Applied sciences

Archives of Environmental Protection


Archives of Environmental Protection | 2009 | vol.35 | No 3 |

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Fungus Fnsarium solani, able to degrade methyl isobutyl ketone was isolated from the bed ofbiofilter cleaning exhausting gases from the cable plant "Załom" near Szczecin. This substance was used as the only source of carbon and energy. Confirmation and kinetic tests were performed in 25 cm- scrubbers filed with mineral medium which was inoculated with the fungus. Fusorium solani degraded MIBK at the rate up to 60 g·m3·h·1 and pollution loading up to 200 gm+h'. Degree of elimination ranged from 40 to 80% and decreased when culture pollution loading increased.
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Authors and Affiliations

Krystyna Przybulewska
Andrzej N. Wieczorek
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Hydrodynamic disintegration of the activated sludge and foam results in organic matter transfer from the solid phase to the liquid phase. Hydrodynamic disintegration caused an increase of COD value in activated sludge and foam of 220 mgdm3 and 609 mgdm3 - respectively, besides the degree of disintegration increases to 38% and 47%- respectively- alter 30 minutes of disintegration. Hydrodynamic cavitation affects positively the degree of disintegration and rate of biogas production. Also addition of a part of digested sludge containing adapted microorganisms resulted in acceleration of the anaerobic process. Addition of disintegrated foam (20% and 40% of volume) to the fermentation processes resulted in an improvement in biogas production by about 173% and 195% respectively - in comparison to activated sludge without disintegration (raw sludge) and 142% and 161 % respectively - in comparison to activated sludge with a part of digested sludge (80% raw sludge + 20% digested sludge).
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Authors and Affiliations

Alicja Machnicka
Klaudiusz Grubel
Jan Suschka
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The paper presents results of a study concerning ammonium and nitratc(V) fixation by soil irrigated with municipal wastcwatcrs ( 1 - 60 mm and 2 doses - 120 mm) and estimation or the possibility or using organic soil and grass-mixture for the wastewater treatment. It was found that the studied soil and the plant applied showed a very high capacity or binding ammonium ions (up to 96%), and lower in the case ofnitrates(V) (up to 71 %). It was also demonstrated that the single irrigation dose was better utilized compared to the double dose.
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Authors and Affiliations

Urszula Kotowska
Teresa Włodarczyk
Barbara Witkowska-Walczak
Cezary Sławiński
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Use ofvarious wastes containing iron or aluminium in wastewater treatment can be considered as an alternative method to expensive and commercial reagents. These wastes can be recycled thanks to this method, which is important from an environmental point of view. Washings generated during ground water treatment arc rather useless but they are one of waste iron sources. The article demonstrates a description of two ground water treatment plants supplying the city of Koszalin with drinking water. On the basis ofdata from the last four years, a balance of the annual amount of iron sludge formed as a result of backwashing filter beds in both plants was performed. The amount of waste iron exceeds 10 Mg Fe-year. Research on waste iron usage to remove orthophosphates from a model solution and real sludge liquor from sludge digestion showed that iron sludge from washings can be efficiently used in wastewater treatment technology.
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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Piaskowski
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The aim of the study was fractionation of Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb in the bottom sediments of two small reservoirs: at Krempna on the Wisłoka River and at Zcslwicc on the Dlubnia River. The partitioning of metals for various fractions was performed with the use of Tessier's sequential chemical extraction method. All together five metal fractions were distinguished: exchangeable metals (fraction I), metals bound to carbonates (fraction II), metals bound to hydrate Fe-Mn oxides (fraction III), metals bound to organic matter (fraction IV), and metals bound to minerals (fraction V). The largest quantities of metals were bound with fraction V, the smallest occurred in the forms most easily available for living organisms, in faction I. Proportions ofZn, Ni and Pb in the exchangeable fraction were about 1%. The amounts of metals bound with fraction II were also relatively low, except lor Zn in bottom sediment at the Zeslawice Reservoir. In this bottom sediment the share of Zn bound to carbonates was 33%. Medium metal quantities were associated with hydrate Fe-Mn oxides (fraction III) and with organic matter (fraction IV). Relatively high proportion ofmetals in fraction V and trace amounts ofmetals in fraction I as well as alkaline and neutral reaction of the sediments may prove a potentially low hazard of the metal release in the case of chemical changes in the reservoirs.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marek Madeyski
Marek Tarnawski
Czesława Jasiewicz
Agnieszka Baran
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In result of a lew years' investigations or silting of small water reservoirs located in South Poland, intensity ofthe silting process as well as the granulometrie and chemical composition ofbottorn sediments were evaluated. The content of heavy metals i.e. copper, lead and cadmium was determined in samples collected in various parts or five small water reservoirs. The content of heavy metals was appraised according to the regulation of the Minister of Environment, according to the criteria or Polish Geological Institute, of Inspection lor Environmental Protection, of Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation, and according to the Muller's method. The obtained results or determination of the examined heavy metals concentrations were compared with the values or reservoir and river sediment concentrations determined by other authors in Europe. Appraisal or sill quality, respectively to the adopted criteria, showed only an insignificant degree of pollution. Concentrations ofmicroclemcnts do not exceed the toxic concentrations for soils and environment bul may have a harmful influence on living organisms. Recording of changes or heavy metal pollution during many years' operation or small water reservoirs, considering changes occurring in the basins, requires continuation of investigations. It will enable to record changes or pollution during a longer period or operation or reservoirs, also against the background 01· changes occurring in river basins.
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Authors and Affiliations

Bogusłąw Michalec
Marek Tarnawski
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The paper contains a micobiological characteristic of sewage sludge composted in controlled conditions together with bio-wastes (straw, sawdust, bark). An experiment was carried out in which the composted material was mixed up in adequate weight proportion and placed in biorcactor chambers with a constant air flow. The composting process aimed at defining the development dynamics and the survival of pathogenic microorganisms in the sewage sludge composted with different additions in a cybernetic bioreactor. Samples of compost necessary for microbiological analyses were taken at the same time, in reference to the actual temperature value. Bacteriological studies were carried out on selected substrates by plate method determining the number of pathogenic bacteria from the species: Salmonella, Clostridium perfringens, as well as from Enterobacteriaccac family. In the experiments, the presence of living eggs or intestinal ATT pathogens was determined by floatation method, as well. Il was found that the sewage sludge used in composting process did not contain any Salmonella spp. bacteria or any living eggs of intestinal ATT pathogens. Composting process completely eliminated the number or bacteria from Enterobactcriaccae family, bul it did not contribute lo the elimination of Clostridium perfringens bacteria. On the basis of the obtained results, it was found that the elimination of the studied groups of microorganisms, in all studied composts took place with the increase of temperature. In the case or Enterobacteriaceae, it was found that their complete removal from the composted material took place in chamber K3, while in the remaining chambers, it followed 48 hours later. Elimination ofthe vegetative forms ofC!oslridium perfringens bacteria followed after 96 hours of composting, in all composts at the same time. The obtained composts met the sanitary norms according lo the regulations of the EC Commission No. I 85/2007 of February 20, 2007 which changed the regulation of WE No. 809/2003 and WE No. 810/2003 referring to the extension of the validity period of transitional means for composting plants and biogas producing plants according to the instruction orWE No. 1774/2002 of European Parliament and Council and according to the instruction of the Minister for Agriculture and Country Development (2004).
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Authors and Affiliations

Agnieszka Wolna-Maruwka
Jacek Dach
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The study makes an attempt to assess the impact of uncontrolled waste dumps on soil chemical and biochemical properties. Investigations were carried out on five waste disposal sites situated in the south-eastern outskirts or the city of Lublin. The samples of soils collected from the adjacent arabic land were used as reference material. In soils of four landfills, which were established relatively recently (lour to five years ago); several times higher activity of the examined enzymes (dehydrogcnascs, acid phosphatase, basic phosphatase, urcasc, protease) than in the soils from the adjacent cultivated land was determined. Opposite ti-ends were found in the case ofa waste dump established 20 years ago. The determined lack ofnegative influence or the examined waste dumps on the soil chemical and biochemical properties of the adjacent arabic land shows that the range or the contamination effect on the surrounding area was limited.
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Authors and Affiliations

Elżbieta Jolanta Bielińska
Agnieszka Mocek-Płóciniak
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In the first part of the paper the most often used processes in PRB technology are presented and described. These processes are: redox reactions, pH control, adsorption and biodegradation. They proceed in the reactive materials listed in the table. In the second part of the paper the procedure used in the assessment of possibilities of using PRB technology is presented. It was suggested to use preliminary assessment during the initial stage of the procedure, as it limits the range of the analysis to several most important factors. Moreover,. the conditions of using PRB were described. They can help to decide whether this technology should be accepted or not in the initial stage of the procedure. Such preliminary assessment of possibilities of using PRB was performed for two selected areas of dumping sites located in Upper Silesia, Poland. After accepting the possibilities of using this technology in their area, the types of reactive materials for effective treatment of groundwater were proposed for both of them.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Suponik
Marcin Lutyński
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The paper presents results or laboratory tests or solid-phase anaerobic biorerncdiation or soil contaminated with chlorinated pesticides. It was shown that using methanogcnic granular sludge as inoculum and lactate as electron donor, it is possible to remove 80% or y-HCH, 94% 01· methoxychlor and 93% or DDT against control sample, with DDD accumulation much less than stoichiometric. Pesticides removal was practically completed alter 4-6 weeks of incubation at 22°C. Additional application of nonionic surfactant Tween 80 resulted in about one and a half-fold decrease or residual concentrations or some corn pounds. It also enhanced DDT conversion to some extent, decreasing DDD accumulation and intensifying production of D8P, the terminal metabolite or DDT anaerobic degradation pathway. Use of methanol as electron donor produced effects quite similar to these obtained with lactate, however with reduced results scatter.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Baczyński
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The contents or Cd, Pb. Cu, Mn, Zn, Ni and Fe in different organs or Typha latifolia L., coming from six sites selected within Jezioro Wielkie (Leszczyńskie Lakeland in western Poland), were determined. Three groups or metals, cach with a different accumulation pattern within the plant were distinguished in this study. Pb, Zn and Cu were found to be the least mobile and shown the following accumulation scheme: roots> rhizomes> lower leave part> top leave part. 13y contrast, Mn, a metal which is both easily transported in plants and accumulated in green plant organs, exhibited the following accumulation scheme: roots> top leave part> lower leave part> rhizomes. Ni, Cd and re were accumulated by the cattail as follows: roots> rhizomes> top leaf part> lower leaf part. The fact that Tvpha tatifol io L. had the highest proportion 01· all the metals studied in its roots can suggest that some kind of protection barrier exists which prevents toxic compounds permeating from that part or this plant to its rhizomes and its aerial parts. The confirmation or this thesis requires some further research.
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Authors and Affiliations

Agnieszka Klink
Józef Krawczyk
Barbara Letachowicz
Magdalena Wisłocka

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Archives of Environmental Protection
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Orszulik, E. (2009). Palenisko fluidalne, Patent polski: nr PL20070383311 20070910 z 16 marca 2009.
Smith, I.M. (1988). U.S. Patent No. 123,445. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

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