Applied sciences

Archives of Environmental Protection

Content

Archives of Environmental Protection | 2010 | vol. 36 | No 1 |

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Abstract

At present. when high particulate matter (PM) concentrations in ambient air cause thousands o Ipremature deaths in Europe and global climate change is becoming the most critical issue in environmental protection, the state-of-the-science air quality and climate models constitute an essential research as well as decision support tools. Recently the great progress has been achieved in this research area. The present paper presents the goals and tools lor Air Quality (AQ) Modeling, and gives overview of' current challenges. including the meteurological. chemistry and climate modeling. The main emphasis is given to the regulatory and the Eulerian grid models. the latter arc currently operating as so called off-line or on-line modeling systems. The issues conncctccl with model implementation and validation is presented as well. finally, the conclusions arc drawn and rccornmcndations lor further development and integration ofAQ and climate modeling in Poland arc presented.
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Authors and Affiliations

Katarzyna Juda-Rezler
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Abstract

Paper discusses integrated assessment methodology of air pollution and greenhouse gases mitigation. RAINS/CiAINS model developed at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) is described. Its use in policy-relevant analysis is discussed with particular locus on studies for the development of policies of the European Union and under the lJN/ECF: Convention on Long-Range Transhoundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). Importance of interactions and synergies het ween air pollution and greenhouse gases policies is stressed. Integrated assessment has proven to be an important tool for preparation of air pollution control legislation in Eurore. Although most prominent applications of integrated assessment referred to international policies, recently these methods have been applied in several national studies lor in-depth analyses at subnational regional level. It is advisable to further disseminate applications of the methodology and software tools lor regional assessment.
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Authors and Affiliations

Janusz Cofała
Markus Amann
Willem Asman
Imrich Bertok
Chris Heyes
Lena Hoglund-Isaksson
Zbigniew Klimont
Wolfgang Schopp
Fabian Wagner
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Abstract

The paper presents the results or the integrated assessment or environmental and human health impacts or emissions released from different sectors in Poland. The analysis was performed with the use or the curelian emissions transport model POLAIR 31) and the Regional Air Pollution Information and Simulation model RAINS. The models arc briefly described. At present, this hybrid system can operate in a simulation mode and enables estimation or the emission and concentration/deposition levels or main air pollutants, emission control costs, environmental impacts and external costs associated with different energy scenarios. Emission levels or main air pollutants in 2005, 20 I O and 2020 arc presented lor the selected energy scenario. Associated external costs and impacts on acidification have been estimated.
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Authors and Affiliations

Artur Wyrwa
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Abstract

The main source of spatial information on concentration and deposition of air pollutants in Poland is the continental scale EMEP model with 50 km x 50 km grid. The coarse resolution of the EMEP model may be insufficient for regional scale studies. A new proposal is the application of the national scale atmospheric transport model FRAME (Fine Resolution Atmospheric Multi-pollutant Exchange), originally developed for the United Kingdom. The model works with 5 km x 5 km spatial resolution and the air column is divided into 33 layers. FRAME was used here to assess the spatial patterns of yearly averaged air concentrations, and wet and dry deposition of sulphur and nitrogen compounds for the area of Poland. This study presents preliminary results of the modeling of the yearly average concentrations as well as dry and wet depositions of SO,, NO, and NH, for Poland. FRAME results were compared with available measurements from the monitoring sites and national deposition budget with the EMEP and IMGW estimates. The results show close agreement with the measured concentrations expressed by determination coefficient close to O. 7 for both SO, and NO . The dry and wet deposition budgets for FRAME are also in close agreement with the EMEP and GIOŚ estimates. The FRAME model, despite its relatively simple meteorological parameterizations, is well suited to calculate the spatial pattern of annual average concentration and yearly deposition of atmospheric pollutants which was earlier presented for the UK and was shown in this paper for Poland. The model can also be used to analyze the impact of individual point sources or different emission sectors on spatial pattern of air concentration and deposition as well as testing the changes in deposition resulting from future emissions reduction scenarios.
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Authors and Affiliations

Maciej Kryza
Marek Błaś
Anthony J. Dore
Mieczysław Sobik
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Abstract

The accession of Poland to the European Union involved the need or regional air quality assessment and brought radical change in requirements towards the sottware tools used for assessment purposes. According to Polish law, a zone is an agglomeration o rover 250 000 inhabitants, or a poviat (second level or local government administration in Poland), or a group of poviats, and assessment should consider both global and regional inllow or pollutants as well as the impact of local emission sources and significant sources in a voivodeship. These requirements have imposed a model range of over 250 km. Following an analysis or different models operating all over the world, the CALPUFF model together with the CALMET meteorological processor was chosen to be implemented in air quality assessment systems in Polish zones. This paper presents the results or model calculations performed within the air quality assessment in Mazowieckie voivodeship as well as compares them with the measurements obtained at automatic air monitoring stations.
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Authors and Affiliations

Wojciech Trapp
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Abstract

In this article the capabilities or mathematical heavy gas atmospheric dispersion models to describe the dispersion or heavy gases in complex and obstructed terrain arc presented. The models have been entegorizcd into three main classes: phenomenological (empirical) models. intermediate (engineering) models and computational fluid dynamic (research) models. Each group or models is discussed separately. The general features or the models arc discussed briefly, Examples of the heavy gas atmospheric dispersion models carable to treat the influence or non-Ilut and obstructed terrain on the heavy gas dispersion result from the work carried out in the European Union and in the US. No model simulating the heavy gas atmospheric dispersion over complex or obstructed terrain has been yet developed in Poland. The need lor future work on the effects of complex and obstructed terrain on the heavy gas atmospheric dispersion is expressed. future research in the area should include both experimental and modeling work. In the context of this raper future modeling work is worth considering in more detail. il seems that all the approaches 10 describe the hcavv gas atmospheric dispersion over complex and obstructed terrain arc worth further aucntion. This opinion is supported by the fact that these approaches arc used in different types of heavy gas dispersion models. which in turn differ in applications. The simpler methods arc introduced to the simpler heavy gas atmospheric dispersion models applied mainly in the routine calculations. The advanced techniques capable to describe the: now near complicated geometrics are used in the sophisticated models applied mainly as a research tools.
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Authors and Affiliations

Maria T. Markiewicz
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Abstract

Fine particulate matter ( PM) air pollution is one of the main environmental health problems in developed countries. According to modeling estimates the PM,, concentrations in Poland arc among the highest in Europe. In this article we focus on exposure assessment and estimation of adverse health effects due to PM, air pollution. This art i ck consists of two parts. The first part, we discuss the main methods used to estimate emission-exposure relationships and adverse health effects due to PM, air pollution. In the second part, we present an assessment framwork for Poland. We illustrate this framework by estimating the premature deaths and change in life expectancy in Poland caused by anthropogenic. primary PM,, emissions from different European countries, and, in proportion. the premature deaths in different European countries caused by primary PM,, emissions from Poland. The PM,, emissions were evaluated using the inventory of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP). The emission-exposure relationships were based on the previously published study and the exposure-response functions for PM,, air pollution were estimated in expert elicitation study performed lor six European experts on air pollution health effects. Based on the assessment. the anthropogenic primary PM, from the whole or Europe is estimated to cause several thousands of premature deaths in Poland, annually. These premature deaths arc both due to PM, emissions from Poland and transportation of PM,, from other European countries. both of these in almost equal parts. The framework presented in this article will be developed in the near future to a full scale integrated assessment. that takes into account both gaseous and PM air pollution.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marko Tainio
Jaakko Kukkonen
Zbigniew Nahorski
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Abstract

A mass balance model lo calculate critical loads of' airborne acidity and cutrophication to forest ecosystems has been computerized. The SONOX soliware developed at the Institute of Environmental Protection replicates the sequence of' events on the path from sulfur and nitrogen emission through their deposition and next overlaying it on critical loads values lo identify the extent and areas of critical loads cxcccdance. To support decision making a converse direction is offered to assess the necessary emission reductions lo meet assumed environmental goals by eliminating or suitably abating the critical loads cxcccdance. This software originally developed and applied to support the Polish contribution lo the negotiations of the Oslo and Gothenburg Protocols or the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution was thereafter used to assess the capacity of achieving the, interim environmental quality targets ofthe NEC Directive in Poland, to support the development of air protection programs lor administrative units exposed to transboundary lluxcs and other decision making purposes.
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Authors and Affiliations

Wojciech Mill
Adrian Schlama
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Abstract

The paper deals with recent developments in the fields of applied mathematics and operational research triggered by the needs of effective support of environmental policy-making processes that require interdisciplinary science-based advice. Mathematical models developed for this purpose demand new modeling paradigms for an adequate integration of pertinent knowledge. and creation of knowledge needed for rational decision-making. The article first summarizes the model-based support for problem solving from the point of view of actual decision-makers. Next, il discusses the model representation of the knowledge pertinent lo a given decision-making problem, and the recently developed modeling technology supporting the whole process of modeling complex problems. The last parł deals with novel methods and tools for integrated management of risks related to natural catastrophes. The presented methodology is illustrated by its application lo actual environmental policy-making support.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marek Makowski
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Abstract

The quantitative evaluation of environmental impact of emission sources is an important step of integrated modeling and the air quality decision support. The problem is especially difficult in the case of a complex, multi-source emission field. The approach discussed in the paper is based on the forecasts of the Eulerian type models of air pollution transport. The aim is to get a quantitative assessment of the contribution of the selected sources, according to the specified, environmental objective function. The approach utilizes the optimal control technique for distributed parameter systems. The adjoint equation, related to the main transport equation of the forecasting model, is applied to calculate the sensitivity of the cost function to the emission intensity of the specified sources. An example implementation of a regional scale, multi-layer dynamic model of SO, transport is discussed as the main forecasting tool. The test computations have been performed for a set of the -major power plants in a selected industrial region of Poland.
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Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Holnicki

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Archives of Environmental Protection
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Orszulik, E. (2009). Palenisko fluidalne, Patent polski: nr PL20070383311 20070910 z 16 marca 2009.
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