determine the relationship between parents’ family aspirations towards their children with disabilities and selected parental psychosocial resources, such as self-image, self-perception, perceived social support, and styles of coping with stress. The instruments included the Parental Aspirations Questionnaire by Kirenko (2012), The Tennessee Self Concept Scale by Fitts (1965), The Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire by Norbeck (1984), and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations by Endler and Parker (1999). 361 mothers and fathers bringing up children with physical, sensory, and intellectual disabilities participated in the study. The results suggest a positive role of adaptive competences, such as adaptive coping, positive properties of self-image, as well as the negative role of maladaptive competencies such as self-criticism in mothers and fathers. Neither the positive contribution of social support nor the negative role of avoidance-oriented coping in fathers has been confirmed. Parental aspirations are part of adaptation to living with a child with a disability and will be important to support parents in recognizing the child’s potential correctly and strengthening it at all stages of development until adulthood.

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Authors and Affiliations

Monika Parchomiuk
Janusz Kirenko
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Abstract

Clients’ satisfaction with financial advice provided by professional advisors depends on how this advice has fulfilled their expectations and goals. However, once a recommendation is made, a client is unable to predict and evaluate the real financial outcome of the advisor’s proposal. In such a case, she/he can base her/his assessment on the characteristics ascribed to the financial advisor: her/his epistemic authority (competence) and level of caring. Additionally, clients expect to receive a “tailor-made” solution that takes into account her/his individual needs and characteristics. In the present study, we asked participants to evaluate financial experts who had recommended risky vs safe investments. The recommendations were congruent or incongruent with the clients’ risk tolerance (high vs low). The kind of recommendation influenced the participants’ evaluations of the advisors (and as a result, the clients’ perceived satisfaction) only for low-risk tolerance clients. For these clients, investment recommendations that were not adjusted to their levels of risk tolerance led to lower evaluations of the advisors and consequently to lower evaluation of satisfaction with their visits. These lower evaluations regarded both dimensions: the interpersonal aspect (caring) and competence in the field of finance (epistemic authority). Such incongruence between risk tolerance and the riskiness of the recommendation did not affect high-risk tolerance clients’ advisor evaluations.

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Authors and Affiliations

Barnaba Danieluk
Rafał Muda
Mariusz Kicia
Katarzyna Stasiuk
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Abstract

The study aims to examine the role of Self-Forgiveness in shaping the Human Flourishing of the adults. Two hundred fourteen participants (18 to 30 years) comprising 100 males (Mean Age = 22.15(1.61)) and 114 females (Mean Age = 22.00(1.95)) were chosen for the study. Self-forgiveness (Mudgal & Tiwari, 2017a) and Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (Keyes, 2005) were used as the tools. Self-forgiveness comprises Realization & Reparation, Guilt, Attribution and overall self-forgiveness (sum of the first three) while Human Flourishing consists of Hedonic and Eudaimonic (Social plus Psychological) Well-Being. The aggregate of Hedonic and Eudaimonic is overall Human Flourishing. The findings suggested no gender differences in Self-Forgiveness of the participants. Conversely, gender differences were observed in all the dimensions of Human Flourishing in favour of males. Irrespective of gender, Realization & Reparation was positively correlated with Hedonic, Social, Psychological and Eudaimonic Well-Being as well as Human Flourishing except for Guilt and Attribution that showed small positive or negative correlations. Irrespective of gender, Overall Self-Forgiveness correlated positively with all the dimensions of Flourishing. Gender and Realization & Reparation emerged as the significant predictors accounting for significant variance in all the dimensions of Flourishing while Guilt and Attribution did not. The findings suggested that remorse, easy acceptance of wrongdoing, repairing the relationship with self and others, ability to minimize negative emotions towards self, monitoring others’ positive behaviours and acknowledgements of valued and close relationships were the psychological mechanisms that may underlie the predictive strengths of self-forgiveness in regulating flourishing.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ruchi Pandey
Gyanesh Kumar Tiwari
Priyanka Parihar
Pramod Kumar Rai
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Abstract

The study of emotion regulation constitutes a major area of research for having a complete picture of human emotional experience, and several lines of evidence claim that poor emotion regulation skills are particularly deleterious in different aspects of life. Previous tDCS studies have suggested the beneficial role of DLPFC stimulation to improve emotion processing and regulation. The present study was therefore conducted to confirm and extend the effects of DLPFC stimulation on emotion regulation by including both positive and negative emotional material. In this between subjects study, participants were randomly assigned to receive active or sham stimulation over the left DLPFC. Participants viewed negative, positive, and neutral pictures while attempting to decrease, increase, or not modulate their emotional reactions. Subjective reactions were assessed via on-line ratings. The main results show that anodal tDCS stimulation over the left DLPFC slightly improves the ability to increase emotion perception for positive emotions. More interestingly, the results demonstrate that tDCS enhances the regulation of both positive and negative emotions when the baseline is considered. This study provides additional data on the use of tDCS as a tool to increase emotion regulation not only for negative affective material, but also for positive ones.

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Authors and Affiliations

Michel Hansenne
Emilie Weets
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Abstract

The literature shows that researchers used a wide variety of types of guilt manipulation. A common feature of these studies was that the subjects were not able to doubt their guilt. Additionally, these methods did not take into account the psychometric measurement of this emotion, as well as the possibility of simultaneously inducing other feelings, such as sadness or anger. In a carefully designed experiments, we found a method that is approachable to arrange, which additionally seems to be free from these methodological flaws. In our study participants were shown an arranged message suggesting that the experimenter’s work has been destroyed. In experiment 1 (N = 44), we showed that the method proposed by us significantly affects guilt. In experiment 2 (N = 89), we replicated our result, additionally demonstrating that our procedure significantly affected only the emotion of guilt (compared to other emotions) - which is a novelty. It also has been shown that complying with the request of the victim (conditional forgiveness) makes us feel less guilty, but it does not restore liking to this person - which was established by previous research. The discussion section summarizes the results, indicates their limitations, and proposes directions for future research.

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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł Muniak
Wojciech Kulesza
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Abstract

This study aimed to compare measures of religiosity and spirituality in the experience of positive and negative emotions. For this purpose, a measure of non-spiritual religiosity (Religious Sense Scale) was developed. Method: The study has been conducted on a sample of 279 participants aged between 19 and 69 (M=24.42, SD=9.463) who completed a questionnaire that included the Religious Sense Scale, the Portuguese version of the Spiritual Well-being Questionnaire and the abridged Portuguese version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Findings: The was found to have excellent metrical properties for the measurement of religiosity or “religious sense”. Religious individuals differ from spiritual ones in the experience of emotions: spirituality tends to a greater experience of positive affect and religiosity to negative affect.

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Authors and Affiliations

João P. Da Silva
Anabela M.S. Pereira
Sara O.M. Monteiro
Ana Bartolo
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Abstract

Previous research has shown the importance of time perspectives (TP) in future-oriented decision making. However, the possible associations between time perspectives and seeking out psychological help in need have not been examined extensively, especially taking further influencing factors into consideration. Therefore, this study aimed to assess associations between personal time perspectives, stigma, socio-economic factors, and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help (ATTSPPH) in a sample of adults in the general population in Hungary (N=273) aged 18-84 (mean=28.47, SD= 10.31). Multivariate regression analyses found that attitudes towards seeking professional psychological help were inversely associated with stigma, and residing outside of the capital city and positively associated with female gender. None of the time perspectives were associated with help-seeking. The results are discussed regarding the importance of mental health in Hungary.

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Authors and Affiliations

Dániel Kiss
Zsuzsanna Szél
Anna V. Gyarmathy
József Rácz

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