Nauki Techniczne

Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi - Mineral Resources Management

Zawartość

Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi - Mineral Resources Management | 2021 | vol. 37 | No 3 |

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Abstrakt

The observation of trends in the demand for minerals is of fundamental importance in the long- -term assessment of prospects for economic development in Poland.
From among 148 minerals analyzed, 42 minerals are indicated as key minerals for the country’s economy, of which 22 were recognized as deficit minerals. These minerals have been the subject of this paper.
For each of these minerals the forecasts of demand by the years 2030, 2040 and 2050 have been made taking the current trends in domestic economy and premises for the development of industries that are main users of these minerals into account. The most promising prospects for growth of domestic demand – with at least a two-fold increase by 2050 – have been determined for manganese dioxide, metallic: magnesium, nickel, silicon, as well as talc and steatite, while an increase by at least 50% have been anticipated for metallic aluminum, tin, metallic manganese, and elemental phosphorus. For natural gas and crude oil growing tendencies have also been predicted, but only by 2030. On the other hand, the most probable decline in domestic demand by 2050 may be foreseen for iron ores and concentrates, bauxite, metallic tungsten, magnesite and magnesia, as well as for crude oil and natural gas, especially after 2040.
It seems inevitable that the deficit in the foreign trade of minerals will continue to deepen in the coming years. By 2030 this will mainly result from the growing importation of crude oil and natural gas, but beyond – by 2050 – further deepening in the trade deficit will be related to the growing importation of many metals as well as of some industrial minerals. After 2040, the negative trade balance can be mitigated by a possible decrease in foreign deliveries of hydrocarbons and iron ores and concentrates.
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Bibliografia


Galos et al. 2020 – Galos, K., Burkowicz, A., Czerw, H., Figarska-Warchoł, B., Gałaś, A., Guzik, K., Kamyk, J., Kot- -Niewiadomska, A., Lewicka, E. and Szlugaj, J. 2020. Assessment of current and future demand of the domestic economy for mineral raw materials in the perspective of 2025, 2030. 2040 and 2050 (Ocena obecnego oraz przyszłego zapotrzebowania gospodarki krajowej na surowce w perspektywie 2025, 2030, 2040 i 2050 roku). Commissioned by the PIG-PIB (unpublished typescript in Polish).

Galos, K. and Lewicka, E. 2016. Assessment of importance of non-energy mineral raw materials for the domestic economy in the years 2005–2014 (Ocena znaczenia surowców mineralnych nieenergetycznych dla gospodarki krajowej w latach 2005–2014). Zeszyty Naukowe IGSMiE PAN 92, pp. 7–36 (in Polish).

Galos et al. 2021 – Galos, K., Lewicka, E., Burkowicz, A., Guzik, K., Kot-Niewiadomska, A., Kamyk, J. and Szlugaj, J. 2021. Approach to identification and classification of the key, strategic and critical minerals important for the mineral security of Poland. Resources Policy 70, pp. 101900–101913.

Galos, K. and Smakowski, T. 2014. Preliminary proposal of methodology of identification of key minerals for the Polish economy (Wstępna propozycja metodyki identyfikacji surowców kluczowych dla polskiej gospodarki). Zeszyty Naukowe IGSMiE PAN 88, pp. 59–79 (in Polish).

Galos, K. and Szamałek, K. 2011. Assessment of the non-energy minerals security of Poland (Ocena bezpieczeństwa surowcowego Polski w zakresie surowców nieenergetycznych). Zeszyty Naukowe IGSMiE PAN 81, pp. 37–58 (in Polish).

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Radwanek-Bąk et al. 2018 – Radwanek-Bąk, B., Galos, K. and Nieć, M. 2018. Key, strategic and critical minerals for the Polish economy (Surowce kluczowe, strategiczne i krytyczne dla polskiej gospodarki). Przegląd Geologiczny 66(3), pp. 153–159 (in Polish).

Smakowski et al. 2015 – Smakowski, T., Galos, K. and Lewicka, E. eds. 2015. Balance of the mineral economy of Poland and the world 2013 (Bilans gospodarki surowcami mineralnymi Polski i świata 2013). Warszawa: PIG-PIB, 1169 pp. (in Polish).

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Szuflicki et al. 2021 – Szuflicki, M., Malon, A. and Tymiński, M. eds. 2021. Balance of mineral raw materials deposits in Poland as of 31 XII 2020 (Bilans zasobów złóż kopalin w Polsce wg stanu na 31 XII 2020 r.). Warszawa: PIG-PIB, 508 pp. (in Polish).
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Krzysztof Galos
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ewa Danuta Lewicka
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jarosław Kamyk
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jarosław Szlugaj
1
ORCID: ORCID
Hubert Czerw
1
ORCID: ORCID
Anna Burkowicz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Alicja Kot-Niewiadomska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Katarzyna Guzik
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, Poland
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Abstrakt

The raw material economy determines energy security for individual countries in the world. Coal is one of the most important energy carriers for electricity production and heat generation. World market trends of fossil raw materials such as hard coal and lignite were presented. In the European Union a significant decrease in coal and lignite consumption has been observed in recent years. This situation is primarily related to the accelerating decarbonisation policy and support of renewable energy sources, which are considered to be environmentally friendly. The pandemic occurring in recent years has also played an important role in shaping the raw materials market. The author shows the possibilities and directions in which the coal economy has prospects for development and expansion. The amount of the world’s coal resources is presented, as well as the size of the global consumption of the raw material in the 2000–2011 years, specifying in China, India, Asia, the USA and the countries of the European Union. The structure of the coal economy is presented in the light of the policies and laws enacted by the European Union Comission, in particular in Poland, Germany and France. The appearance of the hard coal sector and lignite sector in Poland is described in detail. The size of resources was given in terms of coal classification. The presented data were based on a range of information and reports from world organizations such as the International Energy Agency or British Petroleum.
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Bibliografia


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Kasztelewicz et al. 2018 – Kasztelewicz, Z., Ptak, M. and Sikora, M. 2018. Lignite as the Optimal Energy Raw Material for Poland (Węgiel brunatny optymalnym surowcem energetycznym dla Polski). Zeszyty Naukowe IGSMiE PAN 106, pp. 61–84. doi : 10.24425/124403 (in Polish).

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Krawczyk, P. 2020. Evaluation of the situation of hard coal mining in Poland in 2016–2018 using the public income balance method (Ocena stanu górnictwa węgla kamiennego w Polsce w latach 2016–2018 przy wykorzystaniu metody bilansu dochodów publicznych). Przegląd Górniczy 76(4), pp. 44–54 (in Polish).

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Ozga-Blashke, U. 2020. Coking coal in the European green deal strategy. Inżynieria Mineralna 2(2), pp. 87–93.

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PEP2040 – Energy Policy of Poland until 2040 – strategy of fuel and energy sector development (Polityka energetyczna Polski do 2040 r.). Warszawa: Ministerstwo Energii, 2021 (in Polish).

Pepłowska et al. 2017 – Pepłowska, M., Gawlik, L. and Kryzia, D. 2017. Statistical analysis of the relationship between the economic condition of mining supporting companies and the condition of the hard coal mining industry (Analiza statystyczna zależności finansów przedsiębiorstw okołogórniczych od kondycji branży górnictwa węgla kamiennego). Przegląd Górniczy 73(11), pp. 15–22 (in Polish).

PIG-PIB 2020 – Balance of Mineral Reserves and Deposits in Poland As at 31 December 2019 (Bilans zasobów i złóż kopalin w Polsce wg stanu Na 31 XII 2019 r.) Warszawa 2020 (in Polish).

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Ratajczak, T. and Hycnar, E. 2017. Supporting minerals in lignite deposits (Kopaliny towarzyszące w złożach węgla brunatnego). Kraków: MERRI PAS (in Polish).

SRP 2021 – List of exploration, appraisal and production licences for solid minerals (as at 30 June 2020) (Lista koncesji poszukiwawczych, rozpoznawczych oraz wydobywczych dot. kopalin stałych (stan na dzień 30 czerwca 2020 r.)) Serwis Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej [Online] https://dane.gov.pl/dataset/221,zestawienia-koncesji-udzielonych-przez-ministra-srodowiska/resource/25028/table?page=1&per_page=50&q=brunatny&sort= [Accessed: 2020-07-24] (in Polish).

Tajduś, A. 2021. „QUO VADIS” Polish mining? („QUO VADIS” polskie górnictwo?) Przegląd Górniczy 77(1–3), pp. 7–13 (in Polish).

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Monika Pepłowska
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, Poland

Abstrakt

Strategies and roadmaps are essential in areas that require long-term planning, such as the energy transition. Strategic plans can play an important role in developing visions for reducing CO2 emissions, developing renewable energy sources (RES) and hydrogen technologies. Hydrogen can be included in value chains in various sectors of the economy as raw material, emission-free fuel, or as an energy carrier and storage. The analysis of the future of hydrogen energy, which is an essential component of transforming the economy into an environmentally neutral one, is an integral part of the strategies of the European Union (EU) Member States.
This article reviews the strategic documents of the EU countries in the field of a hydrogen economy. Currently, six EU Member States have approved the hydrogen strategy (Germany, France, the Netherlands, Portugal, Hungary, Czech Republic), and two of them have roadmaps (Spain, Finland). The others are working on their completion in 2021. EU countries have the possibility of energy transformation based on a hydrogen policy, including green hydrogen, within the framework of the European Green Deal, i.e. aiming for climate neutrality and creating a modern and environmentally friendly economy.
By 2030, some of the countries plan to become a leader not only in the field of hydrogen production or RES development aimed at this process but also in the areas of research and development (R&D), sales of new technologies, and international cooperation. Member countries are focused on the production of clean hydrogen using electrolysis, creating incentives to stimulate demand, developing a hydrogen market, and implementing hydrogen infrastructure.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Renata Koneczna
1
ORCID: ORCID
Justyna Cader
1 2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, Poland
  2. Faculty of Geology, University of Warsaw, Poland

Abstrakt

The circular economy (CE) has been a European Union (EU) priority since 2014, when first official document on the CE was published. Currently, the EU is on the road to the transformation from a linear economy model to the CE model. In 2019, a new strategy was announced – the European Green Deal, the main goal of which is to mobilize the industrial sector for the CE implementation. The CE assumes that the generated waste should be treated as a secondary raw material. The paper presents an analysis of the possibility of using selected groups of waste for the production of fertilizers. Moreover, an identification of strengths and weaknesses, as well as market opportunities and threats related to the use of selected groups of waste as a valuable raw material for the production of fertilizers was conducted. The scope of the work includes characteristics of municipal waste (household waste, food waste, green waste, municipal sewage sludge, digestate), industrial waste (sewage sludge, ashes from biomass combustion, digestate) and agricultural waste (animal waste, plant waste), and a SWO T (strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis. The fertilizer use from waste is determined by the content of nutrients (phosphorus – P, nitrogen, potassium, magnesium, calcium ) and the presence of heavy metals unfavorable for plants (zinc, lead, mercury). Due to the possibility of contamination, including heavy metals, before introducing waste into the soil, it should be subjected to a detailed chemical analysis and treatment. The use of waste for the production of fertilizers allows for the reduction of the EU’s dependence on the import of nutrients from outside Europe, and is in line with the CE.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Marzena Smol
1
ORCID: ORCID
Dominika Szołdrowska
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, Poland
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Abstrakt

An importance of secondary mineral raw materials sources for economy was demonstrated as well as sources of its acquirement were outlined. Various aspects of waste use in economy were discussed, underlining importance of waste removal for improvement of environment. A related legal framework in Poland and European Union was outlined. Results of already carried works in research and stocktaking of mineral waste accumulations in Poland were reminded. Legal procedures aiming at exploitation of mineral waste deposits formally defined and similar facilities falling outside definition of mineral waste deposits were discussed. It was evidenced that a gap in the legal framework exists, regarding particularity of waste acquirement from anthropogenic mineral deposits. Consequently, a need to require a preparation of equivalent of a resource report, feasibility study and a plan defining exploitation and conversion modes for material lifted from waste accumulations was demonstrated.
For the sake of a clear terminology applied it was recommended to incorporate terms of “anthropogenic mineral resources” and “anthropogenic mineral deposit” as an appropriate adjustment to the existing regulation. A need to intensify stocktaking efforts on mineral waste accumulations in Poland was emphasized. It was also suggested that its results should be recognized in the Balance of Mineral Resources and State Resource Policy.
In summary a recommended legal framework to regulate acquirement of mineral waste, recognizing particularities of such processes, was presented.
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Bibliografia

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Act 2008. Act of July 10, 2008 on Mineral Waste (Ustawa z dnia 10 lipca 2008 r. o odpadach wydobywczych) (Journal of Laws 2008. 138. 865) (in Polish).

Act 2012. Act of December 14, 2012 on Waste (Ustawa z dnia 14 grudnia 2012 r. o odpadach) (Journal of Laws 2013. 21) (in Polish). Act 2021.

Act of April 27, 2021 on Waste (Ustawa z dnia 27 kwietnia 2021 r. o odpadach) (Journal of Laws 2021. 62.628) (in Polish). GML 1994.

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Nieć et al. 2018 – Nieć, M., Uberman, R. and Galos, K. 2018. Clastic sedimentary anthropogenic mineral deposits (Okruchowe antropogeniczne złoża kopalin). Górnictwo Odkrywkowe 3, pp. 31–37 (in Polish).

Pietrzyk-Sokulska et al 2018 – Pietrzyk-Sokulska, E., Radwanek-Bąk, B. and Kulczycka, J. 2018. Secondary mineral resources: problems of nomenclature and classification in connection with the implementation of the circular economy (Mineralne surowce wtórne – problemy polskiego nazewnictwa i klasyfikacji w związku z realizacją gospodarki w obiegu zamkniętym). Przegląd Geologiczny 3, pp. 160–165 (in Polish).

POLVAL 2021. Polish Code for Valuation of Mineral Assets. Kraków: PSWZK (in Polish, in print).

Rules on Documenting Mineral Resources 2002. Warszawa: Ministry of Environment Protection.

Salminen et al. 2021 – Salminen, J., Garbarino, E., Orveillon, G., Saveyn, H., Mateos Aquilino, V., Llorens Gonzalez, T., Garcia Polonio, F., Horckmans, L., D`hugues, P., Balomenos, E., Dino, G., De La Feld, M., Madai, F., Faldessy, J., Mucsi, G., Gombkoto‘, I. and Calleja, I. 2021. Recovery of critical and other raw materials from mining waste and landfills. EUR 29744 EN. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2019, DOI: 10.2760/174367, JRC116131.

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Suppes, R. and Heuss-Aßbichler, S. 2021. How to Identify Potentials and Barriers of Raw Materials Recovery from Tailings? Part I: A UNFC-Compliant Screening Approach for Site Selection. Resources 10(3), 26. DOI: 10.3390/resources10030026.

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Uberman, Ry. 2017. Accompanying minerals in lignite deposits. Volume II. Legal, economic and mining aspects of the development of accompanying minerals (Kopaliny towarzyszące w złożach węgla brunatnego. Tom II. Prawno – ekonomiczne oraz górnicze aspekty zagospodarowania kopalin towarzyszących). Kraków: MEERI PAS, pp. 128 (in Polish).

Uberman, Ry. 2021. Mineral waste in light of the provisions of the Act on waste, the Act on extractive waste, and the Geological and mining law. Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi – Mineral Resources Management 37(1), pp. 117–140.

Winterstetter et al 2021 – Winterstetter, A., Heuss-Assbichler, S., Stegemann, J., Kral, U., Wäger, P., Osmani, M. and Rechberger, H. 2021. The role of anthropogenic resource classification in supporting the transition to a circular economy. Journal of Cleaner Production 297. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.126753.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Ryszard Uberman
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, Poland

Abstrakt

Asbestos cement sheets on building roofs and façades as well as asbestos cement water and sewerage pipes are the most frequently existing elements that contain asbestos in Poland. During removal from a specific building such a material automatically becomes hazardous waste. The presented paper covers studies carried out on leachability of pollutants from asbestos-containing waste, previously used for roofing. Laboratory tests under static conditions were carried out (1:10 test, pursuant to rules of the PN-EN 12457/1-4 standard) using distilled water as the leaching medium. Aluminium, boron, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, nickel, lead, strontium, zinc, and mercury were determined in the eluate. Low leachability of individual metals under the planned conditions was observed. In general, such metals as cadmium, nickel, lead, zinc, boron and mercury were not observed in solutions. The other analysed metals were observed in eluates, but their concentrations were usually low. The low leachability was found for barium (0.019 to 0.419 mg/dm3), chromium (0.019 to 0.095 mg/dm3), copper (0.006 to 0.019 mg/dm3), and iron (<0.01 to 0.017 mg/dm3). Increased leachability values were found only for strontium, between 0.267 and 4.530 mg/dm3, and aluminium, ranging from 0.603 to 3.270 mg/dm3. The analysed asbestos and cement materials feature a low percentage content of asbestos in flat and corrugated asbestos cement sheets (10–15%). Because of that it is possible to presume that pollutants characteristic of cement will be mainly present in products of leaching.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Beata Klojzy-Karczmarczyk
1
ORCID: ORCID
Janusz Mazurek
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jarosław Staszczak
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, Poland
  2. Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, Poland
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Abstrakt


The demand for coking coal in international trade is determined mainly by demand from the steel industry, which, in turn, is dependent on the global economic situation and the condition of the steel market.
Business cycles in commodity markets are normal, but in the 21st century the good and bad times in the global coal market have shortened, and the amplitudes of price fluctuations have been much greater than they used to be.
China, as the world’s biggest producer and consumer of coking coals, and at the same time the largest importer and major participant in the Asian spot market, played a leading role in these events.
On the supply side, the main factor for these events is the concentration of production of premium hard coals on the east coast of Australia (in Queensland), in an area exposed to strong weather conditions (floods, hurricanes). Australia’s share of coal supply to the international metallurgical coal market (seaborne) is about 60%.
Coal prices on the international market are mainly shaped by the relationships between Australian suppliers and Asian customers. The increased share of China and India in global coking coal trade has weakened the bargaining power of Japanese giant companies in benchmark price negotiations.
Using the example of FOB prices of the Australian Premium HCC, the article shows how prices in metallurgical coal trade have evolved (in a long time horizon) against the background of market conditions. It also describes how the ongoing changes have affected the way benchmark prices are set in international coking coal trade.
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Bibliografia


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Coal Information 2020 – with 2019 data. Paryż: IEA.
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Energy Publishing 2010. Methodology and Specifications for Coking Coal Queensland Index (CCQ) and Coking Coal Hampton Roads Index (CCH). September 9, 2010 – Version 15, 20. [Online] www.energypublishing.com [Accessed: 2021-07-05].
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Ozga-Blaschke, U. 2004. Prices of metallurgical coke and of coking coal on foreign markets (Ceny koksu metalurgicznego i węgla koksowego na rynkach międzynarodowych). Przegląd Górniczy 60(7–8), pp. 21–24 (in Polish).
Ozga-Blaschke, U. 2006. State of the art and forecast of international coking coal market development (Stan aktualny i prognozy rozwoju międzynarodowego rynku węgla koksowego). Polityka Energetyczna – Energy Policy Journal 9(is. special), pp. 633–643 (in Polish).
Ozga-Blaschke, U. 2009. The impact of the economic crisis on the steel, coking coal and coke markets (Wpływ kryzysu gospodarczego na rynki stali, węgla koksowego i koksu). Przegląd Górniczy 65(3–4), pp. 8–13 (in Polish).
Ozga-Blaschke, U. 2010. Coking coal management (Gospodarka węglem koksowym). Kraków: MEERI PAS (in Polish).
Ozga-Blaschke, U. 2012. Coking coal market development within the context of the global economic situation (Rozwój rynku węgli koksowych na tle sytuacji gospodarczej na świecie). Polityka Energetyczna – Energy Policy Journal 15(4), pp. 255–267 (in Polish).
Ozga-Blaschke, U. 2016. Metallurgical Raw Materials Markets (Rynki surowców metalurgicznych). Zeszyty Naukowe IGSMiE PAN 95, pp. 7–22 (in Polish).
Ozga-Blaschke, U. 2017. Evolution of price mechanism on the international market of metallurgical coal (Ewolucja mechanizmu cenowego na międzynarodowym rynku węgli metalurgicznych). Zeszyty Naukowe IGSMiE PAN 98, pp. 65–76 (in Polish).
Ozga-Blaschke U. 2018. Coking coal prices on the international market – the current situation and forecasts (Ceny węgla koksowego na rynku międzynarodowym – sytuacja bieżąca i prognozy). Zeszyty Naukowe IGSMiE PAN 105, pp. 53–62 (in Polish).
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Urszula Ozga-Blaschke
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, Poland
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Abstrakt

The insurance funds belong to efficient measures mitigating risks in geothermal projects, including resource risk. They already exist in some European countries, e.g., France, the Netherlands, Turkey. Recently, the proposals of establishing such funds were elaborated for three countries: Greece, Hungary, and Poland within the framework of the EU-funded project “Developing geothermal and renewable energy projects by mitigating their risks”, GEORISK (www.georisk-project.eu).
A 10 year operational and financial simulation of the proposed public insurance funds was conducted to prove their sustainability in each of three listed states. It started with the determination of the country-specific premises. The numbers of projects in the next 10 years possible to be covered by funds were assumed by the authors on the bases of realistic estimations.
The initial capital, the fixed costs, the costs of the project evaluation, the premium fees paid by the investors, the payment for the unsuccessful projects altogether were taken into account. The first draft simulation was done with the exact Hungarian assumptions and inputs of fixed costs and also with average project data, thus making it appropriate to perform sensitivity analyses on: insurance premiums, success rates and the risk coverages. Then, complete simulations were made for three listed countries.
The results of the simulation show that a resource risk insurance fund can be a sustainable and an effective measure to support geothermal energy sector development. During the planning of a new fund, it is important to make use of long experiences both of the former and existing funds.
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Bibliografia

Boissavy, C. 2017. The successful geothermal risk mitigation system in France from 1980 to 2015. European Geologist Magazine. Geothermal – The Energy of the Future. Science & Technology. [Online] https://titra24.com/old/8/science-technology-special-edition-of-european-geologist-magazine-on-geothermal-energy [Accessed: 2021-07-04].

Boissavy, C. and Grière, O. 2017. The history and detailed results for the short and long term guarantee system for geothermal heating operations using deep aquifers set up in France in the early 1980’s. Report ADEME, March 2017. AFGP Archive.

Dumas et al. 2019 – Dumas, P., Garabetian, T., Le Guénan, T., Kępińska, B., Kasztelewicz, A., Karytsas, S., Siddiqi, G., Lupi, N., Seyidov, F., Nador, A., Kaufhold, J., Boissavy, C., Yildirim, C., Bozkurt, C., Kujbus, A., Spyridonos, E., Oztekin, R. and Link, K. 2019. Risk mitigation and insurance schemes adapted to geothermal market maturity: the right cheme for my market. Proceedings, European Geothermal Congress 2019. The Hague, The Netherlands. [Online] https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333977809_Risk_Mitigation_ and_Insurance_Schemes_Adapted_to_Geothermal_Market_Maturity_The_Right_Scheme_for_my_Market [Accessed: 2021-07-04].

Dziadzio et al. 2020 – Dziadzio, P., Maj, J., Jerzak, M., Ofiara K., Bąk, D. and Kuś, B. 2020. Geothermal energy in Poland : development stimulated by the geological subfund of the National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management (Geotermia w Polsce: rozwój stymulowany przez środki subfunduszu geologicznego Narodowego Funduszu Ochrony Środowiska i Gospodarki Wodnej). Przegląd Geologiczny 68(3), pp. 151–155 (in Polish).

Heijnen et al. 2015 – Heijnen, L., Rijkers, R. and Gussinklo, O.R. 2015. Management of geological and drilling risks of geothermal projects in the Netherlands. Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2015, Melbourne, Australia, 19–25 April 2015.

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Kępińska et al. 2021 – Kępińska, B., Kasztelewicz, A. and Miecznik, M. 2021. Updated version mounted. Activities for geothermal risk insurance fund projects in Poland (Zaktualizowana propozycja końcowa. Działania dla ustanowienia w Polsce funduszu ubezpieczenia od ryzyka w projektach geotermalnych). Materiały na Warsztaty krajowe w Polsce. Runda 3. 24.02.2021. WP4.2. Projekt GEORISK (in Polish). Arch. GEORISK project.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Beata Kępińska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Attila Kujbus
2
Spirydon Karytsas
3
Christian Boissavy
4
Dimitrios Mendrinos
3
Constantine Karytsas
3
Aleksandra Kasztelewicz
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, Poland
  2. Geothermal Express Ltd., Budapest, Hungary
  3. Center for Renewable Energy Sources and Saving, Pikermi, Greece
  4. GEODEEP, Paris, France
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Abstrakt

The knowledge of the dynamic elastic properties of a coal seam is important in the context of various types of calculations of the seam behavior under various stress-strain conditions. These properties are often used in numerical and analytical modeling related to maintaining the stability of excavations and the analysis of mechanisms, e.g. related to the risk of rock bursts. Additionally, during the implementation of seismic surveys, e.g. seismic profiling and seismic tomography in coal seams, the reference values of the elastic properties of coal are used in the calculation of relative stresses in various geological and mining conditions.
The study aims to calculate the dynamic elastic parameters of the coal seam located at a depth of 1,260 m in one of the hard coal mines in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB). Basic measurements of the velocity of P- and S-waves were conducted using the seismic profiling method. These surveys are unique due to the lack of the velocity wave values in the coal seam at such a great depth in the USBC and difficult measurement conditions in a coal mine. As a result, dynamic modulus of elasticity was calculated, such as Young’s modulus, volumetric strain modulus, shear modulus and Poisson’s ratio. The volumetric density of coal used for calculations was determined on the basis of laboratory tests on samples taken in the area of the study. The research results showed that the calculated mean P-wave velocity of 2,356 m/s for the depth of 1,260 m is approximately consistent with the empirical relationship obtained by an earlier study. The P-wave velocity can be taken as the reference velocity at a depth of approx. 1,260 m in the calculation of the seismic anomaly in the seismic profiling method.
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Bibliografia

Brown, E.T. and Hoek, E. 1978. Trends in relationships between measured in-situ stresses and depth. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. Geomech. Abstr. 15(4), pp. 211–215.

Chlebowski, D. and Burtan, Z. 2021. Geophysical and analytical determination of overstressed zones in exploited coal seam: A case study. Acta Geophys. 69, pp. 701–710. DOI: 10.1007/s11600-021-00547-z.

Czarny et al. 2016 – Czarny, R., Marcak, H., Nakata, N., Pilecki, Z. and Isakow, Z. 2016. Monitoring velocity changes caused by underground coal mining using seismic noise. Pure. Appl. Geophys. 173, pp. 1907–1916. DOI: 10.1007/s00024-015-1234-3.

Dubiński, J. 1989. Seismic method of shock hazard assessment in hard coal mines (Sejsmiczna metoda wyprzedzającej oceny zagrożenia wstrząsami górniczymi w kopalniach węgla kamiennego). Prace Głównego Instytutu Górnictwa. Katowice: Central Mining Institute, 163 pp. (in Polish).

Dubiński, J. and Konopko, W. 2000. Rock bursts – assessment, prognosis, defeating (Tąpania – ocena, prognoza, zwalczanie). Katowice: Central Mining Institute, 378 pp. (in Polish).

Dubiński et al. 2001 – Dubiński, J., Pilecki, Z. and Zuberek, W. 2001. Geophysical research in mines – past, present and future plans (Badania geofizyczne w kopalniach – przeszłość, teraźniejszość, i zamierzenia na przyszłość). Kraków: MEERI PAS (in Polish).

Gustkiewicz, J. ed. 1999. Physical properties of Carboniferous rocks of the Upper Silesian coal basin. Rocks of Saddle beds (Właściwości fizyczne wybranych skał karbońskich Górnośląskiego Zagłębia Węglowego – skały warstw siodłowych). Kraków: MEERI PAS, 267 pp. (in Polish).

ISO 349:2020 Hard coal – Audibert-Arnu dilatometer test.

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Kudyk, M. and Pilecki Z. 2009. Modulus of deformation of Carpathian flysch on the route of the “Emilia” tunnel in the Zywiec Beskids (Modul deformacji utworow fliszu karpackiego na trasie tunelu „Emilia” w Beskidzie Zywieckim). Zeszyty Naukowe IGSMiE PAN 76, pp. 45–64 (in Polish).

Ladanyi, B. 1974. Use of the long-term strength concept in the determination of ground pressure on tunnel linings. Proceedings of the Third Congress of the Int. Soc. for Rock Mech., Denver, vol. II part B, pp. 1150–1156.

Majcherczyk, T. and Małkowski, P. 2002. Relation between carbon rock depth and behavior of rock mass around openings (Głębokość zalegania skał karbońskich a zachowanie się górotworu wokół wyrobiska korytarzowego). Proceedings of the Conference of Winter School of Rock Mass Mechanics (XXV Zimowa Szkoła Mechaniki Górotworu). Zakopane, 18–22 March, 2002, pp. 427–435 (in Polish).

Majcherczyk et al. 2012 – Majcherczyk, T., Pilecki, Z., Niedbalski, Z., Pilecka, E., Blajer, M. and Pszonka, J. 2012. Impact of geological, engineering and geotechnical conditions on the selection of parameters of the initial support of the road tunnel in Laliki (Wpływ warunków geologiczno-inżynierskich i geotechnicznych na dobór parametrów obudowy wstępnej tunelu drogowego w Lalikach). Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi – Mineral Resources Management 28(1), pp. 103–124 (in Polish).

Małkowski et al. 2021 – Małkowski, P., Niedbalski, Z. and Balarabe, T. 2021. A statistical analysis of geomechanical data and its effect on rock mass numerical modeling: a case study. Int. J Coal Sci. Technol. 8(2), pp. 312–323.

Marcak, H. and Pilecki, Z. 2019. Assessment of the subsidence ratio be based on seismic noise measurements in mining terrain. Arch. Min. Sci. 64, pp. 197–212, DOI: 10.24425/ams.2019.126280.

Olechowski et al. 2018 – Olechowski, S., Krawiec, K., Kokowski, J., Szreder, Z., Harba, P. and Ćwiękała, M. 2018. Comparison of the results of the seismic profiling and WAS-96/RMS seismoacoustic active method in an assessment of the impact of the overlying coal seam edge. E3S Web of Conf. 66, 01011. DOI: 10.1051/e3sconf/20186601011.

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Pilecki, Z. 1995. An Example of Rock Burst Hazard State Control Using a Z onal Seismoacoustic Observation. Proc. Fifth Conf. on Acoustic Emission/Microseismic Activity, Clausthal-Zellerfeld: Trans. Tech. Publications, pp. 313–332.

Pilecki, Z. 1999. Dynamic analysis of mining tremor impact on excavation. [In:] Detournay, C. and Hart, R. eds. Proc. Int. FLAC Symp. on Numerical Modeling in Geomechanics. Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA: 1–3 September, 1999. Rotterdam: A. A. Balkema, pp. 397–400.

Pilecki, Z. 2018. Seismic method in geoengineering (Metoda sejsmiczna w geoinżynierii). Kraków: MEERI PAS, 311 pp. (in Polish).

Szreder et al. 2008 – Szreder, Z., Pilecki, Z. and Kłosiński, J. 2008. Effectiveness of recognition of exploitation edge influence with the help of profiling of attenuation and velocity of seismic wave (Efektywność rozpoznania oddziaływania krawędzi eksploatacyjnych metodami profilowania tłumienia oraz prędkości fali sejsmicznej). Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi – Mineral Resources Management 24(2), pp. 215–226 (in Polish).

Szreder, Z. and Barnaś, M. 2017. Assessment of the impact of an overlying coal seam edge using seismic profiling of refracted P-wave velocity. E3S Web of Conf. 24, 01007 DOI: 10.1051/e3sconf/20172401007.

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Wojtecki et al. 2016 – Wojtecki, Ł., Dzik, G. and Mirek, A. 2016. Changes of te dynamic elastic modules of the coal seam ahead the longwall face (Zmiany dynamicznych modułów sprężystości pokładu węgla przed frontem ściany). Przegląd Górniczy 72(1), pp. 57–62 (in Polish).
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Krzysztof Krawiec
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, Poland

Dodatkowe informacje

The subject matter of the articles published in Mineral Resources Management covers issues related to minerals and raw materials, as well as mineral deposits, with particular emphasis on:

  • The scientific basis for mineral resources management,
  • The strategy and methodology of prospecting and exploration of mineral deposits,
  • Methods of rational management and use of deposits,
  • The rational exploitation of deposits and the reduction in the loss of raw materials,
  • Mineral resources management in processing technologies,
  • Environmental protection in the mining industry,
  • Optimization of mineral deposits and mineral resources management,
  • The rational use of mineral resources,
  • The economics of mineral resources,
  • The raw materials market,
  • Raw materials policy,
  • The use of accompanying minerals,
  • The use of secondary raw materials and waste,
  • Raw material recycling,
  • The management of waste from the mining industry.

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