Applied sciences

Opto-Electronics Review

Content

Opto-Electronics Review | 2017 | vol. 25 | No 3

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Abstract

In this paper we present the current status of modelling the time evolution of the transient conductivity of photoexcited semi-insulating (SI) 4H–SiC taking into account the properties of defect centres. A comprehensive model that includes the presence of six, the most significant, point defects occurring in SI 4H–SiC crystals is presented. The defect centres are attributed to the two kinds of nitrogen-related shallow donors, a boron-related shallow acceptor, deep electron and hole traps, and the Z1/2 recombination centre. We present the results of the state-of-the-art numerical simulations showing how the photoconductivity transients change in time and how these changes are affected by the properties of defect centres. The properties of defect centres assumed for modelling are compared with the results of experimental studies of deep-level defects in high purity (HP) SI 4H–SiC wafers performed by the high-resolution photoinduced transient spectroscopy (HRPITS). The simulated photoconductivity transients are also compared with the experimental photocurrent transients for the HP SI 4H–SiC wafers with different deep-level defects. It is shown that a high-temperature annealing producing the C-rich material enables the fast photocurrent transients to be achieved. The presented analysis can be useful for technology of SI 4H–SiC high-power photoconductive switches with suitable characteristics.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Suproniuk
P. Kamiński
R. Kozłowski
M. Pawłowski
M. Wierzbowski
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Abstract

This paper presents a review of models of the current transport in different kind of heterojunctions (HJs) and their characteristics. In order to effectively deduce the dominant electron transport for the HJs based on ZnO or Zn1−xMgxO layers grown on Si substrate by MBE a comparison is performed – which type of the HJ exhibits better electrical properties. The current–voltage characteristics for the studied HJs were measured within 280–300 K. The transport properties of the HJs are explained in terms of Anderson model with reference to aforementioned current transport models. It is found, that the mechanisms of current transport for all of the studied HJs are similar. At a low forward voltage bias the tunneling current dominates while at medium voltage bias (0.5–1 V) multitunneling capture-emission prevails with the electron trap located at 0.1–0.25 eV below the bottom of a ZnO (Zn1−xMgxO) conduction band. Beyond this voltage bias space charge limited current governs the current transport.

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Authors and Affiliations

E. Płaczek-Popko
K.M. Paradowska
M.A. Pietrzyk
A. Kozanecki
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Abstract

The review of peculiarity of growth and experimental results of the magneto-transport measurements (longitudinal magneto-resistance Rxx and the Hall resistance Rxy) over a wide interval of temperatures for several samples of Hg1−xCdxTe (x ≈ 0.13–0.15) grown by MBE is presented in this paper. An amazing temperature stability of the SdH-oscillation period and amplitude is observed in the entire temperature interval of measurements up to 50 K. Moreover, the quantum Hall effect (QHE) behaviour of the Hall resistance was shown in the same temperature interval. These peculiarities of the Rxx and Rxy for strained thin layers are interpreted using quantum Hall conductivity (QHC) on topologically protected surface states (TPSS). In the case of not strained layers it is assumed that the QHC on the TPSS contributes also to the conductance of the bulk samples. The experimental results on magneto-transport (QHC and SdH) obtained for the strained 100 nm thickness Hg1−xCdxTe layer are interpreted on the basis of the 8 × 8 kp model and an advantage of the Hg1−xCdxTe as topological insulators is shown. This article is an expanded version of the scientific reports presented at the International Conference on Semiconductor Nanostructures for Optoelectronics and Biosensors 2016 ICSeNOB2016, May 22–25, 2016, Rzeszow, Poland.

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Authors and Affiliations

G. Tomaka
J. Grendysa
M. Marchewka
P. Śliż
C.R. Becker
A. Stadler
E.M. Sheregii
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Abstract

In this paper analyses of mode distribution, confinement and experimental losses of the photonic crystal fibers with different core sizes infiltrated with liquid crystal are presented. Four types of fibers are compared: with single-, seven-, nineteen- and thirty seven solid rods forming the core in the same hexagonal lattice of seven “rings” of unit cells (rods or capillaries). The experimental results confirming the influence of the core diameter on light propagation are also included. The diameter of cores determines not only the number of modes in the photonic liquid crystal fiber but also is correlated with experimentally observed attenuation. For fibers with larger cores confinement losses are expected to be higher, but the measured attenuation is smaller because the impact of liquid crystal material losses and scattering is smaller.

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Authors and Affiliations

M.M. Sala-Tefelska
S. Ertman
T.R. Woliński
P. Mergo
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Abstract

In this paper ∼16 μm-emitting multimode InP-related quantum cascade lasers are presented with the maximum operating temperature 373 K, peak and average optical power equal to 720 mW and 4.8 mW at 303 K, respectively, and the characteristic temperature (T0) 272 K. Two types of the lasers were fabricated and characterized: the lasers with a SiO2 layer left untouched in the area of the metal-free window on top of the ridge, and the lasers with the SiO2 layer removed from the metal-free window area. Dual-wavelength operation was obtained, at λ ∼ 15.6 μm (641 cm−1) and at λ ∼ 16.6 μm (602 cm−1) for lasers with SiO2 removed, while within the emission spectrum of the lasers with SiO2 left untouched only the former lasing peak was present. The parameters of these devices like threshold current, optical power and emission wavelength are compared. Lasers without the SiO2 layer showed ∼15% lower threshold current than these ones with the SiO2 layer. The optical powers for lasers without SiO2 layer were almost twice higher than for the lasers with the SiO2 layer on the top of the ridge.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Szerling
S. Slivken
M. Razeghi
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Abstract

Photoluminescence of HgCdTe epitaxial films and nanostructures and electroluminescence of InAs(Sb,P) light-emitting diode (LED) nanoheterostructures were studied. For HgCdTe-based structures, the presence of compositional fluctuations, which localized charge carriers, was established. A model, which described the effect of the fluctuations on the rate of the radiative recombination, the shape of luminescence spectra and the position of their peaks, was shown to describe experimental photoluminescence data quite reasonably. For InAs(Sb,P) LED nanoheterostructures, at low temperatures (4.2–100 K) stimulated emission was observed. This effect disappeared with the temperature increasing due to the resonant ‘switch-on’ of the Auger process involving transition of a hole to the spin-orbit-splitted band. Influence of other Auger processes on the emissive properties of the nanoheterostructures was also observed. Prospects of employing II–VI and III–V nanostructures in light-emitting devices operating in the mid-infrared part of the spectrum are discussed.

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Authors and Affiliations

K.D. Mynbaev
A.V. Shilyaev
A.A. Semakova
E.V. Bykhanova
N.L. Bazhenov
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Abstract

Performance parameter of a Bragg fiber waveguide based resonant sensor in presence of a defect layer in cladding regions is theoretically studied. The Bragg fiber waveguide consists of a liquid-core surrounded by alternate high and low refractive indices materials in cladding regions. Reflectivity of the proposed waveguide based resonant sensor is formulated using transfer matrix method for a non-homogeneous multilayer cylindrical system. The waveguide shows a band gap region with a narrow defect mode in the band gap region under the considered wavelength range. Instead of taking a whole band gap as a sensing signal, here the defect peak is taken as the sensing signal. It is observed that the intensity of defect mode is more sensitive for core refractive index than the intensity of traditional band gap region (lobe). This study shows that the higher sensitivity can be achieved by creating the defect at a position in cladding region where the intensity of transmitted light lies between 40% and 90%. Presence of a defect layer is able to increase the detection accuracy of the sensor and, hence increase the overall performance of this sensor.

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Authors and Affiliations

R.K. Chourasia
S. Prasad
V. Singh
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Abstract

The article proves that common LEDs may act as photodetectors with limited sensitivity, if they are polarized with an appropriate reverse voltage. The measured responsivities are ranged between 0.002 and 0.156 A/W and they depend on the LED type. The only one exception are white (phosphorescent) LEDs which do not exhibit any photosensitivity. There have also shown that a bandwidth of LEDs, which were examined in a role of photodetectors, is of a few tens of MHz, which is an order of magnitude greater than their modulation bandwidth as transmitters. The reasons of the observed LEDs behaviour are explained theoretically. The obtained results are indicated that some of them may be used as both transmitters and receivers in the VLC links working in a bi-directional half-duplex mode.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Kowalczyk
J. Siuzdak
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Abstract

A novel methodology was implemented in the present study to concurrently control power conversion efficiency (η) and durability (D) of co-sensitized dye solar cells. Applying response surface methodology (RSM) and Desirability Function (DF), the main influential assembling (dye volume ratio and anti-aggregation agent concentration) and operational (performance temperature) parameters were systematically changed to probe their main and interactive effects on the η and D responses. Individual optimization based on RSM elucidated that D can be solely controlled by changing the ratio of vat-based organic photosensitizers, whereas η takes both effects of dye volume ratio and anti-aggregation concentration into account. Among the studied factors, the performance temperature played the most vital role in η and D regulation. In particular, however, multi-objective optimization by DF explored the degree to which one should be careful about manipulation of assembling and operational parameters in the way maximization of performance of a co-sensitized dye solar cell.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Hosseinnezhad
A. Shadman
M. Reza Saeb
Y. Mohammadi
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Abstract

Erbium-doped lead silicate glass has been investigated for near-infrared emission and up-conversion applications. Near-infrared emission due to 4I13/24I15/2 transition of Er3+ is relatively broad (70.5 nm) and long-lived (3.7 ms). Also, up-conversion luminescence spectra of Er3+ ions in lead silicate glass have been examined as a function of temperature. The relative intensities of luminescence bands corresponding to 2H11/24I15/2 and 4S3/24I15/2 transitions of Er3+ were determined with temperature. The fluorescence intensity ratio and temperature sensitivity were calculated. The maximum sensitivity for Er3+ doped lead silicate glass is close to 26.4 × 10−4 K−1 at T = 590 K.

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Authors and Affiliations

W.A. Pisarski
J. Pisarska
R. Lisiecki
W. Ryba-Romanowski
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Abstract

A description of the status of the art of experimental and theoretical investigations of local crystalline structures of tetrahedron ordered ternary and quaternary semiconducting alloys is presented. Experimental EXAFS data and FTIR analysis are summarized and analyzed using both the Rigid Network Cations theoretical model and the Strained-tetrahedra model. Internal preferences of ion pairs in ternary and quaternary alloys are discussed. Several ternary systems of different structures show ideal quasi-canonical Bernoulli distributions, while others are characterized by extreme preferences in which one, several or even all configurations are depressed or even lacking. The results demonstrate that the validity of the Bernoulli distribution is limited and not fulfilled in many systems. This article is an expanded version of the scientific reports presented at the International Conference on Semiconductor Nanostructures for Optoelectronics and Biosensors 2016 ICSeNOB2016, May 22–25, 2016, Rzeszow, Poland.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Kisiel
B.V. Robouch
A. Marcelli
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Abstract

The electron field and photo-field emission from GaN nanostructures has been analyzed in this review. In order to explain the obtained experimental results, a model was proposed taking into account the change in carrier concentration distribution in the main and the satellite valley during the emission process. The lowering of work function (due to the increased number of carriers in the satellite valley) can explain the decrease in the Fowler-Nordheim plot slope. It was shown that the energy difference between the main and satellite valley in GaN was decreased in the case of quantum confinement, thus increasing the probability of electron transition from Γ to X valley at same electric fields.

Investigations of electron photo-field emission demonstrated that the Fowler–Nordheim plots of the emission current have different slopes for nonilluminated and illuminated devices. A model based on the electron emission from valleys having different specific electron affinities is proposed to explain the experimental results. In the absence of illumination the emission takes place only from the lower valley. Upon UV illumination and presence of a high electric field at the emitter tip, the upper valley of the conduction band appears to be occupied by electrons generated at the valence band.

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Authors and Affiliations

V. Litovchenko
A. Evtukh
A. Grygoriev

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Opto-Electronics Review was established in 1992 for the publication of scientific papers concerning optoelectronics and photonics materials, system and signal processing. This journal covers the whole field of theory, experimental verification, techniques and instrumentation and brings together, within one journal, contributions from a wide range of disciplines. Papers covering novel topics extending the frontiers in optoelectronics and photonics are very encouraged. The main goal of this magazine is promotion of papers presented by European scientific teams, especially those submitted by important team from Central and Eastern Europe. However, contributions from other parts of the world are by no means excluded.

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