Applied sciences

Archives of Civil Engineering

Content

Archives of Civil Engineering | 2021 | vol. 67 | No 1 |

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Abstract

This paper compares the measurement results of dynamic characteristics, including natural frequencies, damping ratio, and wind-induced responses of the Stuttgart TV Tower (TV Tower), obtained by Lenk in 1959 using classical instruments with those obtained by the authors a few decades later using Global Positioning System (GPS). The objective of this paper was to monitor the response of the TV Tower under wind loading, which is an important tool for the validation of its design, construction, and structural health. During the authors’ GPS measurements, weak and moderate wind speeds occurred most of the time. Only in 2007, the stronger wind observed (90 < V < 100 km/h) at the head of the TV Tower (H=157 m), which caused displacements in the decimetre range. Further measurements in 2011 were carried out, using additional GPS receivers with a higher data rate. The results achieved by the GPS prove that the cross-wind response was larger than the along-wind component for all ranges of wind speed, which occurred during the measurement periods, i.e. from 2002 to 2015. The authors of this paper extended Lenk’s results, by the static and along-wind components, confirmed the first natural frequency, and damping ratio, evaluated by the Random Decrement technique. Mounting a GPS receiver, on the steel antenna mast tip, enabled detection of the second natural frequency fs2 = 0.800 Hz, which is the frequency of the mode shape of the TV Tower steel antenna mast. Lenk did not measure this frequency.
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Authors and Affiliations

Peter Breuer
1
Tadeusz Chmielewski
2
Piotr Górski
2

  1. University of Applied Sciences, Schellingstrasse 24, 70174 Stuttgart, Germany
  2. Opole University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Katowicka 48, 45-061 Opole, Poland
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Abstract

The present article relates to the subject of the relocation of buildings. It presents a historical background of operations of this type carried out in the past around the world, as well as in Poland. It goes on to discuss in more detail some pioneering structural and technological solutions used during the relocation of the Rogatka Grochowska (Grochowska tollgate) building, carried out in 1961 in Warsaw. The article’s main theme is the process of relocation of a historic building No. 15 within the old Norblin Factory in Warsaw, which took place during the final months of 2018. The article briefly presents the factory’s history. It also describes the assumptions of the related project, which covers the development of the old Norblin Factory. It discusses in detail the concept and the scope of the relocation of building No. 15, with the description of the structural and technical design related to this process. The progress of the relocation which took place in 2018 has been reported in detail.
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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł Grzegorz Kossakowski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Kielce University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Al. Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego 7, 25-314 Kielce, Poland
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Abstract

Unlike in conventional bridges, the backfill and the roadway pavement have a major bearing on the load capacity of buried corrugated metal structures. In the soil-steel structure model one can distinguish two structural subsystems: the shell made of corrugated steel plates and the soil backfill with the road pavement. The interaction between them is modelled as a contact (interfacial) interaction, i.e. forces normal and tangent to the surface of the shell. The normal interactions are variable during both construction and service life. Two algorithms are presented. In the first algorithm on the basis of unit strains the internal forces in the shell are determined and consequently the contact interactions are calculated. A large number of measuring points distributed on the circumferential section of the shell is needed for the calculations. In the second algorithm the collocation condition, according to which the result obtained from the shell geometry model must agree with the measured displacement of the structure’s collocation point, is used. When there are more such points, the estimated result is more precise. The advantage of both algorithms is that they take into account the physical characteristics of the soil in the backfill layers, but above all the backfill laying and compacting technology. The results of such analyses can be the basis for comparing the effectiveness of conventional geotechnical models.
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Authors and Affiliations

Czesław Machelski
1
Leszek Korusiewicz
2

  1. Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland
  2. Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland
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Abstract

The purpose of the following paper is to present the experimental field investigations in jointless railway track subjected to the author’s generated imperfections on its static work. The main concept for the executed investigations is to induce an intentional imperfection (both a concave and convex irregularity) in an actual railway track, propose a way of appropriate measurement (using the PONTOS system), and utilize author’s field investigations results to calibrate necessary parameters for theoretical calculations. An experimental formula describing the value of the force transferred from the rail to the railway sleeper on the grounds of the survey site caused by a locomotive is provided. Furthermore, the deflection of the chosen railway rail and sleeper due to the generated imperfection is subjected to analysis. Finally the objective of the present consideration is to resolve the calculations into the beam element such that the results can be used in computational railway practice. The scheme of the so-called a “hanging sleeper” is particularly unfavourable, a gap arises between the sleeper and the foundation, for which the significant changes appear, especially in the rail deflections and stresses. A work scheme of the railway track elements is described on the generated short concave and convex irregularity.
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Authors and Affiliations

Włodzimierz Andrzej Bednarek
1

  1. Poznan University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Transport Engineering, Institute of Civil Engineering, Division of Bridges and Railway Engineering, ul. Piotrowo 5, 60-965 Poznań, Poland
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Abstract

The paper concerns the use of limit value of siliceous fly ash content in concrete structures, with the application of various types of cements - based on the current standards and taking into consideration the requirements concerning current exposure classes. The conclusions were based on a review of literature, the results of scientific research, conclusions from expert opinions and buildings and structures supervision reports. In summary, it has been concluded that the use of limit content of siliceous fly ashes may result in negative changes in the properties of composites, which should be ruled out or confirmed by appropriate tests, taking into account the precisely defined composition of concrete, cement and the applied additives and admixtures. It has been emphasised that the problem concerns composites with the increased and limit values of fly ash content, especially as regards cements with the lowered content of clinker and high content of additives and admixtures (affecting the physical and mechanical properties of cement composites). Attention has been drawn to the need to modify the exposure classes, to focus on the requirements concerning the properties of concrete and not the composition - in order to achieve the expected durability.
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Authors and Affiliations

Dominik Logoń
1

  1. Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, pl.Grunwaldzki 11, 59-377 Wrocław, Poland
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Abstract

This article discusses the impact of economic, environmental and legal policies on management of the companies involved in investment projects in the area of industrial construction in Poland. Our empirical research relied on conducting a survey in a group of construction managers and experts. The survey involved 158 Polish companies from the SME sector dealing from the industrial construction. The questionnaire responses were thoroughly analysed and interpreted with the use of a method called exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The results provide an insight into successful management of investment processes realised by construction companies implementing projects in the area of industrial construction. The most important factors identified with the use of this research method turned out to be the availability of technology in a stable political system, stability of economic and tax systems, stable social policy, stability and transparency of the legal system and well-targeted environmental policies. In general, it can be stated that the effective management of industrial construction projects is influenced by the economic, environmental and legal policies of the state.
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Authors and Affiliations

Janusz Sobieraj
1
ORCID: ORCID
Dominik Metelski
2
ORCID: ORCID
Paweł Nowak
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
  2. University of Granada, Faculty of International and Spanish Economics, Campus de Cartuja s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain
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Abstract

Vertical transport of wall-panels is a part of the prefabrication process of wood-framed buildings. The total dead weight of a wall is suspended on several lifting slings, pointwise clasping the top plate of the wall. This indicates, that all the weight of a wall is cumulated in sheathing-to-framing fasteners, usually staples. This article presents experimental investigations and analytical models evaluated for the description of light wood-framed walls in the process of lifting. Three different models cover the analytical approach: a model of a simple beam on elastic supports (BSS), a model of assembled beams (ACBS), three-dimensional (3D) spatial FE model of the wall (WFEM). Board-to-beam joint material parameters are determined on the base of experimental results. These connections are converted into two variants in the form of spring elements for 2D analysis, and beam elements for 3D analysis.
The numerical results exhibit that the proposed models may correctly represent behavior of a real wall in lifting, applying elastic materials parameters.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jarosław Malesza
1
Czesław Miedziałowski
1

  1. Bialystok University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Wiejska 45A, 15-351 Bialystok, Poland
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Abstract

Steel-glulam structure is a new type of composite structure,glulam have lateral support effect on steel plate, that can prevent premature buckling of steel plate and improve the stability of steel structure. In order to study the influence of column’s cross-section form on the seismic performance of steel-glulam composite beam-to-column exterior joint, the column’s cross-section form was taken as the basic variable (glulam rectangular section , H-beam section and H-beam-glulam rectangular section were used respectively). The pseudo-static tests of three composite beam-to-column joints were carried out to observe the different failure modes, and obtain the mechanical performance indexes. The experiment results demonstrated that: The energy dissipation capacity of beam-to-column exterior joint composed of glulam column was the worst, the ultimate bearing capacity and stiffness were the lowest. The ultimate bearing capacity of the exterior joints formed by the H-beam column and the H-beam-glulam composite column were both high, and their ductility coefficients were similar, while the former had better energy dissipation capacity.
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Authors and Affiliations

Shaowei Duan
1
Xinglong Liu
2
Jian Yuan
1
Zhifeng Wang
1

  1. Central South University of Forestry and Technology, College of Civil Engineering, Changsha, Hunan, China
  2. Shenzhen Huayang International Design Group Co., Ltd. Changsha Branch, Changsha, Hunan, China
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Abstract

The paper presents the phenomenon of principal stress rotation in cohesive subsoil resulting from its loading or unloading and the impact of this phenomenon on the values of soil shear strength parameters: undrained shear strength τfu, effective cohesion c’, effective angle of internal friction φ’. For this purpose, tests in a triaxial apparatus and torsional shear hollow cylinder apparatus on selected undisturbed cohesive soils: sasiCl, saclSi, clSi, Cl, characterized by different index properties were carried out. Soil shear strength parameters were determined at angle of principal stress rotation α equal to 0° and 90° in tests in triaxial apparatus and α equal to 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, 90° in tests in torsional shear hollow cylinder apparatus. The results of laboratory tests allow to assess the influence of the principal stress rotation on the shear strength parameters that should be used to determine the bearing capacity of the subsoil.
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Authors and Affiliations

Grzegorz Wrzesiński
1

  1. Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Institute of Civil Engineering, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

Every conservation works related to an ancient masonry structures should be preceded by an appropriate diagnostic. This should be understood as geometrical survey and various tests, which results with a proper analysis of the structure, identification of materials, technologies and techniques used during construction. The effective tool which could be used in this field is 3-D laser scanning. The digital image obtained as a result of scanning could be a proper base for a preservation programme, as well as help for creation of a precise digital models for a structural analysis. The examples of 3-D laser scanning application presented in the article are diagnostic works carried by the Division of Fundamentals of Building, Warsaw University of Technology, with the cooperation of Warsaw University, at the archaeological sites in Alexandria, Egypt and in Tanais, Rostov, Russia. Based on this works some most important advantages of laser scanning in identification, diagnostics and preservation of ancient architectural monuments was stated.
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Authors and Affiliations

Wojciech Terlikowski
1
Martyna Gregoriou-Szczepaniak
1
Ewa Sobczyńska
1
Kacper Wasilewski
1

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Amii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The objective of this study is to analyze effect of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) in concrete on the pore structure, this research will contribute to the knowledge regarding the use of GGBFS as a cementitious material in terms of the future reference and potential improvement to the properties of concrete. To this aim, on the one hand a control specimens (CS) and another samples with 40% and 60% of GGBFS as replacement cement with moist cured at 20oC, 27oC, and cured at site. The compressive strength and the Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) test were done. The result indicates that the strength of concrete with GGBFS at early ages tend to be lower in comparison with the CS. However, the GGBFS reaction plays important roles at the later ages. The samples cured at higher temperature produce higher strength value. The total pore volume (TPV) of the concrete use GGBFS decreases with increasing age.
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Authors and Affiliations

Abdul Chalid
1

  1. Senior Lectures Post Graduate of Civil Eng. Sangga Buana University, Jalan Surapati No. 189 Bandung-West Java 40123, Indonesia
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Abstract

Modern IT and telecommunications technologies create new possibilities of data acquisition for the needs of traffic analyses and transport planning. At the same time, the current experience suggests that it is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain data on interurban travels of people in a traditional way (among others, in Poland there has been no comprehensive survey of drivers on the sections of non-urban roads since 2006). Within the framework of the INMOP 3 research project, an attempt was made to analyse the use of the Big Data application possibilities including data from SIM cards of the mobile telephony operator [1] and data from probe vehicle data (also known as “floating car data”), as data sources for carrying out the traffic analyses and modelling of travels by all means of transport in Poland. The article presents the manner, in which the data were used, as well as methodological recommendations for creating transport models at the national, regional and local levels. Especially the results of work can be applied for systematic passenger cars trip matrix update
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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Brzeziński
1
Tomasz Dybicz
1

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

Missing data in test result tables can significantly impact the analysis quality, especially in relation to technical sciences, where the mechanism generating missing data is often non-random, and their presence depends on the non-observed part of studied variables. In such cases, the application of an inappropriate method for dealing with missing data will lead to bias in the estimated distribution parameters.
The article presents a relatively simple method to implement in dealing with missing data generated as a result of the MNAR mechanism, which utilizes the censored random variable. This procedure does not modify the variable distribution form, which is why it ensures objective and efficient estimation of distribution parameters within studies affected by certain restrictions of technical or physical nature (censored distribution), with a relatively low workload. Furthermore, it does not require the application of specialized software. A prerequisite for using this method is the knowledge of the frequency and cause of missing data.
The method for estimating the random variable censored distribution parameters was shown based on the example of studying the leachability of selected heavy metals from a hardening slurry. The analysis results were compared with classical methods for dealing with missing data, such as, ignoring missing data observations (listwise or pairwise deletion), single imputation and stochastic regressive imputation.
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Authors and Affiliations

Łukasz Szarek
1
ORCID: ORCID
Zbigniew Kledyński
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Building Services, Hydro and Environmental Engineering, Nowowiejska 20, 00-653 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The influence of sheeting made by sandwich panels on the lateral-torsional buckling resistance of hot rolled purlin was studied in this paper. The actual shear and torsional stiffness as well as resistance of connections between sandwich panel and purlins were considered in analysis. Parameters of these factors were determined using the finite element method, as well as by own experimental tests. Simple models with beam elements were used in LBA analysis to calculate the critical moments of the purlins. Advanced models with GMNIA analysis using shell elements was performed to simulate the behaviour of the purlins stabilized by sandwich panels. The results show that the stiffness of sheeting made by sandwich panels is insufficient to ensure the full protection of purlin against lateral-torsional buckling. The connections resistance also limited the ability of purlins stabilisation. Nevertheless including sandwich panels in purlin stability analysis results in a significant increase in their LTB resistance.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marcin Górski
1
Aleksander Kozłowski
2

  1. Rzeszów University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture, ul. Poznańska 2, 35-084 Rzeszów, Poland
  2. Rzeszów University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineeringand Architecture, ul. Poznańska 2, 35-084 Rzeszów
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Abstract

Block tearing is a failure mode of steel connections based on rupture of material. In this paper, a numerical model is developed to capture fracture initiation and progression until failure in steel angles connected by one leg using single row of bolts. It was realized using Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman porous material model, which can accurately trace the behaviour of steel at plastic and ultimate range. Obtained results are validated on laboratory test results in global and local terms. Stress distribution along the failure paths in the gross and net area subjected to shear and tension was investigated for different geometrical arrangements of connections. Observation of rupture mechanisms allowed to compare the design procedures given in Eurocode 3 with connections behaviour. Results of analysis indicate that both plastic stress distribution in gross shear area and ultimate stress distribution in net shear area can limit block tearing resistance, which is consistent with the newest code provisions.
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Authors and Affiliations

Edyta Bernatowska
1
Lucjan Ślęczka
1

  1. Rzeszow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture, Poznanska 2 Street, 35-084 Rzeszow,
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Abstract

The homogenous properties – as flats are – have the set of key features that characterizes them. The area of a flat, the number of rooms and storey number where it is located, the technical state of a building, and the state of the vicinity of the blocks of flats assessed. The database comprises 222 flats with their transaction prices on the secondary estate market. The analysed flats are located in a certain quarter of Wrocław city in Poland. The database is large enough to apply machine learning for successful price predictions. Their close locations significantly lower the influence of clients’ assessments of the attractiveness of the location on the flat’s price. The hybrid approach is applied, where classifying precedes the solution of the regression problem. Dependently on the class of flats, the mean absolute percentage error achieved through the calculations presented in the article varies from 4,4 % to 7,8 %. In the classes of flats where the number of cases doesn’t allow for machine predicting, multivariate linear regression is applied. The reliable use of machine learning tools has proved that the automated valuation of homogenous types of properties can produce price predictions with the error low enough for real applications.
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Authors and Affiliations

Hubert Anysz
1
Monika Podwórna
2
Nabi Ibadov
1
Kunibert Lennerts
3
Kostiantyn Dikarev
4

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering , Wyb. Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland
  3. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Technology and Management in Construction, Gotthard-Franz-Street 3, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
  4. Prydniprovska State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Department of Construction Technology, 24a, Chernyshevskogo St., Dnipro, 49005, Ukraine
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Abstract

An original simplified procedure to estimate the remaining service time of corroded shell of an on-the-ground steel tank used to store liquid fuels is presented in this paper. Current corrosion progress trend, identified a’posteriori based on the obligatory technical condition monitoring, is extrapolated to the future tank service time under the assumption that the conditions of service would not change and no renovation or modernization works would be undertaken. Failure probability understood as exhaustion of the capability to safely resist the loads applied due to the corrosion progress constitutes the measure of the sought uptime. For comparative purposes several effective inference methods have been proposed for the same input data, based on formally qualitatively different but corresponding description measures. It has been shown, that in the analysis of this type the representative values, usually expressed as quantiles of probability distributions describing random variables in use, need not be specified to verify the safety condition. The proposed algorithm is based on fully probabilistic considerations, and those, according to Authors’ opinion, by their nature lead to more reliable, and at the same time, objective estimates.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mariusz Maslak
1
Michał Pazdanowski
1

  1. Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Warszawska 24, 31-155 Cracow, Poland
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Abstract

Steel prismatic elements of equal flanges double-tee section subject to major axis bending and compression, unrestrained in the out-of-plane direction between the supports, are vulnerable to buckling modes associated with minor axis flexural and torsional deformations. When end bending moments are acting alone on the quasi-straight member, the sensitivity to lateral-torsional buckling (LTB) is very much dependent upon the ratio of section minor axis to major axis moments of inertia, and additionally visibly dependent upon the major axis moment gradient ratio. In the case of major axis bending with the presence of a compressive axial force, even of rather small value in relation to the section squash resistance, there is a drastic reduction of structural elements in their realistic lengths to maintain a tendency to fail in the out-of-plane mode, governed by the large twist rotation. Increasing the load effects ratio of dimensionless axial force to dimensionless maximum major axis bending moment, the buckling mode goes away from that of lateral-torsional one, starting to become that closer to the minor axis flexural buckling (FBZ) mode. Different aspects of the flexural-torsional buckling (FTB) resistance of the typical rolled H-section beam-column with regard to the General Method (GM) formulation, developed by the authors elsewhere and based on the parametric finite element analysis, are dealt with in this paper. Investigations are concerned with different member slender ratio, different moment gradient ratios and different load effects ratio. Final conclusions are related to practical applications of the proposed format of General Method in relation to the effect of large displacements on the FTB resistance reduction factor described through the dimensionless measure of action effects and the FTB relative slenderness ratio of quasi-straight beam-columns.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marian Antoni Giżejowski
1
Radosław Bronisław Szczerba
2
Zbigniew Stachura
2
Marcin Daniel Gajewski
2

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw
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Abstract

To study the influence of temperature field and stress field on the cracking of the small thickness steel plate concrete composite shear wall (SPCW) in the early stage of construction. The temperature field and stress field of a 400 mm thickness SPCW was monitored and simulated through experimental research and numerical simulation. Moreover, a series of parameter analyses were carried out by using ANSYS to investigate the distribution of temperature field and stress field of SPCW. Based on the analysis results, some suggestions are put forward for controlling the cracking of SPCW in the early stage of construction. The results show that the temperature stress of 400 mm thickness SPCW in the early stage of construction is small, and there is no crack on the wall surface. For SPCW with thickness less than 800mm, the temperature stress caused by hydration heat in the early stage of construction is small, and the wall will not crack. The parameters such as wall thickness, steel plate thickness, boundary condition and stud space significantly influence the temperature field and stress field distribution of the small thickness SPCW in the early stage of construction, and reasonable maintenance measures can avoid cracking.
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Authors and Affiliations

Yun Sun
1
Yaojie Guo
1

  1. Wuhan University, School of Civil Engineering, No.8 of Donghu South Road in Wuhan, Hubei, China
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Abstract

The design of new investments with underground floors in the downtown urban fabric calls for determining its impact on existing, often historic, neighboring facilities. The article presents the results of own research on 3D spatial arrangement numerical modeling of this type of investment. The scope of the research includes the analysis of neighboring buildings (including historic buildings), construction of the 3D numerical model, and calibration of the subsoil model taking into account the actual results of geodetic measurements. Own research as well as the completed housing development complex in Poland, downtown Warsaw, including data from project design and implementation documentation serve as the basis for research and analysis. As a result of said research and analysis, it was found that 3D computational models allow mapping of actual impacts within the designed new buildings and neighboring buildings, and as consequence - after appropriate calibration - a good reflection of soil displacements in the area of the planned investment. The knowledge of the anticipated values of soil displacements related to erecting new buildings is necessary at the design and implementation stages to ensure safety in all phases of works of existing buildings.
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Authors and Affiliations

Hanna Michalak
1
Paweł Przybysz
1

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture, 55 Koszykowa St, 00-659 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The use of subway tunnel engineering technology has become more professional and refined with the growth of society and the advancement of science and technology. The initial construction process of a subway tunnel shield is the most critical part of the entire engineering system. Shield launching period construction is the most prone to accidents in the shield construction process, directly related to the smooth through the shield tunnel. The line 1 of Ho Chi Minh (HCM) Metro is the first subway line, the full length of 19.7 km, the underground road length of 2.6 km from km 0 + 615 to km 2 + 360, from Ben Thanh market, and then through the Sai Gon river and 14 station (including 3 underground stations and 11 elevated stations), reach Suoi Tien park and is located in Long Binh area station, underground building blocks including Ben Thanh market station to Opera House station interval, Opera House station, Opera House station to Ba Son station interval. This paper selects Shield launching period of Opera House station to Ba Son shaft interval as an example, analyze the key construction technology, construction control parameters and launching considerations of shield machine.
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Authors and Affiliations

Xuan Loi Nguyen
1
Li Wu
1
Khanh Tung Nguyen
2
Quang Anh Bui
2
Huy Hoang Nguen
2
Hoang Phuong Luu
3

  1. Faculty of Engineering, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), No. 388 Lumo Road, Wuhan 430074, Hubei, P.R. China
  2. FECON UCC., JSC, 19th floors, CEO Tower, Lot HH2-1, Me Tri Ha Urban Area, Pham Hung road, Me Triward, Nam Tu Liem district, Hanoi city, Vietnam
  3. FECON., JSC, 14th floors, CEO Tower, Lot HH2-1, Me Tri Ha Urban Area, Pham Hung road, Me Tri ward, Nam Tu Liem district, Hanoi city, Vietnam
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Abstract

The paper presents a procedure of calculation of natural frequencies and critical buckling forces of a micrononhomogeneous plate band resting on nonhomogeneous elastic subsoil and having any given boundary conditions. The band consists of N parts – cells [?] called elements, having a constant width l = L/N. Each band element consists of three parts – subelements with variable widths. The two of these subelements are matrix, the third – inclusion placed symmetrically relative to the matrix. Each band element is built of two isotropic materials. The matrix and inclusion bands have the stiffness and mass per area unit as well as they rest on the subsoil. The model has been derived with use of the classical displacement method. The stiffness matrix of any band element and then the band stiffness matrix have been built. An appropriate computer program has been written to calculate natural frequencies and critical buckling forces. A number of tests have been performed to check the working of the program and several calculative examples has been presented in the paper.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marek Chalecki
1
Grzegorz Jemielita
2

  1. Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska166, Warsaw, 02-787, Poland
  2. Faculty of Civil Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Armii Ludowej16, Warsaw, 00-637, Poland
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Abstract

The paper presents results of experimental tests carried out on concrete beams reinforced with glass fibre polymer reinforced (GFRP) bars, which have become recently one of the main substitutes for traditional steel reinforcement. GFRP bars were used in this research as the longitudinal and transverse reinforcement. An objective of the study was to investigate the influence of the shear reinforcement ratio on the shear capacity of GFRP reinforced concrete beams in comparison with the corresponding beam without shear reinforcement. Single-span, simply-supported T-section beams reinforced in flexure with 5 GFRP bars of 25 mm diameter were reinforced in shear with closed GFRP stirrups of 8 mm diameter applied in three variable spacings: 250 mm, 200 mm and 120 mm. The analysis of test results, failure modes and shear capacity is discussed in the paper in respect to investigated parameters.
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Authors and Affiliations

Damian Szczech
1
Renata Kotynia
1

  1. Lodz University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Engineering, al. Politechniki 6, 90-924 Łódź, Poland
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Abstract

A microsimulation approach was carried out in this paper to evaluate the safety performance of turbo roundabouts in which the "CAVs" of connected autonomous vehicles are mixed with the "CVs" of conventional vehicles the research aims to evaluate the advantages in terms of safety and performance of turbo roundabouts. The paper shall also lead to describe the methodological path followed to build VISSIM models of turbo roundabout changing O-D matrix as real case applications, to calibrate the simulation models, and to estimate the potential conflicts when the percentages of CAVs are introduced into the traffic mix. The results, in accordance with the existing bibliography, have shown that the safety levels and the parameters that determine an improvement in the service level in a turbo roundabouts are significantly influenced not only by the geometric characteristics, but also by the distribution of vehicular flows. Therefore, it follows that in absence of crash data including CAVs, the surrogate measures of safety must be considered a strong approach to evaluate the safety performance of a roundabout so far, any road entity.
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Authors and Affiliations

Alessandro Severino
1
Giuseppina Pappalardo
1
Salvatore Trubia
2

  1. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture Polytechnic School, University of Catania, Viale Santa Sofia, 64 Ed 3, 95123 - Catania, Italy
  2. Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, University of Enna Kore, Cittadella Universitaria Viale delle Olimpiadi, Enna, Italy
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Abstract

The aim of the paper is to present the procedure of non-standard road signs and markings implementation in Poland to improve road safety and traffic performance of road infrastructure. The authors investigated the following cases: road and its surroundings’ perception and understanding improvement; warning of increased risk of accidents ; road works; speed management and ITS. The procedure was developed on the basis of interdisciplinary research, including: observation of drivers behaviour in real traffic; comparative crash analysis on sections with and without non-standard signs or markings; surveys on the understanding signs and marking; driving simulator experiments. As a result of the research, an implementation procedure for non-standard signs and markings, in the form of flowchart, was developed. In the designed procedure the following study of non-standard signs can be distinguished: questionnaire studies, eye tracking tests and driving simulator tests. The choice of the test method depends on the preliminary assessment of sign understanding, based on the results of the questionnaires. Moreover, thresholds for the declared understanding level, which determines the selection of additional tests to be done prior to the implementation of the sign, are given. The guidelines for conducting tests, analysis and monitoring of implementation were described as well.
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Authors and Affiliations

Alessandro Calvi
1
Stanisław Gaca
2
Tomasz Kamiński
3
Mariusz Kieć
2
Mikołaj Kruszewski
3

  1. Department of Engineering, Roma Tre University, Via Vito Volterra 62, 00-146 Rome, Italy
  2. Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, 24 Warszawska Str., 31-155 Cracow, Poland
  3. Motor Transport Institute, Transport Telematics Center, Jagiellońska 80 Str., 03-301 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The paper includes experimental research using the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar to determine dynamic compression curves and strength dynamic parameters to depend on the strain rate and moisture for silty sand soil samples. Those experiments are oedometric type based in a rigid confining cylinder. Samples of silty sand with fine a fraction content were taken for the study. To ensure sufficiently uniaxial strain of the tested material, the soil samples were placed in properly prepared casings made of duralumin for the needs of the tests. Thanks to the use of measuring strain gauges on the initiating and transmitting bars, as well as the casing, the nature of the loading pulse was obtained, which was then subjected to the process of filtration and data processing to obtain the nature of the incident, reflected and transmitted wave. During the above dynamic experiments with the representative of silty sand soils, it was observed that its dynamic compaction at a high strain rate is different than in the case of the Proctor test. This is due to higher compaction energy, which additionally changes the grain size by destroying the grains in the structure. The paper presents the results of particle size distribution analysis for two different types of soil samples - this type of analysis is unique. Hence experiments should be further continued for such soils with different granulations and various moisture using, for example, Hopkinson measuring bar technique to confirm for other silty sand soils that are often subgrade of various engineering objects.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ryszard Chmielewski
1
Leopold Kruszka
1
Ryszard Rekucki
1
Kamil Sobczyk
1

  1. Military University of Technology, Dept. of Military Engineering and Military Infrastructure, 2 Gen. Sylwester Kaliski Str., 00-908 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

Road construction relies on natural material exploitation and it is necessary to find new ways of reducing its negative environmental impact. Simultaneously, number of tyres placed on Croatian (and world) market is constantly growing and the need for waste tyres management will begin to increase due to the wear and tear of tyres in use at the moment. This paper presents a review of latest international and domestic researches on waste rubber application in road construction with special emphasize on Croatian researches within this topic. Preliminary results of ongoing research on waste rubber application in cement bound mixtures are also presented.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ivana Barišić
1
Matija Zvonarić
1
Ivanka Netinger Grubeša
2
Sanja Šurdonja
3

  1. Department for Geotechnics, Road Construction and Geodesy, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture Osijek, University of Osijek, Vladimira Preloga 3, Osijek, Croatia
  2. Department for Materials and Constructions, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture Osijek, University of Osijek, Vladimira Preloga 3, Osijek, Croatia
  3. University of Rijeka, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Croatia
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Abstract

Self – Levelling Underlayment (SLU) is one of the high-performance new materials used in the construction industry. Besides the strength, other characteristics of SLU such as workability, rapid drying, rapid hardening, shrinkage compensation, smooth nature, etc. are required depending on the application. The aim of this study is to evaluate the structuration with the time of SLU through some important characteristics such as the evolution of rheological properties, ettringite, and gibbsite phase development. To this purpose, a rheometer with rotation mode and oscillation mode was used to determine the yield stress, plastic viscosity, rheological dynamic modulus (storage modulus and loss modulus). The use of these techniques is considered to be a method for monitoring structuration development in cement materials. The result shows that during the hydration process, increased plastic viscosity, yield stress, and dynamic modulus of the SLU were identified from just 5 minutes after mixing until the setting period when the transition from a fluid state to a solid-state of SLU takes place. By using a rheometer in oscillation mode, the beginning of the transition process from the liquid-state to the solid-state of SLU was identified, this method is more precise when compared to traditional Vicat method.
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Authors and Affiliations

Lam Ngoc Nguen
1

  1. Hanoi University of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Building Materials, 55 Giai Phong Road, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi, Viet Nam
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Abstract

It is an established fact that when roads are planned and constructed, consideration needs to be given to ensuring the strength of the road surface. It is, however, also the case that when an existing road is being rebuilt or is under maintenance, its base may need to be fortified to increase the road’s vehicle-carrying capacity. The base may, for example, contain a high proportion of weak soil that would be difficult, time-consuming, and costly to remove. This paper aims to investigate the efficacy of using sand-filled piles to reduce road deformation. Experiments conducted on sponge samples confirm that there is a relationship between the total area of sand-filled piles and relative reduction in deformation. It finds that the relationship is non-linear, but that the relationship can be made linear by adjusting the area of sand-filled piles. When the area of sand-filled piles increases from 7.8% to 19.4%, the deformation module can change by up to 100%. Relative reduction in deformation can change from 14% to 45.5% when the area of sand-filled piles increases from 7.8% to 11.7%. The maximum reduction in deformation – 92.4% - occurs when the area of sand-filled piles exceeds 19.5%. Changing the loads borne also affects the deformation module. This paper found that when there was a 10 to 15kg load, and the number of sandfilled piles was increased, there was a change in the deformation module by 380-470%. When there was only a 5kg load on the sample, and the number of sand-filled piles was increased, there was a change in the deformation module by up to 1217%.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sami Mohammed Ayyad
1
Omar Asad Ahmad
1

  1. Amman Arab University, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Civil Engineering Department; Amman, Jordan Street–Mubis, 11953, Jordan,
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Abstract

The paper presents the issue of unbraced and semi-rigid steel frames stability with special attention paid to the determination problem of columns buckling length Lcr in these frames. The paper discusses ways of buckling length determination in frames columns with the use of well known, European and American standard procedures, as well as numerical method of stability analysis based on the Finite Element Method (FEM). The presented procedures and analysis methods in calculations of certain steel frames with semi-rigid joints were used. On the basis of obtained results, it has been shown that in many practical cases, the simplified standard procedures of columns buckling length determination can give the results burdened with errors. These errors can have a significant influence on accuracy of columns resistance calculations. The issues presented in the paper are very important from the practical point of view, and according to the author, they can be used in the practical design of unbraced steel frames.
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Authors and Affiliations

Przemysław Krystosik
1

  1. Koszalin University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Environmental and Geodetic Sciences, Śniadeckich 2, 75-453 Koszalin, Poland,
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Abstract

The article presents results of research on the possibility of reduction of technological temperatures of highly modified binders by using as an additive a fluxing agent of plant origin, developed at the Warsaw University of Technology. The work presents the results of dynamic viscosity tests within the temperature range of 90°C to 180°C for original binders and binders aged using the RTFOT method, modified by adding a fluxing agent of plant origin. On the basis of dynamic viscosity test results, process temperatures for production and compaction of mineral-asphalt mixes with the binding agents being analyzed. Moreover, characteristics of binders were assessed, which define their behavior under high technological temperatures on the basis of multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR) tests.
The research results obtained indicate that it is possible to reduce the process temperatures of mineral-asphalt mixes with highly modified binders by liquefying the binder with an additive of plant origin while retaining high resistance to permanent deformations. The MSCR test results prove that mineral-asphalt mixes containing binders highly modified with additives of plant origin can meet the requirements for extremely high traffic loads.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marta Pucułek
1
Adam Liphardt
1
Piotr Radziszewski
1

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

In Jordan, the unprecedented proliferation of building projects is anticipated to increase the potable water demand in the construction manufacturing. In the present work, secondary treated wastewater (STW) and potable water (PW) were used in the production of concrete mixes, which were subjected to testing after 3 to 28 days of curing to determine how the, mechanical properties of concrete was affected by the addition of secondary treated wastewater in various proportions (25-100%). Results indicated that the use of 25% and 75% of secondary treated wastewater in concrete production increased the compressive strength to 39 MPa after 28 days of curing. A more noticeable increment was recorded in tensile strength, which was double that achieved with the standard design. Overall, the compressive strength increased by 21.95% when secondary treated wastewater was used, while the expenditure related to water usage was halved. Furthermore, there was consistency between the results obtained from scaling up to actual ready-mix concrete production and the results of the empirical work.
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Authors and Affiliations

Omar Asad Ahmad
1
Sami Mohammed Ayyad
1

  1. Amman Arab University, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Civil Engineering Department; Amman, Jordan Street–Mubis, 11953, Jordan,
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Abstract

The authors of this article were guided by the desire to show the profitability of using renewable energy sources and to facilitate decisions for future investors as to their choice. The article classifies energy sources and methods for converting renewable energy sources (RES) and presents a technical comparison of two electricity supply systems: a photovoltaic system and a household wind farm for a selected building. A residential, single-family building, inhabited by a family of three, was adopted for analysis. Photovoltaics, the use of solar radiation energy to produce electricity, is classified next to wind farms as the most dynamically developing renewable energy technology. When analysing in terms of technology renewable conversion methods that provide us with electricity, the better installation is the photovoltaic installation. By analysing the cost of renewable energy conversion technologies that provide us with electricity, the photovoltaic system becomes more beneficial, because with a similar investment price we get a much shorter payback period than in the case of a backyard wind power station.
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Authors and Affiliations

Wojciech Drozd
1
Marcin Kowalik
1

  1. Department of Construction Management, Tadeusz Kościuszko Cracow University of Technology, Warszawska 24 St., 31-155 Kraków, Poland
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Abstract

Accurate prediction of blasting vibration should be achieved in mine blasting production practice. It is also a critical problem in the field of blasting vibration control technology research. In this research paper, on the basis of the previous research results and taking account into the reflection principle of elastic wave at the free interface, the authours proposes the blasting seismic wave propagation model. In addition, the blasting positive elevation effect are theoretically explained in detail, and the vibration velocity prediction formula of the positive elevation effect is derived. Finally, the positive elevation effect mechanism and the step (positive) formula are calibrated based on the on-site monitoring data of blasting vibration of Qipanjing Jinou coal mine. In beirf, a theoretical basis is laid by this paper for similar blasting projects.
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Authors and Affiliations

X.J. Zhang
1
H.M. An
2

  1. School of Civil and Resource Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
  2. Kunming University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Public Security and Emergency Management, 650093, Kunming, China
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Abstract

Safety Performance Functions and Crash Modification Factors are statistically-based prediction methods that require significant efforts and long periods in crash data collection. Traffic conflict studies can mitigate this issue using a short time survey to measure the number and severity of traffic conflicts, which are regarded as surrogate safety measures. Unfortunately, they are empirical studies that can be carried out only after the implementation of a treatment. The overall objective of the present research is to investigate the performance of different methods for conflict detection and classification, considering the observed conflicts on 2+1 roads in Poland. Observations were compared with conflicts detected in simulated environments. The latter include either the Agent-Based Microsimulation (ABM) approach, or the virtual reality simulation using a Driving Simulator (DS). Conflicts were detected and classified based on video recording and analysis of vehicle trajectories in the merging area of 2+1 roads. The studies focused only on lane-changing conflicts. Locations, Post Encroachment Time and Time to Collision values of observed conflicts between vehicles were subsequently identified. Observed conflicts were compared with the ones resulting from ABM and DS, to determine whether there is a correlation between them.
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Authors and Affiliations

Salvatore Cafiso
1
Alessandro Calvi
2
Carmelo D'Agostino
3
Mariusz Kieć
4
Gianmarco Petrucci
5
Piotr Szagała
6

  1. University of Catania, Department of Civil Engineering & Architecture, Via Santa Sofia 64, I-95125 Catania, Italy
  2. Roma Tre University, Department of Engineering, Via Vito Volterra 62, I-00146 Rome, Italy
  3. Lund University, Department of Technology and Society, John Ericssons väg 1, 223 63 Lund, Sweden
  4. Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, 24 Warszawska Str., 31-155 Cracow, Poland
  5. Donati S.p.A., via Aurelia Antica 272, I-00165 Rome, Italy
  6. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

Elastic instability of steel I-section members has been investigated with regard to axial compression, major axis bending as well as compression and major axis bending, based on the Vlasov theory of thin-walled members. Investigations presented in this paper deal with the energy method applied to the flexural-torsional buckling (FTB) problems of any complex loading case that for convenience of predictions is treated as a superposition of symmetric and antisymmetric components. Firstly, the review of energy equation formulations is presented for the elastic lateral-torsional buckling (LTB) of beams, then the most accurate beam energy equation, so-called the classical energy equation formulated for bisymmetric I-section beams is extended to cover also the beam-column out-of-plane stability problems, referred hereafter to FTB problems. Secondly, for the simple end boundary conditions, the shape functions of twist rotation and minor axis displacement are chosen such that they cover both symmetric and antisymmetric lateral-torsional buckling modes in relation to two lowest eigenvalues of the beam LTB in major axis bending. Finally, the explicit form of the general solution is presented being dependent upon the dimensionless bending moment equations for symmetric and antisymmetric components, and the load factor where the lower k index identifies the load case.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marian Antoni Giżejowski
1
Anna Maria Barszcz
1
Zbigniew Stachura
2

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw
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Abstract

Hollow Lightweight Concrete (HLC) beams are gaining popularity due to low cost and low weight as compared with the Solid Lightweight Concrete (SLC) beams. HLC and SLC beams decrease in weight, without losing strength and durability. Flexural and shear behavior of reinforced HLC and SLC beams made with sawdust under two-point load is investigated in this study. The ultimate deformation efficiency and shear resistant mechanism of HLC beams are discussed experimentally and compared with other SLC beams. The beams, tested in this research, are rectangular. Beams were designed and constructed as 12 * 23 * 100 cm. Six concrete beam models were prepared including three SLC beams without the hollow and the other three HLC beams poured hollow 50 * 7.5 cm throughout the all beam of 100 cm. All beams were split according to the distance between vertical stirrups, these stirrups were divided into three specimens 45, 13, and 6 cm. By analyzing six experimental test beams, in this research, investigated the effect of diverse factors on the shear of beams. On comparison with normal concrete beams, this work describes the failure of mechanism, process, and ductility. The first crack loads, ultimate loads, load-deflection behavior, crack patterns and shapes of failure were investigated in this study. The experimental results show the ultimate performance of HLC beams are pure shear and controlled by yielding tension and compression steel bars. Also, it is found that the measured size and configuration of the hollow opening had an effect on the load-carry capacity and mid-span deflection of HLC beams. Thus, the design and construction details of beams can be additionally customized to reduce the total cost and weight of the HLC beams.
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Authors and Affiliations

Salam Salman Chiad Alharishawi
1
Nagham Rajaa
2
Lina Abdulsalam Shihab
3

  1. Mustansiriyah University, College of Engineering, Environmental Engineering Department, Baghdad, Iraq
  2. Mustansiriyah University, College of Engineering, Highway and Transportation Engineering Department, Baghdad, Iraq
  3. Mustansiriyah University, College of Engineering, Civil Engineering Department, Baghdad, Iraq
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Abstract

A method of calculating the deflections of steel plate-concrete composite beams is proposed. In the hybrid work of such beams the properties of reinforced concrete and composite structures are combined. This convention should be followed in considering their ultimate capacity and serviceability limit state. The proposed solution has been verified in experimental studies performed by the authors. Good compatibility of theoretical calculations and experimental results has been obtained. It allows the theoretical solution to be used in the analysis of other cases with parameters different than those of the discussed beams. In the experiments done by the author six beams of total length of 5.20 m and theoretical length of 5,00 m were used. The cross section was rectangular, 0.24 m in width and 0.49 m in height. The steel plate 4.74 m long was 6.10 and 16 mm thick. The diameter of the flexible connectors was 13 mm. Their spacing varied between 80 and 200 mm. Owing to the flexibility of the connectors the interface slip between the steel and concrete parts was included in the theoretical solutions. The results of an in-depth analysis indicate that the deflections of steel plate-concrete composite beams are affected by the compressive strength of concrete and the yield point of steel as well as connectors’ diameter and spacing. This impact varies, that of the yield point of the steel from which the plate is made being the highest.
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Authors and Affiliations

Dawid Kisała
1
Kazimierz Furtak
1

  1. Department of Bridge and Tunnel Building, Tadeusz Kościuszko Cracow University of Technology, Warszawska 24 St., 31-155 Kraków, Poland
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Abstract

The aim of the article is indicating the advantages of utilizing the synergy obtained by introducing two management methods: Lean Construction and Agile Management using the example of the process of deliveries of concrete mix in road construction. Despite the seemingly contradictory assumptions (Lean Management aims at limiting wastefulness and maximizing the value for the customer and agile management serves for creating the possibility for fast, effective response to non-expected changes thanks to the adopted strategy of flexibility, which usually requires engaging additional resources), both management methods deliver the effect of increasing the effectiveness of the machine laying the pavement. Using a “spaghetti diagram” (one of the tools of Lean Management) led to limiting the time losses during loading and unloading the concrete mix destined for constructing highway pavement. On the other hand, the tactic of technological flexibility in the form of a modification of the concrete mix allowed for broadening the time frame for the delivery of concrete to the construction site to as much as two hours. Moreover, applying the real time delivery management system (in accordance with the assumptions of Construction 4.0) created the possibilities for ensuring quick reacting to the changing conditions of delivery and laying the concrete mix in the pavement and ensuring the appropriate functioning of the machine laying the pavement. The presented examples indicated the advantages of the suggested concept in reference to the traditional solution.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jerzy Pasławski
1
Tomasz Rudnicki
2

  1. Poznan University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Transport Engineering, ul.Piotrowo 5, 60-965 Poznan, Poland
  2. Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy, Military University of Technology in Warsaw, 2 Gen. S.Kaliskiego St., 01-476 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The situation on the construction market is difficult. One way to improve it can be to implement modern methods and techniques related to the lean management in construction. The article presents an algorithm supporting the selection of appropriate Lean Management tools and techniques for construction companies using AHP method. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is illustrated by a case study consisting of a small construction company performing insulation works in a multifamily house. The presented approach is part of the broader research work carried out by the authors in the field of improving construction processes and verifying the efficiency and effectiveness of Lean Management methods and techniques construction works.
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Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Nowotarski
1
Jerzy Pasławski
1
Patrick Dallasega
2

  1. Poznań University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Transport, Piotrowo 5, 61-139 Poznań, Poland
  2. Free University of Bolzano, Faculty of Science and Technology, piazza Università, 539100 Bozen-Bolzano, Italy

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