Nauki Techniczne

Chemical and Process Engineering: New Frontiers


Chemical and Process Engineering: New Frontiers | 2023 | vol. 44 | No 1


Three activated chars obtained from end-of-life tyre pyrolysis differing in activation time (AC110 – 110 min, AC130 – 130 min, and AC150 – 150 min) were successfully used as adsorbents for the removal of model dye – Rhodamine B (RhB) from aqueous solutions. The effects of solution pH, adsorption kinetics, and equilibrium adsorption were investigated. The results showed that the adsorption was strongly pH-dependent; the highest percentage of RhB dye adsorbed was obtained at pH 2.0 and the removal efficiency decreased with an increase in solution pH. Adsorption kinetics was analyzed using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Weber-Morris, and Boyd kinetic models. It was found that the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation was the most appropriate for describing the adsorption kinetics and that the RhB adsorption process was controlled by a film diffusion mechanism. Adsorption equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Elovich isotherm models. The equilibrium data were best represented by the Langmuir model with the monolayer adsorption capacities of 69.96, 94.34, and 133.3 μmol/g for AC110, AC130, and AC150, respectively. It was concluded that the adsorption of RhB was closely correlated with the specific surface area (and activation time) of the activated chars.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Krzysztof Kuśmierek
Andrzej Świątkowski
Tomasz Kotkowski
Robert Cherbański
Eugeniusz Molga

  1. Military University of Technology, Faculty of Advanced Technologies and Chemistry, ul. Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, ul. Waryńskiego 1, 00-645 Warsaw, Poland


This study aims at the immobilization and characterization of thermoalkalophilic lipases produced recombinantly from Bacillus thermocatenulatus BTL2 and Bacillus pumilus MBB03. For this purpose, immobilization of the produced enzymes in calcium-alginate@gelatin (Ca–Alg@gelatin) hydrogel beads, immobilization optimization and characterization measurements of the immobilized-enzyme hydrogels were conducted. Optimum temperature and pH values were determined for B. thermocatenulatus and B. pumilus MBB03 immobilized-enzyme hydrogels (60–70 °C, 55 °C and pH 9.5, pH 8.5). Thermal stability was determined between 65 °C and 60 °C of B. thermocatenulatus and B. pumilus MBB03 immobilized enzymes, respectively. The pH stability was determined between pH 7.0–11.0 at +4°C and pH 8.0–10.0 at +4 °C, respectively.
In conclusion, the entrapment technique provided controlled production of small diameter hydrogel beads (~ 0:19 and ~ 0:29) with negligible loss of enzyme. These beads retained high lipase activity at high pH and temperature. The activity of Ca–Alg@gelatin-immobilized lipase remained relatively stable for up to three cycles and then markedly decreased. With this enzyme immobilization, it may have a potential for use in esterification and transesterification reactions carried out in organic solvent environments. We can conclude that it is one of the most promising techniques for highly efficient and economically competent biotechnological processes in the field of biotransformation, diagnostics, pharmaceutical, food and detergent industries.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Kezban Yildiz Dalginli
Onur Atakisi

  1. Department of Chemistry and Chemical Processing Technologies, Kars Vocational High School Kafkas University, Kars, Turkey
  2. Department of Chemistry, Faculty Science and Letter, Kafkas University, Kars, Turkey


This study presents the results of tests on the mixing power and distribution of three velocity components in the mixing tank for an FBT impeller during tank emptying with an operating impeller. A laser PIV system was used to determine speed distributions. It was found that for the relative liquid height in the tank H* = H/H0 ≈ 0.65 and H* ≈ 0.45, the liquid circulation in the impeller zone changed from radial to axial and vice versa. These changes were accompanied by changes in the mixing power which even reached 40%. In the theoretical part, a method of calculating the mixing power using the classical model of the central vortex and distribution of the tangential speed in the impeller zone was proposed. Although the method turned out to be inaccurate, it was useful for determining the relative power.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Jacek Stelmach
Czesław Kuncewicz
Tomáš Jirout
František Rieger

  1. Lodz University of Technology, Faculty of Process and Environmental Engineering, Wólczańska 213, 93-005 Łódź
  2. Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technická 4, 166 07 Praha 6


The mathematical approach to SOFC modelling helps to reduce dependence on the experimental approach. In the current study, six different diffusion mass transfer models were compared to more accurately predict the process behavior of fuel and product diffusion for SOFC anode. The prediction accuracy of the models was extensively studied over a range of parameters. New models were included as compared to previous studies. The Knudsen diffusion phenomenon was considered in all the models. The stoichiometric flux ratio approach was used. All the models were validated against experimental data for a binary (CO-CO2) and a ternary fuel system (H2-15 H2O-Ar). For ternary system, the pressure gradient is important for pore radius below 0.6 μm and current density above 0.5 A/cm2. For binary system, the pressure gradient may be ignored. The analysis indicates that the MBFM is identified to be the best performing and versatile model under critical SOFC operating conditions such as fuel composition and cell temperature. The diffusive slip phenomenon included in MBFM is useful in SOFC operating conditions when fuel contains heavy molecules. The DGMFM is a good approximation of DGM for the binary system.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

P. Ramakrishnan
Abanti Sahoo

  1. NIT Rourkela, Department of Chemical Engineering, Rourkela, Sector-1, Sundergarh, Odisha, India, 769008


Mercury is a highly toxic metal which naturally occurs in the Earth’s crust and has adverse effects on both humans and the environment. The use of fossil fuels for electricity generation and specific industries sources of mercury emissions. These emissions depend on the mercury content in fuels of different types, the process gas temperature and composition, the implementation of air pollutant control devices (APCDs), etc. The APCDs partially capture and/or oxidize mercury in flue gas as a side benefit. In some cases, the emissions are reduced by mercury-dedicated or mixed methods. Mercury transformation in process gases is generally based on a chain of homogeneous and/or heterogeneous reactions. The theory of gaseous mercury/solid phase reactions and its mechanisms is widely studied in the literature. In this review, we focused on the theoretical and practical studies of these mechanisms, including mercury oxidization and capture from specified laboratory simulated or process gases and industries. We summarized research on various reactions – mostly of a chemical type – between different forms of mercury derived from process gases, and solids, including particles of different kinds (fly ash, adsorbents or catalysts). We additionally reviewed the literature on the interactions between mercury and sulfur compounds in the simulated and process gases.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Yinyou Deng
Mariusz Macherzyński

  1. AGH Doctoral School, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow
  2. AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Coal Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Fuel and Energy, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059, Krakow


Carbonic anhydrase is an important enzyme that can play a significant role in the processes of lowering carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere. The aim of the work was to investigate the extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA) production by the bacteria Pseudomonas fragi. In the research, we focused on the evaluation of the phase of bacterial growth correlated with carbonic anhydrase production and on the evaluation of induction of CA production by calcium carbonate concentration in the nutrient medium. Presented data indicated that calcium carbonate can serve as the only carbon source for Pseudomonas fragi, inducing carbonic anhydrase secretion to culture broth. The enzyme was produced mainly in the adaptation growth phase reaching the maximal activity at the end of this phase or at the beginning of the growth phase. The maximal enzyme activity detected in all batches was at a similar level. The enzyme activity was constant but lower in the exponential phase growth. Therefore, the enzyme production is not growth-dependent, but it is correlated with bacteria adaptation to cultivation conditions.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Andrzej Tietz
Małgorzata M. Jaworska

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faulty of Chemical and Process Engineering, ul. Warynskiego 1, 00-645 Warsaw, Poland

Instrukcja dla autorów

All manuscripts submitted for publication in Chemical and Process Engineering: New Frontiers must comprise a description of original research that has neither been published nor submitted for publication elsewhere.

The content, aim and scope of the proposals have to comply with the main topics of the journal, i.e. discuss at least one of the four main areas, namely:
• New Advanced (Nano) Materials
• Environment & Water Processing (including circular economy)
• Biochemical & Biomedical Engineering (including pharmaceuticals)
• Climate & Energy (including energy conversion & storage, electrification, decarbonization)

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Example: Table 2 shows nitrogen concentration changes in the process.
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Charpentier J. C., McKenna T. F., 2004. Managing complex systems: some trends for the future of chemical and process engineering. Chem. Eng. Sci., 59, 1617-1640. DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2004.01.044.
Information from books (we suggest adding the page numbers where the quoted information can be found)
Bird R. B., Stewart W.E., Lightfood E.N., 2002. Transport Phenomena. 2nd edition, Wiley, New York, 415-421.
Chapters in books
Hanjalić K., Jakirlić S., 2002. Second-moment turbulence closure modelling, In: Launder B.E., Sandham N.D. (Eds.), Closure strategies for turbulent and transitional flows. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 47-101.
ten Cate A., Bermingham S.K., Derksen J.J., Kramer H.M.J., 2000. Compartmental modeling of an 1100L DTB crystallizer based on Large Eddy flow simulation. 10th European Conference on Mixing. Delft, the Netherlands, 2-5 July 2000, 255-264.

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Zasady etyki publikacyjnej


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Back information
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