Applied sciences

Archives of Foundry Engineering

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Archives of Foundry Engineering | 2021 | vo. 21 | No 1 |

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Abstract

Porosity is one of the major problems in casting operations and there are several discussions in the literature about the porosity formation in aluminum castings. Bifilms are the defects that are introduced into the melt by turbulence. They can be detected with reduced pressure test and presented numerically by measuring bifilm index. The measure of bifilm index is the sum of total oxide length given in millimeters from the cross-section of reduced pressure test sample solidified under 0.01 MPa. In this work, low pressure die casting (LPDC) unit was built in an attempt to enhance the producibility rate. The unit consists of a pump housing that was placed inside the melt in the melting furnace where the pressure was applied instead of the whole melt surface. It was observed that the melt quality of A356 alloy was deteriorated over time which had led to higher porosity. This was attributed to the increased oxide thickness of the bifilm by the consumption of air in between the folded oxides. A relationship was found between bifilm index and pore formation.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

O. Gursoy
1
A. Nordmak
2
F. Syvertsen
2
M. Colak
3
K. Tur
4
D. Dispinar
5

  1. University of Padova, Italy
  2. SINTEF, Norway
  3. University of Bayburt, Turkey
  4. Atilim University, Turkey
  5. Istanbul Technical University, Turkey
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Abstract

Titanium alloys belonging to the group of modern metallic materials used in many industries, including the aerospace industries. Induction crucible vacuum furnaces and induction furnaces with cold crucible are most commonly used for their smelting. When operating these devices, one can deal with an adverse phenomenon of decrease in the content of alloy elements that are characterized by higher equilibrium vapour pressure than the matrix metal or titanium, in the metal bath. In the paper, results of the study on aluminium evaporation from the Ti-Al-Nb, Ti-Al-V and Ti-Al alloys (max 6.2 % wt.) during smelting in a vacuum induction melting (VIM) furnace are presented. The experiments were performed at 10 to 1000 Pa for 1973 K and 2023 K. A significant degree of aluminium loss has been demonstrated during the analysed process. The values of relative aluminium loss for all the alloys ranged from 4 % to 25 %. Lowering the pressure in the melting system from 1000 Pa to 10 Pa resulted in increased values of aluminium evaporation flux from 4.82⋅10-5 to 0.000327 g⋅cm-2⋅s-1 for 1973 K and from 9.28⋅10-5 to 0.000344 g⋅cm-2⋅s-1 for 2023 K. The analysis of the results obtained took into account the value of the actual surface of the liquid metal. In the case of melting metals in an induction furnace, this surface depends on the value of power emitted in the charge. At greater power, we observe a significant increase in the bath surface due to the formation of a meniscus.
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Authors and Affiliations

A. Smalcerz
1
L. Blacha
1
J. Łabaj
1

  1. Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, ul. Krasińskiego 8, 40-019 Katowice, Poland
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Abstract

This paper presents an overview of a research on six practical cases that were solved in a precise casting company where parts are cast by the mean of the low-wax casting method (investment casting) in order to decrease poor quality production. The steel cast parts production technology by the lost-wax method requires the detailed work procedures observation. On the base of statistical processing data of given types of casting products, it was possible to assess the significance of each particular checking events by using the statistical hypothesis testing. The attention was focused on wax and ceramic departments. The data in technological flow were compared before and after the implementation of the change and statistical confirmative influences were assessed. The target consisted in setting such control manners in order to get the right conditions for decreasing poor quality parts. It was evidenced that the cast part defect cause correct identification and interpretation is important.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

R. Lakomá
1
L. Čamek
2
P. Lichý
2
I. Kroupová
1
F. Radkovský
1
T. Obzina
1

  1. VSB - Technical university of Ostrava, Czech Republic
  2. Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic
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Abstract

Aiming at the problems of delay and couple in the sintering temperature control system of lithium batteries, a fuzzy neural network controller that can solve complex nonlinear temperature control is designed in this paper. The influence of heating voltage, air inlet speed and air inlet volume on the control of temperature of lithium battery sintering is analyzed, and a fuzzy control system by using MATLAB toolbox is established. And on this basis, a fuzzy neural network controller is designed, and then a PID control system and a fuzzy neural network control system are established through SIMULINK. The simulation shows that the response time of the fuzzy neural network control system compared with the PID control system is shortened by 24s, the system stability adjustment time is shortened by 160s, and the maximum overshoot is reduced by 6.1%. The research results show that the fuzzy neural network control system can not only realize the adjustment of lithium battery sintering temperature control faster, but also has strong adaptability, fault tolerance and anti-interference ability.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zou Chaoxin
1
Li Rong
1
Xie Zhiping
1
Su Ming
1
Zeng Jingshi
2
Ji Xu
1
Ye Xiaoli
1
Wang Ye
1

  1. Guizhou Normal University, China
  2. Guizhou Zhenhua New Material Co., Ltd., China
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Abstract

The paper presents the results of research related to the possibility of inoculation of the AZ91 magnesium alloy casted into ceramic moulds by gadolinium. Effects of gadolinium content (0.1–0.6 wt%) on microstructure of the AZ91 alloy under as-cast state were investigated. The influence of the inoculator on the formation of the microstructure investigated by means of the thermal and derivative analysis by analysing the thermal effects arising during the alloy crystallization resulting from the phases formed. The degree of fragmentation of the microstructure of the tested alloys was assessed by means of the light microscopy studies and an image analysis with statistical analysis was performed. Conducted analyses have aimed at examining on the effect of inoculation of the gadolinium on the differences between the grain diameters and average size of each type of grain by way of measuring their perimeters of all phases, preliminary αMg and eutectics αMg+γ(Mg17Al12) in the prepared examined material.
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Authors and Affiliations

C. Rapiejko
1
D. Mikusek
1
P. Just
1
T. Pacyniak
1

  1. Lodz University of Technology, Department of Materials Engineering and Production Systems, ul. Stefanowskiego 1, 90-924 Łódź, Poland
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Abstract

Chromium low alloyed steel substrate was subjected to aluminizing by hot dipping in pure aluminium and Al-Si eutectic alloy at 750°C and 650°C respectively, for dipping time up to 45 minutes. The coated samples were subjected for investigation using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Cyclic thermal oxidation test was carried out at 500°C for 72 hours to study the oxidation behaviour of hot-dipped aluminized steel. Electrochemical corrosion behavior was conducted in 3wt. %NaCl aqueous solution at room temperature. The cyclic thermal oxidation resistance was highly improved for both coating systems because of the formation of a thin protective oxide film in the outermost coating layer. The gain in weight was decreased by 24 times. The corrosion rate was decreased from 0.11 mmpy for uncoated specimen to be 2.9 x10-3 mmpy for Aluminum coated steel and 5.7x 10-3 mmpy for Al-Si eutectic coated specimens. The presence of silicon in hot dipping molten bath inhabit the growth of coating intermetallic layers, decrease the total coating thickness and change the interface boundaries from tongue like shape to be more regular with flatter interface. Two distinct coating layers were observed after hot dipping aluminizing in Al bath, while three distinct layers were observed after hot dipping in Al-Si molten bath.
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Authors and Affiliations

G.M. Attia
1
W.M.A. Afify
1
M.I. Ammar
1

  1. Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering Suez University, Egypt
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Abstract

The present paper is concerned with the practical interconnection between virtual engineering tools and additive model manufacturing technologies and the subsequent production of a ceramic shell by rapid prototyping with the use of Cyclone technology to produce the aluminium casting prototype. Prototypes were developed as part of the student formula project, where several parts originally produced by machining were replaced by castings. The techniques of topological optimization and the combination with the tools of the numerical simulation were used to optimise the virtual prototype before a real production of the first prototype. 3D printing of wax pattern ensured direct and fast assembly of the cluster without any additional operations and troubles during dewaxing. The shell was manufactured in 6 hours thanks to a system of quick-drying of individual layers of ceramic shell. It has been verified that the right combination of individual virtual tools with the rapid prototyping can shorten the development time and delivery of the first prototypes from a few months to a few weeks.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

V. Krutiš
1
P. Šprta
1
V. Kaňa
1
A. Zadera
1
J. Cileček
2

  1. Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic
  2. Alucast s.r.o., Czech Republic
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Abstract

For research purposes and to demonstrate the differences between materials obtained from the carbonaceous additives to classic green moulding sands, five lustrous carbon carriers available on the market were selected. The following carbonaceous additives were tested: two coal dusts (CD1 and CD2), two hydrocarbon resins (HR1 and HR2) and amorphous graphite (AG1). The studies of products and material effects resulting from the high-temperature pyrolysis of lustrous carbon carriers were focused on determining the tendency to gas evolution, including harmful compounds from the BTEX group (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene). Moreover, the content of lustrous carbon (LC), the content of volatile matter and loss on ignition (LOI) of the carbonaceous additives were tested. The solid products formed during high-temperature pyrolysis were used for the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of elemental composition after the exposure to temperatures of 875oC in a protective atmosphere and 950oC in an oxidizing atmosphere. The conducted studies have indicated the necessity to examine the additives to classic green moulding sands, which is of particular importance for the processing, rebonding and storage of waste sand. The studies have also revealed some differences in the quantitative and qualitative composition of elements introduced to classic moulding sands together with the carbonaceous additives that are lustrous carbon carriers. It was also considered necessary to conduct a research on lustrous carbon carriers for their proper and environmentally friendly use in the widely propagated technology of classic green sand system.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Kamińska
1
M. Stachowicz
2
M. Kubecki
3

  1. Łukasiewicz Research Network – Krakow Institute of Technology, Poland
  2. Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Poland
  3. Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy, Gliwice, Poland
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Abstract

The paper presents results of research on steel castings GX120Mn13 (L120G13 by PN-89/H-83160), zone-reinforced by elektrocorundum particles (Al2O3), with a grain size from 2 to 3.5 mm. Studies revealed continuity at interface between composite components and formation of a diffusion zone in the surface layer of electrocorundum grains. In the area of this zone, simple manganese segregation and reverse iron and chromium segregation were found. The transfer of these elements from cast steel to electrocorundum grains resulted superficial depletion in aluminum and oxygen in this area. No porosity was observed at the interface between two components of the composite. We found it very beneficial from an exploitation point of view, as confirmed by the study of resistance to abrasive wear.
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Authors and Affiliations

D. Medyński
1
A.J. Janus
1

  1. Witelon State University of Applied Science in Legnica ul. Sejmowa 5A, 59 – 220 Legnica, Poland
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Abstract

Finite Element Method FEM via commercially available software has been used for numerical simulation of the compaction process of bentonite-bonded sand mould. The mathematical model of soil plasticity which involved Drucker-Prager model match with Mohr-Coulomb model was selected. The individual parameters which required for the simulation process were determined through direct shear test based on the variation of sand compactability. The novelty of this research work is that the individual micro-mechanical parameters were adopted depend on its directly proportional to the change of sand density during the compaction process. Boundary conditions of the applied load, roller and fixed constraint were specified. An extremely coarse mesh was used and the solution by time-dependent study was done for investigation of material-dependent behaviour of green sand during the compaction process. The research implemented also simulation of the desired points in sand mould to predict behaviour of moulding process, and prevent failure of the sand mould. Distance-dependent displacement and distance-dependent pressure have been determined to investigate the effective moulding parameters without spent further energy and cost for obtaining green sand mould. The obtained numerical results of the sand displacement show good agreement with the practical results.
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Authors and Affiliations

D. Abdulamer
1 2
A. Kadauw
1 3

  1. IMKF. TU - Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany
  2. University of Technology -Baghdad, Iraq
  3. Salahddin University-Erbil, Iraq
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Abstract

The foundry industry is looking for solutions that improve the quality of the finished product and solutions that reduce the negative impact of the industry on the natural environment [26]. This process leads to work on the use of new or previously unused materials for binders. Organic and inorganic foundry binders are replaced by renewable materials of plant origin to meet the requirements of both the foundry customers and the environmental and health and safety regulations. The aim of this work was to identify the applicability of renewable and organic malted barley binder in moulding sand technology. The influence of the malt binder content on dry tensile strength, dry bending strength, dry permeability, dry wear resistance and flowability were evaluated. The results show that the malted barley binder can be self-contained material binding the high-silica sand grains. Selected mechanical properties of moulding sands were found to increase with an increase in binder content. It was observed that malted barley binder creates smooth bonding bridges between high-silica sand grains.
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Authors and Affiliations

B. Samociuk
1
B. Gal
1
D. Nowak
1

  1. Department of Foundry Engineering, Plastics and Automation, Wroclaw University of Technology, ul. Smoluchowskiego 25, 50-372 Wrocław, Poland
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Abstract

In this research, the quality of manufactured cast metal-ceramic foams (manufactured using blowing gas) was tested. The causes responsible for defect formation in the composite foams and their consequences were analyzed using the FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis) method, which is a useful tool for minimizing losses caused by low product quality. This method involves analytically determining correlations between the cause and consequences of potential product defects, and it takes into account the criticality factor (risk). The FMEA analysis showed that pore breaks were the most "critical defect" (with the highest number of effects on the product, the Risk Priority Number, affecting the quality of the composite foam). The second most critical defect was discontinuities in the foam frame structure. Destruction or damage to the foam structure (although very rare) deprived the composite foam of its primary function, which is to reinforce the product. The third most critical defect was non-uniform foam pore size.
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Authors and Affiliations

P. Popielarski
1
R. Sika
1
D. Czarnecka-Komorowska
1
P. Szymański
1
M. Rogalewicz
1
K. Gawdzińska
2

  1. Institute of Materials Technology, Poznan University of Technology Piotrowo 3, 61-138 Poznań, Poland
  2. Faculty of Marine Engineering, Maritime University of Szczecin, Willowa 2-4, 71-650 Szczecin, Poland
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Abstract

Diesel engine components in the combustion chamber have been exposed to cyclic loadings under environmental effects, including high temperatures and corrosive fluids. Therefore, knowing the corrosion-fatigue behavior of materials is essential for designer engineers. In this article, pure fatigue and corrosion-fatigue behaviors of the piston aluminum alloy have been experimentally investigated. For such an objective, as-cast and pre-corrosive standard samples were tested by the rotary bending fatigue machine, under 4 stress levels. Some specimens were exposed to the corrosive fluid with 0.00235 % of the sulfuric acid for 100 and 200 hours. The results showed higher weight losses for 200 hours immersion times. As another result, it could be concluded that the lifetime decreased in pre-corrosive samples for both 100 and 200 hours of the immersion time, compared to that of as-cast specimens. However, such a lifetime reduction was more significant for 200 hours of the immersion time, especially within the high-cycle fatigue regime (or lower stress levels). Under high stress levels, both pre-corrosive sample types had almost similar behaviors. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy images of specimen fracture surfaces indicated that the brittle region of the fractured surface was larger for specimens after the 200 hours of corrosion-fatigue testing than the other specimen.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Azadi
1
ORCID: ORCID
H. Aroo
1
M.. Azadi
1
M.S.A. Parast
1

  1. Semnan University, Iran
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Abstract

The article focused primarily on comparing the achieved mechanical results for AlSi7Mg0.3Cu0.5Zr and AlSi7Mg0.3Cu0.5Zr0.15Ti experimental alloys. Experimental variants with the addition of Zr ≥ 0.05 wt. % demonstrated the ability of Zr to precipitate in the form of Al3Zr or AlSiZr intermetallic phases. Zr precipitated in the form of long smooth needles with split ends. When evaluating the thermal analyses, the repeated peak was observed already with the initial addition of Zr in the range of approximately 630 °C. It was interesting to observe the increased interaction with other intermetallic phases. EDX analysis confirmed that the individual phases are based on Cu, Mg but also Fe. Similar phenomena were observed in experimental alloys with a constant addition of Zr and a gradual increase in Ti by 0.1 wt. %. A significant change occurred in the amount of precipitated Zr phases. A more significant increase in mechanical properties after heat treatment of AlSi7Mg0.3Cu0.5Zr experimental alloys was observed mainly above the Zr content ≥ 0.15 wt. % Zr. The improvement of yield and tensile strength over the AlSi7Mg0.3Cu0.5 reference alloy after heat treatment was minimal, not exceeding 1 %. A more significant improvement after heat treatment occurred in modulus of elongation with an increase by 6 %, and in hardness with an increase by 7 %. The most significant drop occurred in ductility where a decrease by 31 % was observed compared to the reference alloy. AlSi7Mg0.3Cu0.5Zr0.15Ti experimental alloys, characterized by varying Ti content, achieved a more significant improvement. The improvement in tensile strength over the AlSi7Mg0.3Cu0.5 reference alloy after heat treatment was minimal, not exceeding 1 %. A more significant improvement after heat treatment occurred in modulus of elongation with an increase by 12 %, in hardness with an increase by 12 % and the most significant improvement occurred in yield strengthwith a value of 18 %. The most significant decrease also occurred in ductility where, compared to the reference alloy, the ductility drop was by up to 67 %.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Kuriš
1
D. Bolibruchova
1
M. Matejka
1
E. Kantoríková
1

  1. University of Zilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Technological Engineering, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Zilina, Slovak Republic
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Abstract

In this work, the free vibration behaviour of A357 composite plate reinforced with dual particle size (DPS) (3 wt.% coarse + 3 wt.% fine, 4 wt.% coarse + 2 wt.% fine, and 2 wt.% coarse + 4 wt.% fine) SiC is evaluated using the finite element method. To this end, first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) has been used. The equations of motion have been derived using Hamilton’s principle and the solution has been obtained through condensation technique. A thorough parametric study was conducted to understand the effect of reinforcement size and weight fraction, boundary conditions, aspect ratio and length-to-width ratio of plate geometry on natural frequencies of A357/DPS-SiC composite plates. Results reveal significant influence of all the above variables on natural frequency of the composite plates. In all the cases, A357 composite plate reinforced with 4 wt.% coarse and 2 wt.% fine SiC particles displayed the highest natural frequency owing to its higher elastic and rigidity modulus. Further, the natural frequencies increase with decrease in aspect ratio of the plate geometry. Natural frequency also decreases with increase in the number of free edges. Lastly, increasing the length-to-width ratio drastically improves the natural frequency of the plates.
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Authors and Affiliations

A. Lakshmikanthan
1 2
V. Mahesh
3
R.T. Prabhu
4
M.G.C. Patel
5
S. Bontha

  1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Mangalore-575025, Karnataka, India
  2. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology, Bangalore, India-560064
  3. Nonlinear Multifunctional Composites Analysis and Design (NMCAD) Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India-560012
  4. CEMILAC, Defence R&D Organisation, Bangalore, India-560093
  5. Department of Mechanical Engineering, PES Institute of Technology and Management, Shivamogga, India-577204
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Abstract

The paper presents results of influence microwave drying on strength and technological properties of molding sand with gypsum binder researches, which, immediately after making and after the natural initial setting in air for 1, 2 or 5 hours, was heated with 250 W microwave power for 3, 6, 9 and 12 min time periods. The test was carried out on a mass containing (% -wt.): 88% Grudzeń-Las quartz sand, 12% "Dolina Nidy" plaster gypsum and 6% water. The loss of moisture content during natural drying and then microwave drying was determined, significant from the point of view of using the mass with gypsum binder in the production of products, using an environmentally friendly technology without casting incompatibilities. Additionally, the compressive strength of the mass was measured. The influence of both drying methods on the binder crystallization process and the associated mass strength was demonstrated, especially in terms of the possibility of selecting parameters and / or intensifying a specific drying method for use in the technology of manufacturing molds and foundry cores.
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[28] PN-83 / H-11070
[29] PN-83/H-11073

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Authors and Affiliations

P.J. Paduchowicz
1
K. Granat
1
P. Biały
1

  1. Department of Foundry Engineering, Plastics and Automation, Wroclaw University of Technology, ul. Smoluchowskiego 25, 50-372 Wrocław, Poland
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Abstract

The austenitic stainless steels are a group of alloys normally used under high mechanical and thermal requests, in which high temperature oxidation is normally present due to oxygen presence. This study examines the oxide layer evolution for Fe24Cr12NiXNb modified austenitic stainless steel A297 HH with 0,09%Nb and 0,77%Nb content at 900°C under atmospheric air and isothermal oxidation. The modifiers elements such as Mo, Co and Ti, added to provide high mechanical strength, varied due to the casting procedure, however main elements such as Cr, Ni, Mn and Si were kept at balanced levels to avoid microstructure changing. The oxide layer analysis was performed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The elemental analysis of the different phases was measured with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The Nb-alloyed steel generated a thicker Cr oxide layer. Generally elemental Nb did not provide any noticeable difference in oxide scale growth, for the specific range of Nb amount and temperature studied. High temperature oxidation up to 120h was characterized by protective Cr oxidation, after this period a non-protective Fe-based oxidation took place. Cr, Fe and Ni oxides were observed in the multilayer oxide scale.
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[17] Ramos, P.A., Coelho, R.S., Soldera, F., Pinto, H.C., Mücklich, F. & Brito,P. (2020). Residual stress analysis in thermally grown oxide scales developed on Nb-alloyed refractory austenitic stainless steels. Corrosion Science. 178, 109066. DOI: 10.1016/j.corsci.2020.109066.
[18] McCafferty E. (2010). Introduction to corrosion science. Springer Science & Business Media. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-0455-3.

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Authors and Affiliations

P.A. Ramos
1 2
R.S. Coelho
3
H.C. Pinto
4
F. Soldera
5
F. Mücklich
5
P.P. Brito
1

  1. Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais, Brazil
  2. Federal Institute of Science and Technology of Minas Gerais, Brazil
  3. SENAI CIMATEC, Institute of Innovation for Forming and Joining of Materials, Av. Orlando Gomes, 1845, Piatã, 41650-010, Salvador-BA, Brazil
  4. Department of Materials Engineering - SMM, São Carlos School of Engineering – EESC, University of São Paulo – USP, São Carlos, SP, Brazil
  5. Chair of Functional Materials, Department of Materials Science, Saarland University, 66123, Saarbrücken, Saarland, Germany
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Abstract

The article describes the design of a proven technology for the production of metal foam and porous metal by the foundry. Porous metal formed by infiltrating liquid metal into a mould cavity appears to be the fastest and most economical method. However, even here we cannot do without the right production parameters. Based on the research, the production process was optimised and subsequently a functional sample of metal foam with an irregular internal structure - a filter - was produced. The copper alloy filter was cast into a gypsum mould using an evaporable model.
Furthermore, a functional sample of porous metal with a regular internal structure was produced - a heat exchanger. The aluminium alloy heat exchanger was cast into a green sand mould using preforms. Also, a porous metal casting with a regular internal structure was formed for use as an element in deformation zones. This aluminium alloy casting was made by the Lost Foam method. The aim is therefore to ensure the production of healthy castings, which would find use in the field of filtration of liquid metal or flue gases, in vehicles in the field of shock energy absorption and also in energy as a heat exchanger.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

F. Radkovský
1
V. Merta
1
T. Obzina
1

  1. VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic
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Abstract

One of the main reason for decreased internal homogeneity of aluminium alloy castings is reoxidation. The resulting products of reoxidation are doubled oxides, so called "bifilms". Submitted paper deals with optimization of gating system design in order to reduce reoxidation processes taking place in mold cavity. Experimental work compares and evaluates three gating systems designs based on non-pressurized and naturally pressurized principles. Unconventional spin trap extension of runner was used in third design. Among the evaluated aspects were: mechanical properties, hot tearing index, visual inspection of average porosity amount, numerical simulation of velocity, turbulence and oxide amount. Paper aim is also to clarify the reoxidation phenomenon by visualization with the aid of ProCAST numerical simulation software. Results of mechanical properties and hot tear index clearly confirmed the positive effect of the naturally pressurized gating system with applied element for velocity reduction.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Bruna
1
M. Galčík
1

  1. Department of Technological Engineering, University of Zilina, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Zilina, Slovakia
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Abstract

High tin bronze alloy (Cu>17wt.%Sn) is commonly as raw material to fabricate musical instruments. Gamelan musical instruments in Indonesia are produced using tin bronze alloy raw materials. The tin bronze alloy used by each gamelan craftsman has a different tin composition, generally in the range of Cu(20-24) wt.% Sn. This study aims to investigate the effect of microstructure, density, and mechanical properties of Cu(20-24)wt.%Sn against the acoustic properties processed by the sand casting method. The material is melted in a crucible furnace until it reaches a pouring temperature of 1100ºC by the sand casting method. The specimens were subjected to microstructure observations, density and porosity as well as mechanical properties testing including tensile strength, bending strength, hardness, and modulus of elasticity. Mechanical properties data then used to calculate several parameters of acoustic properties including speed of sound (c), impedance (z) and radiation coefficient (R). Processes simulation using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Experiment Method Analysis (EMA) were carried out to determine acoustic properties including sound intensity, natural frequency and damping capacity.
The experimental result shows that the increase in tin composition in Cu(20-24) wt.% Sn changed the microstructure of coarse grains into dendrite-columned fine grains. Physical properties of density decrease, while porosity increases. Mechanical properties including tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and bending strength decreased, while the hardness of the alloy increases. The calculation of acoustic parameters such as the speed of sound (c), impedance (z) and radiation coefficient (R) has decreased. Moreover, sound intensity (dB), natural frequency (Hz) and damping capacity also decrease with increasing tin composition. Hence, tin bronze alloy Cu20wt.%Sn is the recommended raw material for the manufacture of gamelan instruments through the sand casting method.
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Authors and Affiliations

S. Slamet
1 2
S. Suyitnoa
1
I. Kusumaningtyasa
1
I.M. Miasaa
1

  1. Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  2. Universitas Muria Kudus, Kudus, Indonesia

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