Applied sciences

Archives of Mining Sciences


Archives of Mining Sciences | 2021 | vol. 66 | No 2

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Salt caverns are used for the storage of natural gas, LPG, oil, hydrogen, and compressed air due to rock salt advantageous mechanical and physical properties, large storage capacity, flexible operations scenario with high withdrawal and injection rates. The short- and long-term mechanical behaviour and properties of rock salt are influenced by mineral content and composition, structural and textural features (fabrics). Mineral composition and fabrics of rock salt result from the sedimentary environment and post sedimentary processes. The impurities in rock salt occur in form of interlayers, laminae and aggregates. The aggregates can be dispersed within the halite grains or at the boundary of halite grains. Mineral content, mineral composition of impurities and their occurrence form as well as halite grain size contribute to the high variability of rock salt mechanical properties. The rock or mineral impurities like claystone, mudstone, anhydrite, carnallite and sylvite are discussed. Moreover, the influence of micro fabrics (in micro-scale) like fluid inclusions or crystals of other minerals on rock salt mechanical performance is described. In this paper the mechanical properties and behaviour of rock salt and their relation to mineral composition and fabrics are summarised and discussed. The empirical determination of impurities and fabrics impact on deformation mechanism of rock salt, qualitative description and formulation of constative models will improve the evaluation and prediction of cavern stability by numerical modelling methods. Moreover, studying these relations may be useful in risk assessment and prediction of cavern storage capacity.
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Authors and Affiliations

Katarzyna Cyran

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Mining and Geoengineering, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
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The paper presents the results of a study of methane adsorption on coal samples with various degrees of metamorphism, coming from the Polish and Czech parts of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB). The range of coalification of the samples was from bituminous with vitrinite reflectance Ro equal to about 0.5% to para-anthracite coals with Ro equal to over 2%. The methane adsorption capacity was determined at the temperature 303 K for each of the studied coal seams. Methane adsorption isotherms were approximated using the Langmuir model. The relationship between the Langmuir isotherm parameters (am and PL) and the degree of coalification was presented. It was shown that the degree of coalification of the coal substance affects the adsorption ability of coal with respect to methane and determines the value of the Langmuir isotherm parameters. The study was conducted in order to present the distribution of adsorption capacity of Upper Silesian coals in relation to improving work safety in active mines as well as designing technologies that use coal bed methane (CBM) from balance and off-balance resources.
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Authors and Affiliations

Barbara Dutka
Katarzyna Godyń

  1. Strata Mechanics Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 27 Reymonta Str.,30-059 Krakow, Poland
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As a preliminary point, four longwalls, where inertisation of goafs using nitrogen was applied, have been characterised. Next, the issue concerning the unreliable Graham’s ratio values, which occur in certain ranges of its denominator value, were discussed. The reliability criterion of this indicator was also quoted. Afterwards, a basic statistical sample consisting of the results of chromatographic analyses of air samples taken from longwalls areas, where nitrogen inertisation was not applied and were classified by Graham’s ratio as samples safe from endogenous fire hazard was described. Then, the results of comparative analyses of the base sample with the concentrations of gases contained in air samples taken from the areas of the previously described four longwalls, which according to Graham’s ratio, were also safe from the endogenous fire were presented. Comparative analyses were performed before and after applying Graham’s ratio reliability criterion.
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Authors and Affiliations

Lucjan Świerczek

  1. Central Mining Institute, Department of Mining Aerology, 1 Gwarków Sq., 40-166 Katowice, Poland
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Large deformation in roadways is an inevitable problem faced by many coal mines, and bolt installation is widely adopted to keep roadway stability. To provide a theoretical basis for bolt supporting scheme design in order to eliminate hazards associated with roadway failure, the interaction principle between bolts and the bolted strata should be studied thoroughly. This research attempts to investigate the above principle through theoretical analysis through a group of selected statistics from fifteen different coal mines. At the same time, the thick board support method was proposed and applied for controlling the ribs deformation in a particular coal mine. It is concluded that the interaction of the rock-bolt entity is subjected to the fluctuation balance law. When deformation increases, the bolted structure experiences periodic equilibrium variation. Both the supporting force needed to stabilise the surrounding rocks and the supporting capability of bolted strata show a trend of decrease in this process. The interaction principle of surrounding rocks and bolts is in essence the mechanical phenomenon caused by their mutual load transformation, and the load-carrying capacity varies with the bolted structure’s deformation, which is subjected to the following law: elastic roadway>plastic roadway> fractured roadway>broken roadway. The designed bolted thickness of the ribs should be more than 1/5 of roadway height to make full use of the self-stability of surrounding rocks. Finite Difference Method simulation and on-site monitoring data showed that the roof subsidence and ribs convergence of 2201 roadway in Shuguang coal mine was reduced by 83.7% and 88.6% respectively after utilising the proposed support method, indicating that the thick-board method was effective. Results of this research can lay a foundation for support design in large deformation roadways.
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Authors and Affiliations

Xun Yuan
Shuangsuo Yang

  1. Sichuan University – The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Institute for Disaster Managementand Reconstruction, 610207 Chengdu, China
  2. Taiyuan University of Technology, College of Mining Engineering, 030024 Taiyuan, China
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Optimum truck numbers of an enterprise can be found by dividing the period of time passed between a departing truck after loading, the arrival at the dumping location, the arrival at the point of loading again and the average loading time parameters of a truck. The average loading time of the truck is directly associated with the bucket fill factor and cycle time of the excavator. While the bucket fill factor depends on the mechanical strength and the discontinuity characteristics of the rock, the cycle time is related to bucket volume, the strength and the discontinuity characteristics of the rock. In this study, two relations predicting the average cycle time of the bucket fill factor for both hydraulic and electric excavators is done by seven excavators with different bucket volumes, and mass characteristics of eight different rocks from a coal open pit mine. According to the above, the optimum truck number was developed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Abdurrahman Tosun

  1. Dokuz Eylul University, Bergama, 35062, Izmir, Turkey
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The primary objective of the case study is to improve monitoring, controlling, planning and managing the extraction processes in surface lignite mining. Under the North Bohemian Lignite Basin (also Most Basin) conditions and the Sokolov Basin, wheeled excavators are deployed as the main technology for extracting coal and overlying rock. Their real-time spatial position can be tracked based on data from GNSS technology, inclinometers, and incremental rotary encoders. The measured data is sent to a remote server and stored in the database. It also serves to calculate volumes of extracted masses. Volume calculation, space position visualisation, and wheel boom movements are performed in KVASoftware. It is a program designed for modelling and designing quarries. Knowing the position of the wheel against the digital terrain (quarry), the model is essential for the implementation of many risk-elimination applications, namely with respect to the geological conditions, occupational safety, observance of the profile grade line, the area of extraction, qualitative parameters of the raw material, etc. The mathematical model of backfilling extracted materials is also an integral part of the above-mentioned system.
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Authors and Affiliations

Dana Vrublová
Roman Kapica
Stanislav Smelik
Markéta Smeliková

  1. VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava , Faculty of Mining and Geology, Institute of Combined Studies in Most, Dělnická 21, Most, Czech Republic
  2. VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Mining and Geology, Department of Geodesy and Mine Surveying, 17. listopadu 15, Ostrava – Poruba, 708 00, Czech Republic
  3. Geodetic Office, Baška 111, 739 01 Baška, Czech Republic
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Low-frequency mechanical vibrations can trigger disasters such as coal-gas outbursts. An in-house “vibration-triaxial stress-seepage” experimental apparatus was used to measure the gas flow rate of rock specimens with varying vibrational frequency, gas pressure, and confining pressure. The results of these tests were then used to derive expressions that describe how the permeability of gas-containing coal rocks is related to these aforementioned factors. In addition, sensitivity coefficients were defined to characterise the magnitude of the permeability response to each permeability-affecting factor (i.e., vibrational frequency and gas pressure). The following insights were gained, regarding the effects of vibrational frequency on the permeability of gas-containing coal rocks: (1) If gas pressure and confining pressure are fixed, the permeability of gas-containing coal rocks rapidly increases, before gradually decreasing, with increasing vibrational frequency. Thus, the permeability of the gas-containing coal rock is always larger with vibrations than without. (2) If vibrational pressure and confining pressure are fixed, the relationship between the permeability of gas-containing coal rocks and gas pressure is consistent with the “Klinkenberg effect,” i.e., the permeability initially decreases, and then increases, with increasing gas pressure. (3) The change in permeability induced by each unit change in gas pressure is proportional to the gas pressure sensitivity coefficient. (4) The change in permeability induced by each unit change in vibrational frequency is proportional to the vibrational frequency sensitivity coefficient.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zhu Bairu
Song Yang
Wu Beining
Li Yongqi

  1. Liaoning Technical University, School of Civil Engineering, Fuxin, Liaoning, 123000, China
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Gas explosions are major disasters in coal mining, and they typically cause a large number of deaths, injuries and property losses. An appropriate understanding of the effects of combustible gases on the characteristics of methane explosions is essential to prevent and control methane explosions. FLACS software was used to simulate an explosion of a mixture of CH4 and combustible gases (C2H4, C2H6, H2, and CO) at various mixing concentrations and different temperatures (25, 60, 100, 140 and 180℃). After adding combustible gases to methane at a constant volume and atmospheric pressure, the adiabatic flame temperature linearly increases as the initial temperature increases. Under stoichiometric conditions (9.5% CH4-air mixture), the addition of C2H4 and C2H6 has a greater effect on the adiabatic flame temperature of methane than H2 and CO at different initial temperatures. Under the fuel-lean CH4-air mixture (7% CH4-air mixture) and fuel-rich mixture (11% CH4-air mixture), the addition of H2 and CO has a greater effect on the adiabatic flame temperature of methane. In contrast, the addition of combustible gases negatively affected the maximum explosion pressure of the CH4-air mixture, exhibiting a linearly decreasing trend with increasing initial temperature. As the volume fraction of the mixed gas increases, the adiabatic flame temperature and maximum explosion pressure of the stoichiometric conditions increase. In contrast, under the fuel-rich mixture, the combustible gas slightly lowered the adiabatic flame temperature and the maximum explosion pressure. When the initial temperature was 140℃, the fuel consumption time was approximately 8-10 ms earlier than that at the initial temperature of 25℃. When the volume fraction of the combustible gas was 2.0%, the consumption time of fuel reduced by approximately 10 ms compared with that observed when the volume fraction of flammable gas was 0.4%.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zhenmin Luo
1 2
Litao Liu
1 2
Shuaishuai Gao
1 2
Tao Wang
1 2 3
Bin Su
1 2
Lei Wang
1 2
Yong Yang
4 2
Xiufang Li

  1. Xi’an University of Science and Technology, School of Safety Science & Engineering, 58, Yanta Mid. Rd., Xi’an, 710054, Shaanxi, PR China
  2. Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control of Coal Fire, 58, Yanta Mid. Rd, Xi’an, 710054, Shaanxi, PR China
  3. Xi’an University of Science and Technology, Postdoctoral Program, 58, Yanta Mid. Rd., Xi’an 710054, Shaanxi, PR China
  4. Xi’an University of Science and Technology, School of Safety Science & Engineering, 58, Yanta Mid. Rd., Xi’an, 710054, Shaanxi, PR
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Mine gas explosions present a serious safety threat in the worldwide coal mining industry. It has been considered the No.1 killer for underground coal mining workers. The formation of an explosive atmosphere involves various factors. Due to complicated stratified geology and the coal production process, geological conditions and coal production process reasons and particular working sections underground present a high risk of an explosion that would most likely cause casualties and property loss. In this study, the basic conditions, propagation law and hazards analysis of gas explosions are reviewed, followed by a review of the typical locations where an explosion would occur. Finally, current technologies used in the mining industry for preventing gas explosions and suppressing the associated dangers were studied. Preventive gas explosion technologies mainly include gas drainage, gas accumulation prevention and gas and fire source monitoring technologies. The technologies often used to control or mitigate gas explosion hazards are usually divided into active and passive, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed and compared. This paper aims to summarise the latest technologies for controlling and suppressing gas explosion and guides mining engineers to design risk mitigation strategies.
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Authors and Affiliations

Wanting Song
Jianwei Cheng
Wenhe Wang
Yi Qin
Zui Wang
Marek Borowski
Yue Wang
Purushotham Tukkaraja

  1. China University of Mining and Technology, College of Safety Engineering, Xuzhou 221116, China
  2. Chongqing University of Science and Technology, College of Safety Engineering, Chongqing 401331, China
  3. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Mining Engineering, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
  4. Xinjiang Institute of Engineering, College of Safety Science and Engineering, Urumqi 830000, China
  5. South Dakata School of Mines and Technology, Department of Mining Engineering and Management, Rapid City, SD, 57701, United States
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The paper presents the results of a series of Cone Penetration Test CPTu performed near the city of Wroclaw (Poland). The tests were carried out in 13 testing points located in close distance to each other. To verify the results of the penetration tests, fine-grained soil samples from selected depths were taken for laboratory tests. The study focuses on the evaluation of soil type, unit weight, and undrained shear strength cu, and compression index Cc. The grain size distribution of the soil and its mechanical parameters on the basis of a uniaxial compression and an oedometer tests were estimated. A comparison of laboratory and CPTu for selected values is presented. Determination of soil type was carried out on the basis of ISBT and IC values and good agreement with the granulometric composition was found. For undrained shear strength, commonly used correlations based on Nk, Nkt and Nke were adopted. However, the values obtained from the CPT are significantly lower than the results from laboratory tests. Therefore, values of cone factors suitable for investigated soil type and reference test were proposed. In the case of the compression index, the coefficient values βc and αm obtained agreed with those available in the literature. The findings presented in the paper indicate that laboratory tests remain necessary to identify soil properties from CPTu. The presented results are also a contribution to the knowledge of local soil conditions in the Lower Silesia area (Poland).
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Authors and Affiliations

Matylda Tankiewicz
Irena Bagińska

  1. Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 25 Norwida Str., 50-375 Wrocław, Poland
  2. Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, 27 Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego st., 50-370 Wrocław, Poland

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Length of paper

The research and review articles may not exceed 16 typewritten pages, technical notes -10 pages, format A4 including figures and tables.


The initial submission should be sent as Microsoft World (Arial, 12 points, line spacing - 1,5) or pdf file with all drawings, pictures and tables placed in the text.

After acceptance the text (in Microsoft Word), figures and tables should be sent as separate files.

Layout of the manuscript

First and last name(s) of the author(s), title of the article, abstract, keywords, methodology and introduction to the topics, results, conclusions, acknowledgements and references. The subtitles should conform to the decimal system of numbering.


The abstract should briefly summarize the most important results reported in the paper (up to 200 words).

Keywords: 4-6 keywords


Formulae should be prepared with Microsoft Equation, written clearly with distinct notation of upper and lower indices and parentheses, maintaining an uniform numbering.


Tables should be prepared as separate file in Microsoft World format.


If possible, the figures should be prepared with a vector graphics software (.cdr, .wmf, .al or .dxf formats) or as .eps, .jpg, .bmp (figures width no greater than 13.5 cm). Use Arial font for the comments on drawings in size 6-10 points. The photographs should be converted to high resolution scans in *.jpg or *.tiff format. Figures should be submitted as separate files.


A new type of literature provision has been in force since 2020 – modified vancouver style.

Please follow the instructions below.

References should be typed on separate pages and numbered consecutively applying the system accepted by the Quarterly (initials and names all authors, title of the article (obligatory), journal title [abbreviated according to the Journal Title Abbreviations of Web of Science: everyone abbreviation should be end with a dot - example. Arch. Metall. Mater.] or book title; journal volume or book publisher; page spread; publication year in bracket, full DOI number).

Please note the correct layout punctation (commas and periods), and spaces.

Please note the arrangement of dots, commas and spaces.

First we write the initial of the name, dot, space, surname, volume must be written BOLD, at the name of the authors, do not write a word “and” write only a comma. We give the year of publication at the end of the sentence in brackets and DOI number (full notation and linked).

The use of DOI numbers (full notation and linked) is mandatory for each paper and should be formatted as shown in the examples below:



[1] L.B. Magalas, Development of High-Resolution Mechanical Spectroscopy, HRMS: Status and Perspectives. HRMS Coupled with a Laser Dilatometer . Arch. Metall. Mater. 60 (3), 2069-2076 (2015). DOI:

[2] E. Pagounis, M.J. Szczerba, R. Chulist, M. Laufenberg, Large Magnetic Field-Induced Work output in a NiMgGa Seven-Lavered Modulated Martensite. Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 152407 (2015). DOI:

[3] H. Etschmaier, H. Torwesten, H. Eder, P. Hadley, Suppression of Interdiffusion in Copper/Tin thin Films. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. (2012). DOI:


[4] K.U. Kainer (Ed.), Metal Matrix Composites, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim (2006).

[5] K. Szacilowski, Infochemistry: Information Processing at the Nanoscale, Wiley (2012).

[6] L. Reimer, H. Kohl, Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation, Springer, New York (2008).

Proceedings or chapter in books with editor(s):

[7] R. Major, P. Lacki, R. Kustosz, J. M. Lackner, Modelling of nanoindentation to simulate thin layer behavior, in: K. J. Kurzydłowski, B. Major, P. Zięba (Eds.), Foundation of Materials Design 2006, Research Signpost (2006).

Internet resource:

[8], accessed: 17.04.2017

Academic thesis (PhD, MSc):

[9] T. Mitra, PhD thesis, Modeling of Burden Distribution in the Blast Furnace, Abo Akademi University, Turku/Abo, Finland (2016).

Prevent cases of plagiarism

Readers should be sure that the authors present the results of their work transparently, fair and honest, regardless of whether they are the direct authors, or used the help of a specialized entity (natural or legal person). To prevent cases of plagiarism, "Copyright agreement", the Editorial Office will require that the Authors disclosed the contribution of individual Authors in the creation of manuscript (with their affiliations and contributions, i.e. the information who is responsible for: research concept and design, collection and/or assembly of data, data analysis and interpretation, writing the manuscript). Funding sources (together with grant number) must also be revealed. The corresponding Author will bear the main responsibility for the manuscript. Detected cases will be exposed, including notifying the appropriate entities (institutions employing the Authors, scientific societies, associations of editors of scientific journals, etc.).

License type

Articles are printed in an open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0,

This license allows authors to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, remix, transform, and build upon the material. Authors may not use the material for commercial purposes. However, this condition does not include dependent works (they may be covered by another license).

Submission of an article to the journal is unequivocal to expressing consent to the publication in both paper and electronic form.

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