Nauki Techniczne

Metrology and Measurement Systems


Metrology and Measurement Systems | 2015 | vol. 22 | No 3 |


This paper proposes a soft sensing method of least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) using temperature time series for gas flow measurements. A heater unit has been installed on the external wall of a pipeline to generate heat pulses. Dynamic temperature signals have been collected upstream of the heater unit. The temperature time series are the main secondary variables of soft sensing technique for estimating the flow rate. A LS-SVM model is proposed to construct a non-linear relation between the flow rate and temperature time series. To select its inputs, parameters of the measurement system are divided into three categories: blind, invalid and secondary variables. Then the kernel function parameters are optimized to improve estimation accuracy. The experiments have been conducted both in the single-pulse and multiple-pulse heating modes. The results show that estimations are acceptable.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Weiqing Xu
Zichuan Fan
Maolin Cai
Yan Shi
Xiaomeng Tong
Junpeng Sun


A pulse sequence shaper for the pursuance of the research using a wide spectrum of radiospectroscopy and relaxation methods in NQR is proposed. The distinctive feature of this product is its implementation with the application of a multi-functional programmable frequency synthesizer suitable for high-speed amplitude and phase manipulations.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Yuriy Bobalo
Zenon Hotra
Oleksandra Hotra
Leonid Politans’kyy
Andriy Samila


Testing of image intensifier tubes is still done using mostly manual methods due to a series of both technical and legal problems with test automation. Computerized stations for semi-automated testing of IITs are considered as novelty and are under continuous improvements. This paper presents a novel test station that enables semi-automated measurement of image intensifier tubes. Wide test capabilities and advanced design solutions rise the developed test station significantly above the current level of night vision metrology.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Krzysztof Chrzanowski


Deterministic mechanics has been extensively used by engineers as they needed models that could predict the behavior of designed structures and components. However, modern engineering is now shifting to a new approach where the uncertainty analysis of the model inputs enables to obtain more accurate results. This paper presents an application of this new approach in the field of the stress analysis. In this case, a two-dimensional stress elasticity model is compared with the experimental stress results of five different size tubes measured with resistive strain gages. Theoretical and experimental uncertainties have been calculated by means of the Monte Carlo method and a weighted least square algorithm, respectively. The paper proposes that the analytical engineering models have to integrate an uncertainty component considering the uncertainties of the input data and phenomena observed during the test, that are difficult to adapt in the analytical model. The prediction will be thus improved, the theoretical result being much closer to the real case.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Ramón Gutiérrez
María Ramírez
Ester Olmeda
Vicente Díaz


This paper presents a simple DFT-based golden section searching algorithm (DGSSA) for the single tone frequency estimation. Because of truncation and discreteness in signal samples, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) are inevitable to cause the spectrum leakage and fence effect which lead to a low estimation accuracy. This method can improve the estimation accuracy under conditions of a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and a low resolution. This method firstly uses three FFT samples to determine the frequency searching scope, then – besides the frequency – the estimated values of amplitude, phase and dc component are obtained by minimizing the least square (LS) fitting error of three-parameter sine fitting. By setting reasonable stop conditions or the number of iterations, the accurate frequency estimation can be realized. The accuracy of this method, when applied to observed single-tone sinusoid samples corrupted by white Gaussian noise, is investigated by different methods with respect to the unbiased Cramer-Rao Low Bound (CRLB). The simulation results show that the root mean square error (RMSE) of the frequency estimation curve is consistent with the tendency of CRLB as SNR increases, even in the case of a small number of samples. The average RMSE of the frequency estimation is less than 1.5 times the CRLB with SNR = 20 dB and N = 512.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Xin Liu
Yongfeng Ren
Chengqun Chu
Wei Fang


This paper presents a multivariate regression predictive model of drift on the Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) behaviour. Evaluation tests on a CMM with a multi-step gauge were carried out following an extended version of an ISO evaluation procedure with a periodicity of at least once a week and during more than five months. This test procedure consists in measuring the gauge for several range volumes, spatial locations, distances and repetitions. The procedure, environment conditions and even the gauge have been kept invariables, so a massive measurement dataset was collected over time under high repeatability conditions. A multivariate regression analysis has revealed the main parameters that could affect the CMM behaviour, and then detected a trend on the CMM performance drift. A performance model that considers both the size of the measured dimension and the elapsed time since the last CMM calibration has been developed. This model can predict the CMM performance and measurement reliability over time and also can estimate an optimized period between calibrations for a specific measurement length or accuracy level.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Eduardo Cuesta
Braulio Alvarez
Fernando Sanchez-Lasheras
Daniel Gonzalez-Madruga


In this work the design aspects of a piezoelectric-based resonance ceramic pressure sensor made using low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology and designed for high-temperature applications is presented. The basic pressure-sensor structure consists of a circular, edge-clamped, deformable diaphragm that is bonded to a ring, which is part of the rigid ceramic structure. The resonance pressure sensor has an additional element – a piezoelectric actuator – for stimulating oscillation of the diaphragm in the resonance-frequency mode. The natural resonance frequency is dependent on the diaphragm construction (i.e., its materials and geometry) and on the actuator. This resonance frequency then changes due to the static deflection of the diaphragm caused by the applied pressure. The frequency shift is used as the output signal of the piezoelectric resonance pressure sensor and makes it possible to measure the static pressure. The characteristics of the pressure sensor also depend on the temperature, i.e., the temperature affects both the ceramic structure (its material and geometry) and the properties of the actuator. This work is focused on the ceramic structure, while the actuator will be investigated later.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Darko Belavič
Andraž Bradeško
Marina Santo Zarnik
Tadej Rojac


A novel design of a circuit used for NTC thermistor linearization is proposed. The novelty of the proposed design consists in a specific combination of two linearization circuits, a serial-parallel resistive voltage divider and a two-stage piecewise linear analog-to-digital converter. At the output of the first linearization circuit the quasi-linear voltage is obtained. To remove the residual voltage nonlinearity, the second linearization circuit, i.e., a two-stage piecewise linear analog-to-digital converter is employed. This circuit is composed of two flash analog-to-digital converters. The first analog-to-digital converter is piecewise linear and it is actually performing the linearization, while the second analog-to-digital converter is linear and it is performing the reduction of the quantization error introduced by the first converter. After the linearization is performed, the maximal absolute value of a difference between the measured and real temperatures is 0.014°C for the temperature range between −25 and 75°C, and 0.001°C for the temperature range between 10 and 40°C.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Jelena Lukić
Dragan Denić


In the paper selected methods of measuring the thermal resistance of an IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) are presented and the accuracy of these methods is analysed. The analysis of the measurement error is performed and operating conditions of the considered device, at which each measurement method assures the least measuring error, are pointed out. Theoretical considerations are illustrated with some results of measurements and calculations.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Krzysztof Górecki
Paweł Górecki


In the paper an example of application of the Kalman filtering in the navigation process of automatically guided vehicles was presented. The basis for determining the position of automatically guided vehicles is odometry – the navigation calculation. This method of determining the position of a vehicle is affected by many errors. In order to eliminate these errors, in modern vehicles additional systems to increase accuracy in determining the position of a vehicle are used. In the latest navigation systems during route and position adjustments the probabilistic methods are used. The most frequently applied are Kalman filters.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Mirosław Śmieszek
Magdalena Dobrzańska


The paper treats of correcting calculation errors of the BLDC motor speed, based on the time elapsed between successive changes in the shaft position sensor signal. The developed method enables correction of errors of the deployment of sensors as well as rotating elements of the observation system of the motor shaft position. The correction algorithm performance was analysed with the aid of a model implemented in Matlab-Simulink environment. After confirming usefulness of the developed method through simulation, its usefulness was verified in real closed-loop feedback systems with a BLDC motor. The results of measurements carried out at the developed laboratory station are presented.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Krzysztof Kolano


This paper analyses the effectiveness of determining gas concentrations by using a prototype WO3 resistive gas sensor together with fluctuation enhanced sensing. We have earlier demonstrated that this method can determine the composition of a gas mixture by using only a single sensor. In the present study, we apply Least-Squares Support-Vector-Machine-based (LS-SVM-based) nonlinear regression to determine the gas concentration of each constituent in a mixture. We confirmed that the accuracy of the estimated gas concentration could be significantly improved by applying temperature change and ultraviolet irradiation of the WO3 layer. Fluctuation-enhanced sensing allowed us to predict the concentration of both component gases.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Łukasz Lentka
Janusz M. Smulko
Radu Ionescu
Claes G. Granqvist
Laszlo B. Kish


Editorial Board

Ryszard SZPLET
Military University of Technology, Poland

Vice Editor-in-Chief
Military University of Technology, Poland

Technical Editor and Webmaster

Dominik SONDEJ
Military University of Technology, Poland

Language Editor

Military University of Technology, Poland

International Programme Committee

Andrzej ZAJĄC,
Chairman Military University of Technology, Poland
Bruno ANDO
University of Catania, Italy
Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany
Marcantonio CATELANI
University of Florence, Italy
Vienna University of Technology, Austria
University of Science and Technology, Poland
University of Calabria, Italy
Laszlo KISH
Texas A&M University, USA
University of Oulu, Finland
Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain
Liverpool John Moores University, The United Kingdom
Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Poland
Military University of Technology, Poland
Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Associate Editors

Lublin University of Technology, Poland
Central Office of Measure, Poland
Vladimir DIMCHEV
Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Macedonia
Krzysztof DUDA AGH
University of Science and Technology, Poland
Agnieszka IWAN
Military University of Land Forces, Poland
Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Poland
Military University of Technology, Poland
Jussi-Pekka JANSSON
University of Oulu, Finland
Mieczysław JESSA
Poznan University of Technology, Poland
Military University of Technology, Poland
Lublin University of Technology, Poland
Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Uttar Pradesh, India
Grzegorz LENTKA
Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
Koszalin University of Technology, Poland
University Mediterranean of Reggio Calabria, Italy
University Karlsruhe, Germany
Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
Brno University of Technology, Brno, Czech Republic
Tadeusz SONDEJ
Military University of Technology, Poland
Mirosław SZMAJDA
Opole University of Technology, Poland
Lodz University of Technology, Poland
Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
Poznan University of Technology, Poland
Military University of Technology, Poland



Post address:
Editorial Office of Metrology and Measurement Systems
Military University of Technology
Faculty of Electronics
gen. Sylwestra Kaliskiego 2
00-908 Warsaw

Instrukcje dla autorów

Sample article with Author guidelines

Types of contributions
Metrology and Measurement Systems welcomes submissions of the following article types:
• invited special issue or review papers presenting the current stage of the knowledge within scope of the journal (about 20 edited pages, approximately 3000 characters each),
• research papers reporting high-quality original scientific or technological advancements (max. 12 pages),
• papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences (max. 12 pages),
• short notes, i.e. book reviews, conference reports, short news (max. 2 pages).

Manuscript preparation
General The text of a manuscript should be written in clear and concise English. The camera-ready format – with attached separate files containing illustrations, tables and photographs – is required. A cover letter with clear explanation of scientific novelty of the paper is strongly recommended. Papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences, or strongly related to previous authors’ works, must be accompanied with a cover letter file, which should explain in details changes made in the manuscript in comparison with the original conference paper and highlight the novelty in reference to other authors’ works.
The main text of a manuscript should be printed on an A4 page (with margins of 2.5 cm) using Times New Roman style with a font size of 12 pt; the paragraphs should start with the indentation of 5 mm, and titles should be written in bold. That text can be divided into sections (numbered 1, 2, …), first-order subsections (numbered 1.1., 1.2., …, written in italics), and – if needed – second-order subsections (numbered 1.1.1., 1.1.2., …, written same as first-order subsections). The only acceptable manuscript formats are in Microsoft Word (.doc, .docx).
The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors. The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors.

Figures (illustrations, photographs) and tables, provided in the camera-ready form suitable for reproduction (which may include reduction), should be additionally submitted (one per page), larger than the final size. While preparing figures we encourage to start with defining expected size and minimum font size that fit to all graphics in the manuscript – using the same style in all of your graphics visually improves the article. Final figure formats must be in one of the following: (vectors) .eps, .pdf, .ai or .cdr, and (bitmaps) .bmp, .gif, .tif or .jpg.
As far as plots, block diagrams, schematics etc. are concerned, we suggest to use one of vector formats to improve quality and scalability. Figures in vector formats must be saved using RGB colours and with fully white background (0% K). Hidden layers are unacceptable. Minimum line thickness printed in a single colour is 0.25 pt (0.09 mm), and 1 pt (0.36 mm) when using more colours. Typically we suggest 0.2-0.5 mm but in particular cases the range 0.1–1.0 mm will be accepted. Lines in plots should be distinguished not only by using different colours but also using different line types and markers, if needed.

All equations must be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Each equation should be preceded and followed by a 6-point spacing. Punctuate equations when they are part of a sentence. Equation numbers should be enclosed in parentheses. Equations should be prepared with the use of MathType or Microsoft Equation editors. The type size in the equation is the same as for the text. To make your equations more compact, you may use the appropriate mathematical symbols or expressions. The symbols used in an equation have to be defined before that equation or immediately after it. Use italics for variables (e.g. i, x, n), physical quantity symbol (e.g. voltage U, temperature T), letter pointers and general function symbols. Do not use italics for constants, indexes, minimum, maximum and trigonometric functions, mathematical operators, differentials, etc. To refer to the equation use “(1)”, not “Eq. (1)” or “equation (1)”, except at the beginning of a sentence where “Equation (1)” should be used. We recommend to use International System of Units SI i.e. metre-kilogram-second system of units. As a decimal separator dot should be used in the entire manuscript (text, figures, tables).

The paper has to be clearly positioned in the context of relevant literature in the field of measurements and instrumentation. Note that lack of references from the main field of Metrology and Measurement Systems interest may suggest that the content of manuscript does not exactly correspond to the scope of metrological journals. It may reduce possibility that a proposed paper will be read by audience society. In such a case our Editorial Board may suggest to send the manuscript to a more appropriate journal. Also note that the use of possibly up-to-date references may indicate importance of your work. Table below gives examples of some relevant and renewable journals related to widely understood metrology.





IOP Publishing


IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement






Measurement Science and Technology

IOP Publishing


Metrology and Measurement Systems



Review of Scientific Instruments

IOP Publishing


IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics



IET Science, Measurement & Technology



Journal of Instrumentation

SISSA, IOP Publishing


Measurement Science Review

Walter de Gruyter


IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Magazine



Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences



Opto-Electronics Review



IEEE Sensors Journal






References should be inserted in the text in square brackets, i.e. [1]; their list, numbered in citation order, should appear at the end of the manuscript. The format of the references should follow the APA 7th edition formatting style, i.e.: for an journal paper – surname(s) and initial(s) of author(s), year in brackets, title of the paper, full journal name, volume, issue (in brackets) and page numbers. Put all author names unless there are more than 20. Otherwise, after the first 19 authors’ names, use an ellipsis in place of the remaining author names. Then, end with the final author’s name (do not place an ampersand before it).

Submission process
Manuscript should be submitted via the Internet Editorial System (IES) – an online submission and peer review system. In order to submit the manuscript via the IES, the authors (first-time users) must create an author account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. The submission of the manuscript in a single file, i.e. “Article File” containing the complete manuscript (with all figures of high quality and tables embedded in the text), is preferred. All figures have to be uploaded in separate files. The generated PDF file has to be approved. The PDF file has lower quality of the embedded figures to limit its size only.
The submission of a manuscript means that its content has not been published previously, it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that – if accepted – it will not be published elsewhere. The Author hereby grants the Polish Academy of Sciences (the Journal Owner) the license for commercial use of the article according to the Open Access License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which has to be signed before publication. The copyright form is available in the IES.
The Authors are urged to suggest 4 to 5 reviewers in their application (with names, affiliations and addresses) with whom the Editorial Board could co-operate while processing the paper. Proposed reviewers should be experts deeply involved in issues related to the subject matter of the paper and they are intended to come from different universities or research centres.
Each submitted manuscript is subject to a single-blind peer-review procedure, and the publication decision is based on the reviewers’ comments. If necessary, the authors may be invited to revise their manuscripts. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to exactly fit the journal style.
An essential criterion for the evaluation of submitted manuscripts is their potential impact on the research field, measured by the number of repeated quotations. Such papers are preferred at the evaluation and publication stages.
Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author by e-mail and should be returned within 48 hours from receipt. The publication in the journal is free of charge. A sample copy of the journal will be sent to the corresponding author free of charge. For colour pages the authors will be charged at the rate of 160 PLN or 80 EUR per page. The payment to the bank account of the main distributor (given in “Subscription Information”) must be completed before the date indicated by the Editorial Office.

Other information
It is possible to include supplementary files related to the article content, such as e.g. developed databases. These files can be then used by other researchers to compare their algorithms using the same input data. For more details about supplementary files please contact the Editorial Board: The biographical statements, at the very end of the article, are not obligatory, however, they are kindly recommended. Each statement should include the author’s full name and brief personal history focused on areas of research and scientific achievements. The biographical statement may not exceed 100 words and should be written using Times New Roman style with a font size of 8 pt.
The publication of your article is a great achievement but then it needs to be further promoted to make it more visible to the research community. Responsibility for this task lies with the Authors and our Editorial Board. We guarantee free access to the article in the Journals PAN of the Polish Academy of Science, including articles in Early Access form (published just after acceptance decision), indexing in popular and renewable databases (e.g. Thomson Scientific Master Journal List, Elsevier’s Scopus, Google Scholar). Furthermore, selected articles are highlighted on the journal website and are reprinted for promotion at conferences and other events. The Authors can share the final form of the article on various social networks and research-sharing platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook, Linkedin, ResearchGate,, SciProfiles. They are also encouraged to update personal and institutional webpages by adding the title and a link of the article. Feel free also to share your work with your colleagues using any other methods that do not conflict with the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license.
For more detailed description about how to write a paper for the Metrology and Measurement Systems journal please look at the Author guidelines for manuscript preparation. We strongly recommend using this file as a template for manuscript preparation.

Polityka Open Access

Metrology and Measurement Systems jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

Metrology and Measurement Systems is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-ND 4.0

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