Applied sciences

Archives of Environmental Protection


Archives of Environmental Protection | 2015 | vol. 41 | No 3 |

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The aim of this study was to determine the effect of carfentrazone-ethyl (CE) doses of 0.265, 5.280, 10.560, 21.180, 42.240 μg kg-1 soil DM on fungi, Acnomycetes, organotrophic bacteria, total oligotrophic bacteria and spore-forming oligotrophic bacteria, and on the activity of dehydrogenases, catalase, urease, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, arylsulfatase and β-glucosidase. Carfentrazone-ethyl had a stimulating effect on total oligotrophic bacteria and organotrophic bacteria, but it inhibited the growth of Azotobacter, fungi, spore-forming oligotrophic bacteria and Actinomycetes. The analyzed substance modified the structure of soil microbial communities, and it induced the most profound changes in fungi. The highest values of the colony development (CD) index and the eco-physiological (EP) index were observed in organotrophic bacteria. The optimal dose of carfentrazone-ethyl stimulated the activity of dehydrogenases, catalase, urease, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase and β-glucosidase, but it had no effect on arylsulfatase. The highest doses of the analyzed substance inhibited the activity of dehydrogenases (reduction from 11.835 to 11.381 μmol TPF), urease (reduction from 0.545 to 0.500 mmol N-NH4) and arylosulfatase (reduction from 0.210 to 0.168 mmol PNP). Dehydrogenases were most resistant to CE, whereas acid phosphatase and arylsulfatase were least resistant to the analyzed compound

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Authors and Affiliations

Monika Tomkiel
Małgorzata Baćmaga
Jadwiga Wyszkowska
Jan Kucharski
Agata Borowik
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This paper presents the results of fractionation of particulate and soluble organic matter in a mixture of maize silage and cattle manure (49:51% volatile solids) that was used as a feedstock for anaerobic digestion. The extended Weender’s analysis was adapted to measure raw protein, raw lipids, fraction of carbohydrates (including starch, cellulose, hemicelluloses) and lignin. The content of individual fractions in composite, Xc (as kg COD kg-1 COD) was: 0.111 proteins, 0.048 lipids, 0.500 carbohydrates and 0.341 inerts. The biodegradability of Xc was 68%. Based on material balance, the carbon concentration in Xc was 0.0326 kmol C kg-1 COD, whereas nitrogen concentration 0.0018 kmol N kg-1 COD. The estimated pH of the feedstock based on acid-base equilibrium corresponded to the actual value (pH 7.14).

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Authors and Affiliations

Ewa Klimiuk
Zygmunt Mariusz Gusiatin
Tomasz Pokój
Sabina Rynkowska
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The aim of this study was to implement ADM1xp model to simulate behavior of anaerobic co-digestion of maize silage and cattle manure. The accuracy of ADM1xp has been assessed against experimental data of anaerobic digestion, performed at OLR = 2.1 gVS dm-3·d-1 and HRT = 45d. Due to the high number of parameters in ADM1xp, it was necessary to develop a customized procedure limiting the range of parameters to be estimated. The best fitting of experimental to simulated data was obtained after verification of 9 among 105 stoichiometric and kinetic parameters. The values of objective function (Jc) ranged between 0.003 (for valerate) and 211 (for biogas production).

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Authors and Affiliations

Katarzyna Bułkowska
Ireneusz Białobrzewski
Zygmunt Mariusz Gusiatin
Ewa Klimiuk
Tomasz Pokój
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The aim of the research was to assess the microbiological (number of heterotrophic bacteria, actinobacteria and moulds) and biochemical (urease and acid phosphatase activity) state of peat with the admixture of composts produced from sewage sludge. An additional aim of the research was to demonstrate the influence of those substrates on the morphological traits of scarlet sage (height, number and length of shoots, number of buds and inflorescences, greenness index (SPAD)). Composts produced from sewage sludge, wheat, maize and lupine straw were mixed with peat, where their percentage varied from 25% to 75%.

The substrate which included the composts applied in the experiment had a higher number of heterotrophic bacteria and a higher acid phosphatase activity level than the control substrate (peat). The multiplication of moulds and actinobacteria was more intensive than in the peat only in the combinations with K3 (sewage sludge 50%+sawdust 20%+ lupine straw 30%) and K4 (sewage sludge 50%+sawdust 20%+fresh maize straw 30%) composts, whereas the highest urease activity level was observed in the soils produced from K1 (sewage sludge 50%+sawdust 20%+white straw 30%) compost.

The most optimal development of plants was observed in the substrate with compost produced from wheat straw. Composts produced from municipal sewage sludge were found to be suitable for growing scarlet sage. However, their effect depends on the percentage of high peat in the substrate.

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Authors and Affiliations

Agnieszka Wolna-Maruwka
Klaudia Borowiak
Agnieszka Mocek-Płóciniak
Katarzyna Głuchowska
Anita Schroeter-Zakrzewska
Alicja Niewiadomska
Justyna Starzyk
Jacek Dach
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Polygonum orientale with beautiful red flowers can be found as one dominant species in the vicinity of most water bodies and wetlands in China. However, its phytoremediation potential has not been sufficiently explored because little is known about its resistance to inorganic or organic pollutants. We investigated P. orientale response to low and moderate levels of phenol stress (≤ 80 mg L-1). Endpoints included phenol tolerance of P. orientale and the removal of the pollutant, antioxidant enzyme activities, damage to the cell membrane, osmotic regulators and photosynthetic pigments. In plant leaves, phenol stress significantly increased the activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), as well as the contents of proline, soluble sugars and carotenoids, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD), H2O2 and electrolyte leakage (EL) levels remained unaltered. On the other hand, there were significant decreases of soluble protein and chlorophyll contents. We demonstrated that, in combination with phenol tolerance and its removal, P. orientale has efficient protection mechanisms against phenol-induced oxidative damage (≤ 80 mg L-1). We propose that P. orientale could be used as an alternative and interesting material in the phytoremediation of phenol.

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Authors and Affiliations

Kai Wang
Jin Cai
Shulian Xie
Jia Feng
Ting Wang
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This study investigated the operation of three full-scale Lemna System surface fl ow municipal wastewater treatment plants, built according to the Lemna Corporation design. These plants consist of two ponds, the first aerated and the second for duckweed, with a barrier grid in the latter to ensure uniform plant distribution across its area. According to designers duckweed improves the efficiency of wastewater treatment. The three treatment plants are situated in central Poland and they differ in the occurrence of duckweed, two of them, located in Raków and Bąkowiec, operate without duckweed. and the third in Falęcin Stary, Lemna minor covers ca. 90% of second pond surface. The efficiency of Lemna System wastewater treatment was found not to differ between the plants with and without duckweed. The aerated pond played the main role in reduction of pollutants in the investigated Lemna Systems

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Authors and Affiliations

Teresa Ozimek
Wojciech Dąbrowski
Maria Florkiewicz
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The data set of the Warta discharges in Poznań (Poland) is one of the largest in the world as the daily observations of river stages have been conducted without interruptions since January, 1st, 1822. The Poznań measurement profile is situated in the 243.6 km and closes the catchment area of approximately 25 thousand square kilometers. The data used as the input in the paper were daily values of the Warta discharges in Poznań in the years 1822-2012. The climate in Poznań, a city situated in the centre of the Wielkopolska (Greater Poland) region, is relatively stable (Miler et al. 2005). Also the Warta River runoff shows considerable stability, especially in terms of mean annual values. Short-term trends are random in character. It was found that the Jeziorsko reservoir (total storage volume of 203 000 000 m3, officially put to use on September, 9th, 1987) significantly reduced daily variability of the flows and reduced peak discharge of the flood wave in the summer of 1997 on the Warta River at Poznań. The calculated periodogram for mean annual discharges of the Warta River in Poznań shows that there are main periodicities of ca. 10 year lengths. The research of the Provincial Inspectorate for Environmental Protection (WIOŚ) in Poznań shows a gradual improvement of water quality in the Warta River in Poznań.

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Authors and Affiliations

Antoni T. Miler
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Exploitation of lignite within the area of Muskau Arch, carried out from the mid-nineteenth century, contributed to the transformation of the natural environment and changes in water regime. In the post-mining subsidences pit lakes were formed. The chemical composition of waters is a consequence of the intensive weathering of pyrite (FeS2), which is present in Miocene lignite-bearing rock forming the embankments of the lakes. This process leads to the formation of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) and finally acidification of lake waters.

This paper presents results of the identification of hydrogeochemical processes affecting the chemistry of waters from these reservoirs carried out using the speciation and statistical (cluster and factor) analyses. Cluster analysis allowed to separate from the analyzed group of anthropogenic reservoirs 7 subgroups characterized by a similar chemical composition of waters. The major processes affecting the chemistry of waters were identified and interpreted with help of factor and speciation analysis of two major parameters (iron and sulfur).

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Authors and Affiliations

Sylwia Lutyńska
Krzysztof Labus
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Anaerobic digestion residue represents a nutrient rich resource which, if applied back on land, can reduce the use of mineral fertilizers and improve soil fertility. However, dewatering and further thermal processing of digestate may be recommended in certain situations. Limited applicability of digestate as fertilizer may appear, especially in winter, during the vegetation period or in areas where advanced eutrophication of arable land and water bodies is developing. The use of digestate may be also governed by different laws depending on whether it is treated as fertilizer, sewage sludge or waste. The aim of this paper is to present the effects of thermal treatment of solid fraction of digestate by drying followed by pyrolysis and gasification. Pyrolysis was carried out at the temperature of about 500°C. During this process the composition of flammable gases was checked and their calorific value was assessed. Then, a comparative analysis of energy parameters of the digestate and the carbonizate was performed. Gasification of digestate was carried out at the temperature of about 850°C with use of CO2 as the gasifi cation agent. Gasification produced gas with higher calorific value than pyrolysis, but carbonizate from pyrolysis had good properties to be used as a solid fuel

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Authors and Affiliations

Dariusz Wiśniewski
Janusz Gołaszewski
Andrzej Białowiec
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This paper presents the use of multi-criteria analysis as a tool that helps choosing an adequate technology for a household wastewater treatment plant. In the process of selection the criteria of sustainable development were taken into account. Five municipal mechanical-biological treatment plants were chosen for the comparative multi-criteria analysis. Different treatment technologies, such as sand filter, activated sludge, trickling filter, a hybrid system - activated sludge/trickling filter and a hybrid constructed wetland system VF-HF type (vertical and horizontal fl ow) were taken into account. The plants’ capacities were 1 m3∙d-1 (PE=8) and they all meet the environmental regulations. Additionally, a solution with a drainage system was included into the analysis. On the basis of multi-criteria analysis it was found that the preferred wastewater treatment technologies, consistent with the principles of sustainable development, were a sand filter and a hybrid constructed wetland type VF-HF. A drainage system was chosen as the best solution due to the economic criteria, however, taking into consideration the primary (ecological) criterion, employment of such systems on a larger scale disagree with the principles of sustainable development. It was found that activated sludge is the least favourable technology. The analysis showed that this technology is not compatible with the principles of sustainable development, due to a lack of proper technological stability and low reliability.

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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Jóźwiakowski
Zbigniew Mucha
Agnieszka Generowicz
Stanisław Baran
Jolanta Bielińska
Włodzimierz Wójcik
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Manual measurements of distribution of gas velocity in conduits of flue gas installations using systems with differential pressure sensors of velocity are often performed for the requirements of determining emissions of dust pollutants from industrial process plants to the atmosphere. The aim is to determine an axial velocity profile. Flows in measuring sections are not always coaxial along the run of the duct; they are characterized by different directions of the velocity vector at various measuring points. The determination of actual directions of vectors of local velocities giving a guarantee of an accurate calculation of the axial velocity is often not possible from the technical point of view and the measurement of the velocity is carried out with the parallel setting of the sensor head in relation to the axis and the walls of the conduit. Then the knowledge of the directional sensitivity of the applied velocity sensor allows either to eliminate the axial velocity measurement error or to take it into account by the uncertainty of this measurement. For specific situations of two-dimensional variation of direction of the velocity vector, the directional sensitivity characteristics and in consequence the characteristics of error have been determined for three sensors adopted to tests: a zero pressure dust sampling probe with the anemometric function as an element of the gravimetric dust sampler and comparatively - two commonly used Pitot tubes: types S and L.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jerzy Szulikowski
Przemysław Kateusz

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Archives of Environmental Protection

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Archives of Environmental Protection is a quarterly published jointly by the Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Committee of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Thanks to the cooperation with outstanding scientists from all over the world we are able to provide our readers with carefully selected, most interesting and most valuable texts, presenting the latest state of research in the field of engineering and environmental protection.

The Journal principally accepts for publication original research papers covering such topics as:
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Orszulik, E. (2009). Palenisko fluidalne, Patent polski: nr PL20070383311 20070910 z 16 marca 2009. Smith, I.M. (1988). U.S. Patent No. 123,445. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

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