Nauki Techniczne

Archives of Foundry Engineering


Archives of Foundry Engineering | 2022 | vol. 22 | No 2 |


Aluminum and its alloys are one of the most favored metal-based materials for engineering applications that require lightweight materials. On the other hand, composites are getting more preferable for different kinds of applications recently. Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are one of the excellent reinforcement materials for aluminum and its alloys. To enhance mechanical properties of aluminum, BNNTs can be added with different processes. BNNT reinforced aluminum matrix composites also demonstrate extraordinary radiation shielding properties. This study consists of BNNT reinforced aluminum matrix composite production performed by casting method. Since wetting of BNNT in liquid aluminum is an obstacle for casting, various casting techniques were performed to distribute homogeneously in liquid aluminum. Different methods were investigated in an aim to incorporate BNNT into liquid method as reinforcement. It was found that UTS was increased by 20% and elongation at fracture was increased by 170% when BNNT was preheated at 800°C for 30 minutes.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

B. Nemutlu
O. Kahraman
K. B. Demirel
I. Erkul
M. Cicek
H. Sahin
K.C. Dizdar
D. Dispinar

  1. Istanbul Technical University, Turkey


Thermal energy encounters a huge demand in the world, part of which can be met by renewable energy sources, such as solar energy, and storage of thermal energy surplus from industrial processes. For this purpose, thermal energy storage (TES) units, in which heat is stored, are developed. The energy is accumulated by phase change materials (PCM) characterized by high phase transition enthalpy. PCMs have poor thermal conductivity; therefore, to take full advantage of their capabilities and to accelerate the charging and discharging cycle, metallic structures are used. These structures are manufactured using investment casting technology. Creating models with additive methods, such as 3D printing, allows obtaining complex shapes with high accuracy, such as thin-walled castings. At a large scale, the method may not be cost-effective. In this paper, the heat exchanger models were made from PLA and the castings - from AC44200 aluminum alloy. Investment casting requires the proper selection of parameters, such as the right material for the model, the selection of the firing temperature, the adjustment of the temperature of the molten metal, the temperature of the mold, and the pressure in it. Misaligning any of the parameters can lead to imperfections on the finished casting. Based on the model roughness study, it was found that minor roughness and higher accuracy are presented by the lower parts of the casting, while weaker performance is observed for the upper parts. Metal castings in a salt PCM environment may be subjected to corrosion. Therefore, the authors proposed to produce protective coatings on aluminum castings by the PEO method - plasma electrolytic oxidation. Porous ceramic thin films consisting mainly of alumina were obtained. The next tests will be aimed to confirm whether this layer will not negatively influence the thermal conductivity of the thermal energy storage.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

N. M. Raźny

  1. Department of Lightweight Elements Engineering, Foundry and Automation, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Wyb. Stanisława Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland
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Due to the observed increase in the amount of waste in landfills, there has been an increase in the demand for products made of biomaterials and the composition of biomaterials with petroleum-derived materials. The problem of waste disposal/management also applies to waste from the casting production process with the use of disposable casting moulds made with the use of organic binders (resins), as well as residues from the process of regeneration of moulding sands. A perspective solution is to add a biodegradable component to the moulding/core sand. The authors proposed the use of polycaprolactone (PCL), a polymer from the group of aliphatic polyesters, as an additive to a casting resin commonly used in practice. As part of this study, the effect of PCL addition on the (bio) degradation of dust obtained after the process of mechanical regeneration of moulding sands with organic binders was determined. The (bio) degradation process was studied in the environment reflecting the actual environmental conditions. As part of the article, dust samples before and after the duration of the (bio) degradation process were tested for weight loss by thermogravimetry (TG) and for losses on ignition (LOI).
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

K. Major-Gabryś
I. Stachurek
M. Hosadyna-Kondracka

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Foundry Engineering, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow, Poland
  2. ŁUKASIEWICZ Research Network - Foundry Research Institute, Zakopianska 73, 30-418 Cracow, Poland
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Hot tearing is a casting defect responsible for external and internal cracks on casting products. This irregular undesired formation is often observed during solidification and freezing. The solidification of molten metal also causes thermal contraction and shrinkage, indicating the occurrence of hot tearing when the alloy is restrained by the mould design. The parameters affecting this process include the pouring and mould temperatures, the chemical composition of the alloy, and the mould shape. Also, the factors affecting hot tearing susceptibility include pouring and mould temperatures, the grain refiner, as well as pouring speed. There are many methods of measuring the level of susceptibility to hot tearing, one of which is the thermal contraction evaluation during metal solidification, observed in cast products through several mould types. This paper discusses the hot tearing overview, the effect of pouring temperature, mould temperature, grain refiner, pouring speed on hot tearing, the type of mould, and criterion for hot tear observation.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje


  1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Univeritas Syiah Kuala, Jl. Syech Aburrauf No.7, Darussalam, Banda Aceh, 23111, Indonesia
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The article presents the results of research on the abrasion resistance of cast iron with vermicular graphite in the as-cast state and after austempering (the latter material is referred to as AVGI – Austempered Vermicular Graphite Iron). Austenitization was carried out at the temperature values of either 900°C or 960°C, and austempering at the temperature values of either 290°C and or 390°C. Both the austenitization and the austempering time was equal to 90 minutes. The change of the pearlitic-ferritic matrix to the ausferritic one resulted in an increase in mechanical properties. Abrasion tests were conducted by means of the T-01M pin-on-disc tribometer. The counter-sample (i.e. the disc) was made of the JT6500 friction material. Each sample was subject to abrasion over a sliding distance of 4000 m. The weight losses of both samples and counter-samples were determined by the gravimetric method. It was found that the vermicular cast iron austenitized at 900°C and austempered at 290°C was characterized by the lowest wear among the evaluated cast iron types. The geometric structure of the surface layer after the dry friction test exhibited irregular noticeable grooves, distinct oriented abrasion traces, plastic flow of the material, microcracks, and pits generated by tearing out the abraded material. The largest surface roughness was found for the AVGI cast iron heat-treated according to the variant 3 (Tγ =900 ºC; Tpi = 390°C), while the smallest one occurred in AVGI cast iron subject to either the variant 2 (Tγ =960 ºC; Tpi = 290°C) or the variant 4 (Tγ =900 ºC; Tpi = 290°C) of heat treatment and was equal to either 2.5 μm or 2.66 μm, respectively. It can be seen that the surface roughness decreases with the decrease in the austempering temperature.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

A. Jakubus

  1. The Jacob of Paradies University in Gorzów Wielkopolski, ul. Teatralna 25, 66-400 Gorzów Wielkopolski, Poland
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The European Commission's ambitious plan to reduce CO2 emissions has a significant impact on the global automotive industry. Recent development of new diesel and petrol engines with direct injection is aimed at improving fuel efficiency while maintaining (or enhancing) engine performance. This naturally also increases the demands on the properties of the most stressed engine components (e.g., cylinder heads, engine blocks, pistons), which leads to the development of new materials. Presented work analysed the effect of different mold temperatures (60; 120; 180 °C) on mechanical, physical properties and microstructure of AlSi5Cu2Mg aluminium alloy. This alloy is currently being used for the production of cylinder head castings. The results showed that the changing mold temperature had an effect on mechanical properties (ultimate tensile strength and Young modulus values). SEM with EDX analysis of intermetallic phases revealed there were no size and morphology changes of Cu, Mg and Fe intermetallic phases when the mold temperature changed. No significant effect of different mold temperature on physical properties (thermal and electrical conductivity) and fracture mechanism occurred during experiment. Optimal combination of mechanical and physical properties of AlSi5Cu2Mg alloy was achieved using a permanent mold with temperature ranging from 120 to 180 °C.
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[1] Skrabulakova, E.F, Ivanova, M., Rosova, A., Gresova, E., Sofranko, M. & Ferencz, V. (2021). On electromobility development and the calculation of the infrastructural country electromobility coefficient. Processes. 9(2), 1-28. DOI: 10.3390/pr9020222.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

L. Širanec
D. Bolibruchová
M. Chalupová

  1. Department of Technological Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Žilina, Slovakia
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The method of the ongoing assessment of the reclaim quality originating from the mechanical reclamation is described in this paper. In the process, the triboelectric system of measuring amounts of dust in the dedusting part of a reclamation device was applied. Based on the online measurements of the amounts of dust generated in the spent sand-reclamation process and the post-process determinations of the ignition losses and granular structures of the removed dust, the proper work parameters of the experimental reclaimer were selected. The allowable value of the ignition losses as well as the main fraction of the reclaimed matrix being similar to fresh sand was assumed as the main criteria of the positive assessment of the process. Within the presented investigations, a periodically operating device for rotor-mechanical reclamation was developed. The possibility of changing the intensity and time of the reclamation treatment as well as the triboelectric system of the dust-amount measuring were applied in this device. Tests were performed for the spent moulding sand with phenol-resol resin Carbophen 5692 hardened by CO2. This sand represents the moulding sand group with a less harmful influence on the surroundings for which the recovery of the quartz matrix utilising the reclamation requires stricter control of the parameters of the reclamation process and reclaim quality.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

R. Dańko
A. Pietrzak
D. Gruszka

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Foundry, ul. Reymonta 23, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
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The results of investigations of plasticity of moulding sands with binders obtained by measuring deflection angles in the single point bend test in dependence on their hardening degree are presented in the hereby paper. Shaped samples made of moulding sands obtained in the technology with urea-furfuryl resin Furanol FR75A and in the technology with water glass, were subjected to various tests. Shaped samples were made on the quartz matrix of a medium grains size ����=0,29 ����. Investigations were performed for the resin content being 1% and 2%, at a constant proportion of a hardener versus resin -- equal 60%. In the case of sands from the technology with water glass, investigations were performed for 3.5% of water glass versus sand matrix and 0.35% of Flodur. Plasticity tests were carried out with using the strength machine with a continuous recording of a sample deflection value. Measurements of deflection angles values in the bend test were performed on a series of simultaneously made samples at constant time intervals from the moment of their making. To determine the sand hardening degree the ultrasound technique was applied, according to the previously developed methodology [1]. Every time from the obtained results the characteristic of the growing stress as a function of deflection was prepared (��). In addition, for the tested group of moulding sands, empirical relationships between the maximum deflection angle (αmax) in the bend test and the hardening degree were determined (Sx): α = f(Sx).
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

N. Matonis
J. Zych

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Foundry Engineering, ul. Reymonta 23, 30-059 Cracow, Poland
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Iron aluminides are iron-aluminum alloys that have excellent resistance to oxidation at high temperatures with low density, high resistance/weight ratio and a low manufacturing cost. Due to its characteristics, these alloys are presented as an option to replace stainless steels in certain applications. This works intends report the casting process and subsequent analyses involving microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance of two Fe-Al-C alloys (Fe-11wt%Al and Fe-25wt%Al, containing 0.31-0.37%C), which were prepared in an induction furnace and poured in a permanent mold. Samples of these alloys were characterized and presented elevated hardness values of 37 HRC (alloy Fe-11wt%Al) and 49.6HRC (alloy Fe-25wt%Al) and microstructure with aluminides type Fe3Al and FeAl and also carbides type K. The Fe-11wt%Al alloy exhibited superior resistance to uniform corrosion, although both Fe-Al-C alloys exhibited significantly higher corrosion rates compared to a binary iron aluminide in 0.5M H2SO4 containing naturally dissolved oxygen.
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[11] Brito, P., Schuller, E., Silva, J., Campos, T.R., Araújo, C.R. & Carneiro, J.R. (2017). Electrochemical corrosion behaviour of (100), (110) and (111) Fe3Al single crystals in sulphuric acid. Corrosion Science. 126, 366-373. DOI: 10.1016/j.corsci.2017.05.029.
[12] Brito, P.P., Carvalho Filho, C.T. & Oliveira, G.A. (2020). Electrochemical corrosion behavior of iron aluminides in sulfuric acid. Materials Science Forum. 1012, 395-400. DOI: 10.4028/
[13] Hernández-Hernández, M., Liu, H. B., Alvarez-Ramirez, J. & Espinosa-Medina, M. A. (2017). Corrosion behavior of Fe-40at.%Al-Based intermetallic in 0.25M H2SO4 solution. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance. 26, 5983-5996. DOI: 10.1007/s11665-017-3036-5.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

A.P. Silva
P.P. Brito
N. Martins

  1. PUC Minas, Brazil
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The aim of the research was to determine the effect of the primary quality of reclaim from dry mechanical reclamation on the strength properties and service life of moulding sands based on this reclaim. Another aim was to establish the effect of the quality of reclaim, sulphur content - in particular, on the surface quality and thickness of the deformed surface layer in ductile iron castings. The research has revealed differences in the strength parameters and service life (mouldability) of sands based on the tested reclaims, depending on the type of the furfuryl resin used, including resins whose synthesis was done as part of the Żywfur project. Examinations of the structure of the surface layer of test castings poured in moulds made of loose self-hardening sands containing the addition of reclaim have confirmed the occurrence of degenerated spheroidal graphite in this part of the casting. It should be noted here that when massive castings with a long solidification time are made, the graphite degeneration effect can be more visible and the layer with the changed structure can increase in thickness. The research has clearly shown that it is necessary to control the parameters of the reclaim, including sulphur content which is transferred from the hardener and accumulates on the grains. This phenomenon has a negative impact not only on the sand strength and technological properties but also on the surface layer of castings.
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[16] Anca, D., Stan, I., Chisamera, M., Riposan, I. & Stan, S. (2021). Experimental study regarding the possibility of blocking the diffusion of sulfur at casting-mold interface in ductile iron castings. Coatings. 11(673), 1-10. DOI:
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

J. Kamińska
M. Angrecki
S. Puzio
M. Stachowicz

  1. Łukasiewicz Research Network – Krakow Institute of Technology, Poland
  2. Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Poland

Instrukcja dla autorów


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Instructions for the preparation of an Archives of Foundry Engineering Paper

Zasady etyki publikacyjnej

Publication Ethics Policy

The standards of expected ethical behavior for all parties involved in publishing in the Archives of Foundry Engineering journal: the author, the journal editor and editorial board, the peer reviewers and the publisher are listed below.

All the articles submitted for publication in Archives of Foundry Engineering are peer reviewed for authenticity, ethical issues and usefulness as per Review Procedure document.

Duties of Editors
1. Monitoring the ethical standards: Editorial Board monitors the ethical standards of the submitted manuscripts and takes all possible measures against any publication malpractices.
2. Fair play: Submitted manuscripts are evaluated for their scientific content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious beliefs, citizenship, political ideology or any other issues that is a personal or human right.
3. Publication decisions: The Editor in Chief is responsible for deciding which of the submitted articles should or should not be published. The decision to accept or reject the article is based on its importance, originality, clarity, and its relevance to the scope of the journal and is made after the review process.
4. Confidentiality: The Editor in Chief and the members of the Editorial Board t ensure that all materials submitted to the journal remain confidential during the review process. They must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the parties involved in the publishing process i.e., authors, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher.
5. Disclosure and conflict of interest: Unpublished materials disclosed in the submitted manuscript must not be used by the Editor and the Editorial Board in their own research without written consent of authors. Editors always precludes business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards.
6. Maintain the integrity of the academic record: The editors will guard the integrity of the published academic record by issuing corrections and retractions when needed and pursuing suspected or alleged research and publication misconduct. Plagiarism and fraudulent data is not acceptable. Editorial Board always be willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions and apologies when needed.

Retractions of the articles: the Editor in Chief will consider retracting a publication if:
- there are clear evidences that the findings are unreliable, either as a result of misconduct (e.g. data fabrication) or honest error (e.g. miscalculation or experimental error)
- the findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper cross-referencing, permission or justification (cases of redundant publication)
- it constitutes plagiarism or reports unethical research.
Notice of the retraction will be linked to the retracted article (by including the title and authors in the retraction heading), clearly identifies the retracted article and state who is retracting the article. Retraction notices should always mention the reason(s) for retraction to distinguish honest error from misconduct.
Retracted articles will not be removed from printed copies of the journal nor from electronic archives but their retracted status will be indicated as clearly as possible.

Duties of Authors
1. Reporting standards: Authors of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the paper. The paper should contain sufficient details and references to permit others to replicate the work. The fabrication of results and making of fraudulent or inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and will cause rejection or retraction of a manuscript or a published article.
2. Originality and plagiarism: Authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others they need to be cited or quoted. Plagiarism and fraudulent data is not acceptable.
3. Data access retention: Authors may be asked to provide the raw data for editorial review, should be prepared to provide public access to such data, and should be prepared to retain such data for a reasonable time after publication of their paper.
4. Multiple or concurrent publication: Authors should not in general publish a manuscript describing essentially the same research in more than one journal. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable.
5. Authorship of the manuscript: Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the report study. All those who have made contributions should be listed as co-authors. The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors and no inappropriate co-authors are included in the paper, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.
6. Acknowledgement of sources: The proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given. The authors should cite publications that have been influential in determining the scope of the reported work.
7. Fundamental errors in published works: When the author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper.

Duties of Reviewers
1. Contribution to editorial decisions: Peer reviews assist the editor in making editorial decisions and may also help authors to improve their manuscript.
2. Promptness: Any selected reviewer who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its timely review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself/herself from the review process.
3. Confidentiality: All manuscript received for review must be treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except those authorized by the editor.
4. Standards of objectivity: Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inappropriate. Reviewers should express their views clearly with appropriate supporting arguments.
5. Acknowledgement of sources: Reviewers should identify the relevant published work that has not been cited by authors. Any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper should be reported to the editor.
6. Disclosure and conflict of Interest: Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should not consider evaluating manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relations with any of the authors, companies, or institutions involved in writing a paper.

Procedura recenzowania

Review Procedure

The Review Procedure for articles submitted to the Archives of Foundry Engineering agrees with the recommendations of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education published in a booklet: ‘Dobre praktyki w procedurach recenzyjnych w nauce’ (MNiSW, Dobre praktyki w procedurach recenzyjnych w nauce, Warszawa 2011).

Papers submitted to the Editorial System are primarily screened by editors with respect to scope, formal issues and used template. Texts with obvious errors (formatting other than requested, missing references, evidently low scientific quality) will be rejected at this stage or will be sent for the adjustments.

Once verified each article is checked by the anti-plagiarism system Cross Check powered by iThenticate®. After the positive response, the article is moved into: Initially verified manuscripts. When the similarity level is too high, the article will be rejected. There is no strict rule (i.e., percentage of the similarity), and it is always subject to the Editor’s decision.
Initially verified manuscripts are then sent to at least four independent referees outside the author’s institution and at least two of them outside of Poland, who:

have no conflict of interests with the author,
are not in professional relationships with the author,
are competent in a given discipline and have at least a doctorate degree and respective
scientific achievements,
have a good reputation as reviewers.

The review form is available online at the Journal’s Editorial System and contains the following sections:

1. Article number and title in the Editorial System

2. The statement of the Reviewer (to choose the right options):

I declare that I have not guessed the identity of the Author. I declare that I have guessed the identity of the Author, but there is no conflict of interest

3. Detailed evaluation of the manuscript against other researches published to this point:

Do you think that the paper title corresponds with its contents?
Yes No
Do you think that the abstract expresses the paper contents well?
Yes No
Are the results or methods presented in the paper novel?
Yes No
Do the author(s) state clearly what they have achieved?
Yes No
Do you find the terminology employed proper?
Yes No
Do you find the bibliography representative and up-to-date?
Yes No
Do you find all necessary illustrations and tables?
Yes No
Do you think that the paper will be of interest to the journal readers?
Yes No

4. Reviewer conclusion

Accept without changes
Accept after changes suggested by reviewer.
Rate manuscript once again after major changes and another review

5. Information for Editors (not visible for authors).

6. Information for Authors

Reviewing is carried out in the double blind process (authors and reviewers do not know each other’s names).

The appointed reviewers obtain summary of the text and it is his/her decision upon accepting/rejecting the paper for review within a given time period 21 days.

The reviewers are obliged to keep opinions about the paper confidential and to not use knowledge about it before publication.

The reviewers send their review to the Archives of Foundry Engineering by Editorial System. The review is archived in the system.

Editors do not accept reviews, which do not conform to merit and formal rules of scientific reviewing like short positive or negative remarks not supported by a close scrutiny or definitely critical reviews with positive final conclusion. The reviewer’s remarks are sent to the author. He/she has to consider all remarks and revise the text accordingly.

The author of the text has the right to comment on the conclusions in case he/she does not agree with them. He/she can request the article withdrawal at any step of the article processing.

The Editor-in-Chief (supported by members of the Editorial Board) decides on publication based on remarks and conclusions presented by the reviewers, author’s comments and the final version of the manuscript.

The final Editor’s decision can be as follows:
Accept without changes

The rules for acceptance or rejection of the paper and the review form are available on the Web page of the AFE publisher.

Once a year Editorial Office publishes present list of cooperating reviewers.
Reviewing is free of charge.
All articles, including those rejected and withdrawn, are archived in the Editorial System.

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