Humanities and Social Sciences

Polish Psychological Bulletin

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Polish Psychological Bulletin | 2020 | vol. 51 | No 4 |

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Abstract

The paper investigates the relations between Schwartz’s values and beliefs which may reflect skepticism toward science – specifically vaccine rejection, climate change denial and creationism. Recent research on the causes of anti-science indicates that they may be motivational, pertaining to ideologies, worldviews, and one’s moral codes. Therefore, we postulated that value priority hierarchies hierarchies may be predictors of anti-science. Results (N = 509) indicated that Conservation metatype values were positively associated with anti-science, while Self-Transcendence and Openness to change metatypes were connected with support for science. We also found significant differences in value profiles between participants with lower vs. higher anti-scientific beliefs. We discuss the possible motivational underpinnings of these results.
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Authors and Affiliations

Józef Maciuszek
1
Mateusz Polak
1
Aleksandra Zajas
1
Katarzyna Stasiuk
1

  1. Institute of Applied Psychology, Jagiellonian University
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Abstract

Communities affected by tidal flooding, need psychological treatment to overcome various problems that arise. The purpose of this study was to analyze: 1) strategic coping of communities affected by tidal flooding, 2) psychological well-being of communities affected by tidal flooding, 3) differences in strategic coping of communities affected by tidal flooding in the three regions, 4) differences in psychological well-being of communities affected by tidal flooding in the three areas, 5) the correlation between strategies coping with psychological well-being in communities affected by tidal flooding. Samples were recruited by purposive sampling of 84 respondents. Data analysis uses Spearman rank correlation and Kruskal Wallis. The results obtained by the average strategic coping of 96.73 with a range of values (79-112). Psychological well-being has an average value 197.39 with a range of values (159-228). Spearman rank results proved to be a relationship between coping strategies with psychological well-being (ρ value: 0,000; r of 0.620) with the strength of a positive relationship (0.620). Kruskal Wallis test results show differences in respondent coping strategies among the three regions taken as research samples with ρ value: 0.018 <0.05. Kruskal Wallis test results showed no differences in psychological well-being of respondents among the three regions taken as research samples with ρ value: 0.340> 0.05.
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Authors and Affiliations

Indar Widowati Widowati
1
Zaenal Amirudin Amirudin
1
Afiyah Sri Harnany Harnany
1

  1. Poltekkes Kemenkes Semarang, Indonesia
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Abstract

The objectives of the study were to recognize the main motives for engagement in actions beyond basic professional duties among various professional groups and to identify selected properties of the subject and context of activities that contribute to such beyond-duties engagement. A set of questionnaires in electronic or paper form was completed by 209 employees, including 104 representatives of assistance professions and 95 representatives of creative professions, aged between 21 and 67 years (M = 37.54, SD = 9.55). It was established that the main motives for beyondduties engagement in both groups of professionals under study were self-actualization and acting for the benefit of others. With the use of structural equation modelling, subjective and contextual determinants of engagement in actions beyond basic professional duties were identified as self-efficacy and action meaningfulness. The research discusses the phenomenon of engagement in extra activities at work from the perspective of the acting person/employee. The study results can be useful for managers in setting goals of appropriate type and manner to their employees as well as for task assignment.
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Authors and Affiliations

Agnieszka Bożek
1

  1. Jagiellonian University
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Abstract

The study examined the relationships among some demographic factors, self-compassion and interdependent happiness of the married Hindu couples. Using a correlational research design, 600 participants (300 couples) were chosen by a snowball sampling. Self-compassion Scale (Neff, 2003b), Socioeconomic Status Scale (Aggarwal et al., 2005) and Interdependent Happiness Scale (Hitokoto & Uchida, 2015) were used to collect data. Findings revealed that some demographic factors such as age, years of marriage and number of family members were positively correlated with self-compassion while the number of children and socioeconomic status were negatively correlated with it. Age, years of marriage and the number of children had a positive relationship with interdependent happiness. Self-compassion evinced a significant positive correlation with the interdependent happiness of the couples. The nature of family and self- -compassion accounted for significant variance in the scores of interdependent happiness of the couples. The study constitutes one of the limited studies which assessed the relationships among a set of demographic factors, self- -compassion and interdependent happiness on a sample drawn from a collectivistic society. The results have been discussed in the light of extant theoretical and empirical findings of self-compassion and interdependent happiness. The findings may have significant implications for understanding positive life outcomes of people with self-compassion belonging to a collectivistic culture. The theory, practise and policy implications of the findings have been discussed. Directions for future research have also been provided along with some limitations of the study.
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Authors and Affiliations

Priyanka Parihar
1
Gyanesh Kumar Tiwari
1
Pramod Kumar Rai
1

  1. Doctor Harisingh Gour Vishwavidyalaya, Sagar, 470003, Madhya Pradesh, India
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Abstract

The paper examines the issues of epidemiology, conditions, and treatment of eating disorders in men which are not widely recognised in either Polish and other International research. The aim of this paper is to provide an narrative overview of published research to date on the epidemiology, determinants and treatment of eating disorders in males, to discuss some of the differences reported in studies of self-identified gender disparities, and differences in comparison to the literature on female eating disorders. The prevalence and extent of the issue is underestimated by those affected and by clinicians. Consequently, men suffering from eating disorders (EDs) are less likely to be recognised or to receive appropriated timely help. This paper is based on a narrative review analysis of research reports on EDs. The authors discuss the issue of EDs in the context of gender, indicating how self-identified gender can affect clinical presentation (including somatic self- -perception, and the methods employed and motives in striving for a ‘perfect’ figure) and how these relate. Both the methods used in collecting data on eating disorders and the precision of diagnostic criteria for recognising eating disorders (mainly anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa) (both on the DSM and ICD systems) are based largely on research conducted in female clinical populations. Analysis of the empirical material to date leads us to assume that symptoms of EDs in men are more often (than in the case of women) related to (self)stigmatisation, difficulties in obtaining a correct diagnosis, coexistent body dysmorphic disorders, substance addictions, and greater physical activity.’
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Authors and Affiliations

Beata Ziółkowska
1
Dorota Mroczkowska
2

  1. Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy
  2. Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
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Abstract

As the Thai people have been more aware of the importance of volunteering, the structure of volunteer activities in the country’s hospitals has become more complicated. As a result, medical personnel and volunteer organizations have faced challenges in connecting people with the activities most relevant to concerns and needs. In order to assist the host parties as well as individual volunteers, a system that can match the personal characteristics of volunteers to the demands of the activities needs to be developed. As a starting point, multidimensional scaling was used in this study to reveal a working structure for volunteer activities by exploring major dimensions underlying the similarity and dissimilarity between these activities. Twenty-three volunteer activities proposed by a panel of experts and stakeholders were subject to an ordinal (non-metric) multidimensional scaling. All but one volunteer activity can be grouped along three dimensions: hospital-related, lecturing versus group leading, and empathic communication. These three dimensions can serve as a blueprint for identifying personal characteristics that may be essential to each activity and for designing a system for volunteer recruitment and placement.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jirapattara Raveepatarakul
1
Sakkaphat T. Ngamake
1
Chichaya Srichaisawat
1
Witsinee Bovornusvakool
1
Panrapee Suttiwan
1
Nattanan Monkong
1
Poonsub Areekit
1

  1. Faculty of Psychology, Chulalongkorn University
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Abstract

This paper investigates the effect of explicitly informing participants about the objective probability of winning a lottery on the illusion of control. In a procedure based on Experiment 3 from Langer’s 1975 seminal paper, participants were faced with lotteries based on familiar vs. unfamiliar stimuli and either explicitly informed about the objective probability of winning or not (the probability could be derived from other data). Results indicated that stating the objective probability of winning the lottery reduced, but not eliminated the illusion of control. Moreover, Langer’s effect of stimulus familiarity was not replicated. Experiment 2, which included a lottery based on the full set of Polish alphabet letters, confirmed the same effects. Results indicate that illusion of control may be explained by the control heuristic (Thompson et al., 1998) – in absence of explicitly stated probability, participants estimate their chances of winning based on perceived control, even though calculating the objective probability is possible.
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Authors and Affiliations

Karolina Chodzyńska
1
Mateusz Polak
1

  1. Institute of Applied Psychology, Faculty of Management and Social Communication, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
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Abstract

The study explored the impact of experimental manipulation of body schema on creative potential in midadolescence. The experiment was conducted in a group of 140 adolescents at the age of 14-16: 68 boys (M = 15.03; SD = .93) and 72 girls (M = 15.01; SD = .81), randomly allocated to equinumerous groups: experimental and control. The aim of experimental manipulation was to obtain a temporarily disturbance of body schema. It was gained by the use of glasses reversing the field of vision in the vertical up/down plane, and measured by the Body Schema Disturbance Questionnaire. In both groups the Urban and Jellen’s Test for Creative Thinking – Drawing Production (TCT-DP, Urban & Jellen, 1986) was administered twice (in A and B versions, randomly selected). Statistical analyses was run with a mixed model ANOVA (2 drawings x 2 groups x 2 sexes). The interaction effect of drawing production and group assignment on creative potential was significant, while the interaction effect of drawing production and sex on creative potential turned out to be insignificant.
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Authors and Affiliations

Beata Mirucka
1
Monika Kisielewska
1

  1. Faculty of Education, University of Bialystok
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Abstract

The boundary between work and family life is now almost invisible, making the search for a balance between both spheres a dilemma and challenge. These concerns have led to a growing increase in studies on work-family and family-work conflict, their predictors, and their effects. This study aims to: 1) observe the predictive effect of work-family conflict (WFC) and family-work conflict (FWC) on work-family guilt (WFG) and family-work guilt (FWG), respectively; and 2) to observe the effect of WFC, FWC, WFG and FWG on satisfaction with life and job satisfaction. In a sample of 213 participants aged between 22 and 64 years (M = 41.77; SD = 6.63), the results show that, in contrast with expectations, WFG and FWG did not prove to be predictors; only WFC and FWC had a negative effect on both guilt and satisfaction with life and job satisfaction. The family work interface is a topic that is extremely important, not only for organizations but also for society. Therefore, the study of its implications on variables is considered essential for the promotion of positive functioning of individuals.
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Authors and Affiliations

Cátia Sousa
1
Ezequiel Pinto
1
Joana Santos
1
Gabriela Gonçalves
1

  1. Universidade do Algarve CIP-Centre for Research in Psychology (CIP/UAL) & University of Algarve, Portugal
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Abstract

The goal of this study was to test the efficacy of a tactile attention distraction from pain and compare its effectiveness with a virtual reality (VR) distraction on an analogous task. VR is considered to be the gold standard for attention distraction, but it cannot be used in certain clinical cases or for particular medical procedures. A repeatedmeasures experimental study was carried out with 42 participants using tactile and VR variants of an n-back task and a cold pressor test for pain. The independent variable was the distraction type (tactile, VR, or no-distraction) and the dependent variable was pain tolerance (i.e., time participants kept their hand in cold water). The results showed that both tactile and VR games effectively increased pain tolerance compared to the control condition. Effect sizes for both interventions were similar. However, the effect was observed only for female participants.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marcin Czub
1
Anna Bagrij
1

  1. Institute of Psychology, University of Wrocław
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Abstract

A qualitative study was carried out to survey attitudes towards and feelings associated with verbal irony among gelotophobes and nongelotophobes (gelotophobia denoting the fear of being laughed at). Sixty-one people (13 gelotophobes) were surveyed using an open-ended online questionnaire. An inductive, manifest content analysis was carried out. The analysis distinguished that non-gelotophobes treat verbal irony as a skillful way of drawing attention to absurdity. Irony was also often seen as a personal quality rather than a linguistic form. Concerns with recognizing irony appeared very rarely. In contrast, the gelotophobes’ responses displayed a more negative and one-sided attitude towards irony, describing it mostly as a way to put down and insult. These findings, though obtained in a general exploration, present a perspective complementary to that seen in linguistic and psycholinguistic literature as they draw attention to matters of personal experience of irony use. Additionally, the study’s methodological limitations and further directions for research are discussed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Kałowski
1

  1. Faculty of Psychology, University of Warsaw

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