Applied sciences

Archives of Environmental Protection


Archives of Environmental Protection | 2008 | vol. 34 | No.1 |

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Potok Golawiecki (a river in the province of Silesia) is polluted in a way typical for the Upper Silesian industrial zone. It is the river into which the Ziemowit coal mine discharges its salt waters and it also receives municipal sewage. Changes in the values of selected indicators ofwater quality for Potok Golawiecki along its course were determined in the paper. It was found that the hydrochcmical character of the water in Potok Goławiecki depended strongly on salt water discharges from mines, which were the main factor disturbing the river's natural environment. The pollution of the river makes its water non-potable, and excludes its use even in industry
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Authors and Affiliations

Beata Jabłońska
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The polycyclic musk fragrances AHTN (Tonalide) and HHCB (Galaxolide) are the most common components of cosmetics and detergents. Use of AHTN and HHCB per year (in the USA and in EU) was estimated at 1500 Mg and 3800 Mg, respectively. Because of their persistent character, musk compounds are introduced into environment mostly via urban sewage treatment plant effluents. The aim of the presented research was to assess the receptivity of AHTN and HHCB to the oxidation by means of UV-radiation and in the UV /H2O2 process. The investigations were performed in the treated wastewater and the drinking water. After 8 minutes, in all experiments performed on drinking water, the degradations of AHTN and HHCB in the range of 99% were observed. The removal of HHCB from wastewater by means of UV radiation exceeded up 93% (after 8 minutes of the process), whereas the disappearance degree of this compound in wastewater, after only 3 minutes ofUV/H2O2 process, exceeded 99%. The degradation constant rate for AHTN in drinking water using UV radiation was equal to 0.764 rnin' when the degradation rate ofHHCB was estimated at 0.634 min'. In the wastewater, the coefficient rate ofHHCB degradation by means ofUV/H2O2 was nearly 4.5 times higher (1.580 min') in comparison to the value obtained by direct photolysis of HHCB (0.354 min').
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Authors and Affiliations

Ewa Felis
Alfredo C. Alder
Joanna Surmacz-Górska
Korneliusz Miksch
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In order to keep the WWTP performance under control and to make decisions of minimizing the potential influence of wastewater components on the stable and proper WWTP operation, the devices for on-line control of oxygen uptake rate were designed and manufactured. The devices were used for three aims: controlling the presence of harmful substances for microorganisms in raw wastewater (Toximctcr), assessment of the real physiological condition of activated sludge in the aeration chamber (Activmcter), determining of the effects of activated sludge settling properties deterioration and its influence on the secondary clarificrs operation as well as microorganisms presence in treated wastewater (Sedimctcr). The results confirmed that the devices arc helpful for the WWTP operators as an early warning system and enable optimal decisions making.
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Authors and Affiliations

Korneliusz Miksch
Joanna Surmacz-Górska
Piotr Ostrowski
Katarzyna Przybyła
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Research concerning temporal variations of suspended sediment concentration during period of high water stages was done in the lower course of the Obra River near Międzyrzecz (Western Poland). The analysis regarding dependence of mean suspended sediment concentration and discharge allowed to determine the way of suspended sediment supply to the river bed during high water stages. It was supposed that exposures of glacial and fluvioglacial sediments in high concave banks could be an important factor influencing the amount of delivery of suspended material. Besides, normal hysteretic loops (oriented clockwise) were observed in cross-sections 4 and 5. That fact would suggest that transported material originates form the Obra River bed or its vicinity. The process of sediment accretion was observed on a fragment of drowned floodplain during high water stages. Collection of samples of freshly deposited sediment and grain size analysis allowed to illustrate the mechanism of forming floodplain sediments. It also was possible to draw near conditions of forming such sediments in the past.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zygmunt Młynarczyk
Marcin Słowik
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The aim of this work is purification of contaminated soil from manufactured gas plants MGP, which arc not used. Prepared chromatographic methodologies, which allow qualitative identification and quantitative determination of individual aliphatic and aromatic (TAH, PAH) hydrocarbons in the soil from the selected MGP, arc presented. The results of the research on remediation of the soil polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons (TAH, PAHs) in semi-field conditions arc discussed. Application of basic biorcmcdiation and bioaugmcntation with indigenous microorganisms, enriched with PAH biodegradable fungi, resulted in reduction in amount of 5- and 6-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The research enables control of remediation progress, selection of optimal doses of biogenie compounds and determines the time of the process. The entire cycle of soil remediation was monitored with the use of gas chromatography (GC). Estimation ofbiodcgradation degree of individual aliphatic hydrocarbons (alkancs) was based on changes in their concentration in the soil and determined by biodegradation indicators: C,/pristanc and C,/phytanc ratios. Attention was paid particularly to biodcgradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which were observed in substantial concentrations in the polluted soil. The elaborated chromatographic methodology of PAH determination in the soil enabled estimation of a biodcgradation rate referring to individual compounds. Moreover, attempts to create a TAH biodcgradation model with the use of C30-l 7a(H),2 l l3(H)-hopanc were undertaken.
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Authors and Affiliations

Teresa Steliga
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The aim of the present study was to estimate the magnetic susceptibility of the boundary area ofwestern and southern Poland. The investigation was carried out in woodlands of chosen forest districts. Samples were collected selectively from the occurring genetic horizons ofpit soils. The low-field magnetic susceptibility was obtained in the laboratory using the MS2B Bartington apparatus. Heavy metal content (Fe, Zn, Pb and Cu) was analyzed using AAS method, after the mineralization in the 70% HClO4 + HNO3 solution. The magnetic susceptibility results arc very diverse and above 80% of them exceed 50· l0·-8 m3/kg, that is, a border value suggesting an occurrence ofa magnetic anomaly. Heavy metal content varies in a wide range and the highest values are observed in mountainous areas, where the impact of geological structure is visible. Obviously, the input of dust emissions is significant, what is confirmed by well and positive values of correlation coefficients between magnetic susceptibility and heavy metal content (especially lead) in the area of cluster III.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zygmunt Strzyszcz
Marzena Rachwał
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Composts made of municipal solid waste could be widely used in reclamation of soil-less mechanically transformed grounds. Even though its usefulness, bearing in mind its origin, it is necessary to consider the compost composition in order to avoid posing a threat to environment due to the possible emission of toxic substances which could be present in compost. Especially, organic waste should be monitored, because being present in composts it might be leached and pose a risk to groundwater and plants. In this work the leaching tests were carried out to state the solubility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water. The both tests results show low solubility of PAHs, max. 10.4% in lysimetrie test and 3.9% in one-step leaching test.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Ciesielczuk
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Przedmiotem dwuletnich badań było poznanie dynamiki rozwoju wybranych grup drobnoustrojów (mikroorganizmy oligotroficzne, kopiotroficznc, proteolityczne, celulolityczne, rozpuszczające fosforany) w glebie nawożonej komunalnymi osadami ściekowymi. Celem przeprowadzonego doświadczenia było wyjaśnienie możliwości zachwiania równowagi biologicznej gleby, przejawiającej się wzmożonym i długotrwałym rozwojem analizowanych grup drobnoustrojów w glebie, po wprowadzeniu do niej materii organicznej w formic osadów ściekowych, w różnych dawkach. W doświadczeniu zastosowano cztery obiekty badawcze: kontrola-gleba + NPK, 2 Mg s.m. osaduha+rok' + NPK, 4 Mg s.m. osadu-hal-rok' + NPK oraz 8 Mg s.m. osaduhatrok' + NPK). Fosfor i potas stosowano przedsiewnie pod orkę, natomiast azot: część przedsiewnie i drugą część pogłównie. Osady ściekowe stosowano przedsiewnie. Poletka glebowe, na których przeprowadzono badania obsiano żytem odmiany Wibro (2003 r.) oraz obsadzono ziemniakami odmiany Bila (2004 r.). Wykazano, że zastosowane dawki osadów ściekowych nic wpływały istotnie statystycznie na namnażanie się mikroorganizmów glebowych. Na podstawie przeprowadzonych analiz mikrobiologicznych stwierdzono, że w badanym okresie (2003-2004) liczebność oznaczonych grup drobnoustrojów ulegała wahaniom, zależnym od terminu pobierania próbek glebowych. Próbki glebowe, niezbędne do przeprowadzenie analiz, pobierane były w lenninach związanych z kolejnymi fazami rozwojowymi roślin. Kolejnym czynnikiem wpływającym na dynamikę rozwoju mikroorganizmów glebowych był gatunek rośliny użytej w doświadczeniu. Żyto uprawiane w 2003 r. stymulowało rozwój większości grup drobnoustrojów (mikroorganizmów oligotroficznych, kopiotroficznych, proteolitycznych, rozpuszczających fosforany). Z kolei ziemniaki w okresie rozwoju generatywnego ( 16.07- 28.08.2004) spowodowały silniejszy rozwój mikroorganizmów celulolitycznych.
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Authors and Affiliations

Agnieszka Wolna-Maruwka

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Archives of Environmental Protection
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Orszulik, E. (2009). Palenisko fluidalne, Patent polski: nr PL20070383311 20070910 z 16 marca 2009.
Smith, I.M. (1988). U.S. Patent No. 123,445. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

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