Applied sciences

Archives of Environmental Protection


Archives of Environmental Protection | 2010 | vol. 36 | No 3

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Dyes and pigments are important organic pollutants of the water environment. Dyes may be removed from wastewater by using one of the most efficient methods for wastewater treatment-adsorption onto porous (natural and waste) minerals or organogenie substances. Feasibility of using smectite-clay, co-occurring in brown coal deposits, for removal of direct dyes was investigated. The Freundlich linear regression model was better in modeling of sorption direct dyes onto smectite-clay; it yielded better fit of the theoretical isotherm to the experimental data. The electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonds were shown to play the most important role in adsorption of direct dyes onto smectite-clay.
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Authors and Affiliations

Joanna Kyzioł-Komosińska
Czesława Rosik-Dulewska
Marcin Jarzyna
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Two different porous ceramic carriers with immobilized activated sludge comprised a stationary filling of the reactors. Municipal wastewater was treated at hydraulic retention times from 15 to 70 min and internal circulation capacity of 20, 40 and 60 drn':h'. Depending on hydraulic retention time, the sludge yield ranged from 0.138 to 0.066 g TSS·g COD·' in reactor I and from 0.175 to 0.107 g TSS·g COD·' in reactor li. An increase in volumetric loading rate and internal circulation capacity caused a reduction in sludge yield. A decrease in the sludge yield corresponded to an increase in the ratio of endogenous to substrate respiration by the immobilized biomass
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Authors and Affiliations

Magdalena Zielińska
Irena Wojnowska-Baryła
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There are two kinds of wastewater that may originate at a dairy plant: post-production and nonproduction waste. Dairy wastewater treatment is a process consisting of several stages. In the pre-treatment stage, fat and sand is removed from wastewater. The second stage treatment consists mainly in aerobic treatment with activated sludge, advanced oxidation methods and an anaerobic treatment. In recent years, more and more plants have been treating their wastewater in SBR type reactors, because they are flexible at work and enable the user to change conditions to suit the variable quality of raw wastewater. The research on the kinetics of the wastewater treatment process in an SBR reactor has been conducted. The removal of several factors such as nitrogen compounds, TOC, phosphorus and the kinetics of oxygen concentration and redox potential have been analyzed. The experiment was carried out in two 12 dm3 volume SBR reactors in a lab-scale. The SBR reactors were operated with a cycle time of 12 hours with three hours of filling, seven hours of aeration, an hour of sedimentation, half an hour of decantation and half an hour of technical break. In presented research average parameters of raw wastewater were: TOC 329 mg C/dm3, ammonium nitrogen I I. 15 mg NN1,/dm3, and total phosphorus 15.42 mg P/dm3.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mariusz Wojnicz
Anna M. Anielak
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The water of the Wisła-Czarne reservoir is of very low hardness and alkalinity. In spite ofhigh SUVA values it is not susceptible to enhanced coagulation. In order to achieve the assumed results, coagulation with ALS (aluminium sulphate) should be conducted in two optional technological systems - in a conventional system and in "in-bed" coagulation dependently ofwater quality and its temperature. Effective treatment with ALS is possible, even at low temperature of the water, but at strict technological parameters. However, because of significant variations of water quality, especially after rainstorms, it is very difficult to meet such requirements. Application of pre-hydrolyzed Flokor 1,2A instead ofALS enables to eliminate reagents to the pH adjustment and to apply "in-bed" coagulation when water supplied to the WTP is of low turbidity. To assure stable technological system operation, in aspect of raw water quality changes, some activities were also undertaken, i.e. modernization of rapid filters, which involved a drainage system and exchange of sand bed for anthracite-sand bed. Treatment based on direct filtration results in decrease of reagents usage and, what is especially important, effective DBPs precursors removal.
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Authors and Affiliations

Joanna Gumiińska
Marcin Kłos
Anna Pawłowska
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The paper presents results obtained during experiments with constructed wetlands that were built and monitored on the site of a municipal landfill in Southern Poland. The wetland was filled with gravel and rock in which reeds, cattails and willow were planted. A control plot without vegetation was also constructed. Each wetland was loaded with a portion of the leachate generated by the landfill. Measurements of the leachate quality showed very high concentrations of several pollutants. Particularly high concentrations of BOD, COD, nitrogen, and heavy metals were measured. High pollutant levels were probably responsible for the demise of the willows, which were dead within several months of planting. The efficiency of pollution removal with detention time up to 24 h ranged from O to 87% based on decreasing concentration of selected parameters. However, the removal efficiency of the control plot was typically only several percent lower than the removal efficiencies of the plots with vegetation.
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Authors and Affiliations

Włodzimierz A. Wójcik
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Technologia przepuszczalnych reaktywnych barier (PRB) należy do metod remediacji wód gruntowych. W technologii tej zanieczyszczenia usuwane są bezpośrednio w warstwie wodonośnej poprzez przepływ skażonego strumienia wód gruntowych przez wypełnioną odpowiednim materiałem (aktywnym) barierę aktywną. W artykule przedstawiono problemy związane z tworzeniem się osadów w żelazie metalicznym stosowanymjako material aktywny technologii PRB. Osady te mogą zmniejszać aktywność materiału i jego zdolność filtracyjną. Tworzeniu się osadów mogą towarzyszyć zmiany pH, potencjału redox oraz stężenia tlenu. Zmiany te były obserwowane w badaniach laboratoryjnych przedstawionych w artykule. Ponadto w artykule przedstawiono i udowodniono następującą zasadę: aby zwiększyć skuteczność działania typu Funnel-and-Gate technologii PRB przez zwiększenie szerokości strefy oczyszczania, stosunek współczynnika filtracji materiału aktywnego do współczynnika filtracji warstwy wodonośnej (k,,,/k,ą) powinien przyjąć wartość 6. Ze względu na tworzenie się osadów w żelazie metalicznym, które mogą zmniejszyć jego zdolność filtracyjną, założono jednak, iż stosunek ten powinien wynosić I O. Wartość ta daje pewność, że zmniejszenie się wartości współczynnika filtracji materiału aktywnego na skutek tworzenia się osadów, nie wpłynie w znaczący sposób na szerokość strefy oczyszczania. Przedstawione rozwiązanie może zapewnić skuteczne i długotrwale oczyszczanie wód gruntowych w typie Funnel-and-Gate technologii PRB.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Suponik
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Studied was a small (4.6 ha) meromictic lake situated in a deep land hollow surrounded by a highinclination slope. The lake was made shallower two times (from 20 to 18 m) by collapsed shores. It is fed by underground waters and has relatively constant outflow. Limited water dynamics reduced the epilimnion thickness (from 4 to 2 m) and influenced the monimolimnion setting below 13 m depth with a characteristic small (0.2°C) temperature increase in the vertical profile and a permanent deoxygenation of the water below 7-11 m depth. The relationship between the organic matter parameters BOD; and COD-Mn before the shore collapse revealed the dominance of matter produced in the reservoir. In the final period the situation was opposite. In the monimolimnion allochthonous matter accumulated which due to anaerobic decomposition generated large amounts of ammonium. Observed in the same water layer was also a decrease of the conductivity.
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Authors and Affiliations

Renata Tandyrak
Mariusz Teodorowicz
Joanna Gorchowska
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The paper presents a small water reservoir Psurów located on the Prosna River (right tributary of the Warta River) in the Opolskie Voivodeship (southern Poland). Results of water quality analyses of the Prosna River flowing into the reservoir and the outflowing water, as well as water stored in the reservoir have been discussed. Water flows of the Prosna River above and below the Psurów reservoir were analyzed. The analyses were carried out from November 2006 to October 2008. The research showed that the small water reservoir Psurów contributed to the reduction of the following loads: phosphates (by about 21 %), nitrates (by 26%), nitrites (by 9%), ammonia (by 5%) and total suspended solids (by 17%). It was found out that there was a statistically significant relationship (p < 0.05) between the volume of water flowing out of the reservoir and the inflowing water (Pearson's correlation coefficient: r = 0.93). Based on the Yollenweider's criterion the Psurów reservoir was classified to polytrophic reservoirs.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mirosław Wiatkowski
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W doświadczeniu poletkowym badano bezpośredni i następczy wpływ nawożenia kompostem z odpadów zieleni miejskiej w dawkach IO i 20 Mgha' na skład agregatowy, wodoodporność agregatów, właściwości wodne i powietrzne gleby płowej typowej wytworzonej z lessu, ulegającej powierzchniowej erozji wodnej. W pierwszym roku badań stwierdzono, że nawożenie kompostem istotnie zmniejszyło niekorzystną zawartość bryi o wymiarach> IO mm, a zwiększyło zawartość powietrznie suchych agregatów 1-5 mm i 0,25-1 mm w warstwie 0-1 O cm gleby zerodowanej. Wdrugim roku po zastosowaniu kompostu wglebie istotnie zwiększyła się zawartość wodoodpornych agregatów o wymiarach 0,25-10 mm w porównaniu z glebą poletek kontrolnych. W trzecim roku po zastosowaniu kompostu nie stwierdzono istotnych różnic w składzie agregatowym i wodoodporności agregatów glebowych. W bezpośrednim działaniu dodatek kompostu istotnie zmniejszy! gęstość gleby, istotnie zwiększy!wilgotność aktualną, pelnąpojemnośćwodną, przewodnictwo wodne nasycone, porowatość ogólną, zawartośćmakroporówo średnicy> 20 μmi przepuszczalność powietrznąwpowierzchniowej warstwie gleby. Podwpływemnawożenia kompostemnie zmieniła się istotnie polowa pojemnośćwodna i retencja wody użytecznej dla roślin, natomiast zawartośćmezoporówglebowych o średnicy 0,2-20 μmistotnie zmniejszyła się. Wartości wskaźnika jakości stanu fizycznego gleby S według Dextera w glebie nawożonej kompostem były zbliżone do wartości wskaźnika w obiektach kontrolnych. Bardziej skuteczne było nawożenie kompostem w dawce 20 Mg·ha·1•
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Authors and Affiliations

Jan Paluszek
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Slags issued from base metal smelting industry constitute a serious environmental problem in Upper and Lower Silesia (Poland). The waste is located in heavily urbanized areas, covers large surfaces and still may contain large quantities of potentially toxic metallic trace elements. This review paper summarizes all the major problems related to slag storage in Upper and Lower Silesia, including: (i) detailed characteristics of the studied slags, (ii) potential release of toxic elements and (iii) related risks for the surrounding areas and (iv) applications of slags for commercial purposes.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jakub Kierczak
Hubert Bril
Catherine Neel
Jacek Puziewicz
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The results of investigations into suspended matter sedimentation from mine waters in the settling tank at the Ziemowit coal mine as well as in the relevant model of the settling tank were presented. It was shown that variations in the performance of the tank are caused by improperly accumulated sediment, which generates privileged water flow in superficial layers. Additionally, impetuous periodical water discharges seem to be important. The investigations performed on the settling tank model were focused on estimating the influence of temperature, flow rate and the aeration of mine water on the suspended matter sedimentation. Reasons for inefficiency of the settling tank were determined, and technological changes enhancing the process of suspensions removal were suggested.
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Authors and Affiliations

Beata Jabłońska

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Archives of Environmental Protection
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Archives of Environmental Protection is a quarterly published jointly by the Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Committee of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Thanks to the cooperation with outstanding scientists from all over the world we are able to provide our readers with carefully selected, most interesting and most valuable texts, presenting the latest state of research in the field of engineering and environmental protection.

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Orszulik, E. (2009). Palenisko fluidalne, Patent polski: nr PL20070383311 20070910 z 16 marca 2009.
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