Applied sciences

Chemical and Process Engineering

Content

Chemical and Process Engineering | 2021 | vol. 42 | No 2 |

Authors and Affiliations

Eugeniusz Molga
1

  1. Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology

Authors and Affiliations

Ryszard Pohorecki
1

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, ul. Warynskiego 1, 00-645 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

Flow patterns generated by two ChemShear impellers, CS2 and CS4 have been measured and flow numbers calculated; Fl = 0.04 for both impellers. Transient and equilibrium drop sizes, d32 μm. of 3 different viscosity silicone oils agitated by a high-shear Rushton turbine, RT, a low-shear, high-flow HE3 impeller and the two ChemShears were determined. The equilibrium d32 are correlated by d_32=1300〖(ε_T)〗_(max.sv)^(-0.58) v^0.14 with an R2 = 0.94. However, the time to reach steady state and the equilibrium size at the same specific power do not match the above descriptors of each impeller’s characteristics. In other literature, these descriptors are also misleading. In the case of mixing time, a high shear RT of the same size as a high flow HE3 requires the same time at the same specific power in vessels of H/T = 1. In bioprocessing, where concern for damage to cells is always present, free suspension animal cell culture with high shear RTs and low-shear impellers is equally effective; and with mycelial fermentations, damage to mycelia is greater with low shear than high. The problems with these descriptors have been known for some time but mixer manufacturers and ill-informed users and researchers continue to employ them.

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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej W. Pacek
1
Alvin W. Nienow
1

  1. School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
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Abstract

In-line rotor-stators are widely used for power intensive industrial applications, such as deagglomeration, emulsification. There is limited information on characteristic power numbers for different designs which can be used to calculate the average power input as a means to evaluate process performance. This study made use of 18 different rotor-stators, 17 of which were toothed designs with different geometry, and also a commercially available design, with the objectives of evaluating the applicability of different expressions for characteristic power numbers and establishing the effects of geometric variations on the power input.

The expression P=〖Po〗_1 ρN^3 D^5+〖Po〗_2 ρN^2 D^2 Q is found to account for the experimental data over a wide range of operating conditions.

Rotor diameter was found to have the most prominent effect on the power input: an increase in rotor diameter from 119.6 to 123.34 mm resulted in an increase in the average power draw. The effect of rotor diameter examined with geometrically similar set ups reducing the diameter from 123.34 to 61.44 mm, for which the mixing chamber was also proportionately smaller, showed a decrease in the power input at a given speed and flowrate as well. The effects relating to the percentage of open area of the stator and number of rotor teeth were less obvious. Increasing the open area resulted in an increase in the power input – an effect which could be observed more clearly as the flowrate (1 to 4 l/s) and rotor speed (at 2000 and 3000 rpm) were also increased. Increasing the number of stator teeth increased the power input and this effect was more prominent when operating at the highest rotor speed of 3000 rpm and at low flowrates (1–2 l/s).
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Authors and Affiliations

Alex Hannam
1
Trevor Sparks
2
N. Gül Özcan-Taskın
3

  1. Loughborough University, School of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough LE11 3TT, UK
  2. Independent Consultant
  3. Loughborough University, School of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough LE11 3TT, UK 2
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Abstract

Modelling of titanium dioxide deagglomeration in the mixing tank equipped with a high shear impeller is presented in this study. A combination of computational fluid dynamics with population balance was applied for prediction of the final particle size. Two approaches are presented to solve population balance equations. In the first one, a complete population balance breakage kinetics were implemented in the CFD code to simulate size changes in every numerical cell in the computational domain. The second approach uses flow field and properties of turbulence to construct a mechanistic model of suspension flow in the system. Such approach can be considered as an attractive alternative to CFD simulations, because it allows to greatly reduce time required to obtain the results, i.e., the final particle size distribution of the product. Based on experiments shattering breakage mechanism was identified. A comparison of the mechanistic model and full CFD does not deviate from each other. Therefore the application of a much faster mechanistic model has comparable accuracy with full CFD. The model of particle deagglomeration does not predict a very fast initial drop of particle size, observed in the experiment, but it can predict, with acceptable accuracy, the final particle size of the product.
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Authors and Affiliations

Radosław Krzosa
1
Krzysztof Wojtas
1
Jakub Golec
1
Łukasz Makowski
1
Wojciech Orciuch
1
Radosław Adamek
2

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, ul.Warynskiego 1, 00-645 Warsaw, Poland
  2. ICHEMAD–Profarb, ul. Chorzowska 117, 44–100 Gliwice, Poland
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Abstract

The non-stationary problem of temperature distribution in a circular cylindrical channel of infinite length filled with a homogeneous biomass material moving with a constant velocity in the axial direction was investigated. The heat source was a shaftless helical screw (or auger), which was heated with an electric current due to the Joule–Lenz effect and rotated uniformly around the axis of symmetry of the channel. Similar problems arise in the thermal processing of biomaterials using screw conveyor in pyrolysis and mass sterilization and pasteurization of food products. The problem is solved using the expansion of given and required functions in Fourier series over angular coordinate and integral Fourier and Laplace transforms over axial coordinate and time, respectively. As a result, the temperature field is obtained as the sum of two components, one of which, global, is proportional to time, and the other, which forms the microstructure of the temperature profile, is given by Fourier–Bessel series. The coefficients of the series are determined by the integrals calculated using the Romberg method. Based on the numerical calculations, the analysis of the space-time microstructure of the temperature field in the canal was performed. A significant dependence of the features of this microstructure on the geometric, kinematic and thermodynamic characteristics of the filling biomass and the screw was revealed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Stanisław Ledakowicz
1
Olexa Piddubniak
1

  1. Faculty of Process and Environmental Engineering, Lodz University of Technology, Wolczanska St. 215, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
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Abstract

Efficiency of agitation was considered for different physical systems on the basis of our own experimental studies on homogenisation, heat and mass transfer as well as gas hold-up. Measurements were performed for different physical systems: Newtonian liquids of low and higher viscosity, pseudoplastic liquid, gas–liquid and gas–solid–liquid systems agitated in vessels of the working volume from 0.02 m3 to 0.2 m3. Agitated vessels of different design were equipped with a high-speed impeller (10 impellers were tested). Comparative analysis of the experimental results proved that energy inputs (power consumption) should be taken into account as a very important factor when agitation efficiency is evaluated in order to select a proper type of equipment. When this factor is neglected in the analysis, intensification of the process can be estimated only.
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Authors and Affiliations

Joanna Karcz
1
Jolanta Szoplik
1
Marta Major-Godlewska
1
Magdalena Cudak
1
Anna Kiełbus-Rapała
1

  1. West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Faculty of Chemical Technology and Engineering, al. Piastów 42, 71-065 Szczecin, Poland
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Abstract

We demonstrate in this study that a rotating magnetic field (RMF) and spinning magnetic particles using this kind of magnetic field give rise to a motion mechanism capable of triggering mixing effect in liquids. In this experimental work two mixing mechanisms were used, magnetohydrodynamics due to the Lorentz force and mixing due to magnetic particles under the action of RMF, acted upon by the Kelvin force. To evidence these mechanisms,we report mixing time measured during the neutralization process (weak acid-strong base) under the action of RMF with and without magnetic particles. The efficiency of the mixing process was enhanced by a maximum of 6.5% and 12.8% owing to the application of RMF and the synergistic effect of magnetic field and magnetic particles, respectively.
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Authors and Affiliations

Rafał Rakoczy
1
Marian Kordas
1
Agata Markowska-Szczupak
1
Maciej Konopacki
1
Adrian Augustyniak
1
Joanna Jabłońska
1
Oliwia Paszkiewicz
1
Kamila Dubrowska
1
Grzegorz Story
1
Anna Story
1
Katarzyna Ziętarska
1
Dawid Sołoducha
1
Tomasz Borowski
1
Marta Roszak
2
Bartłomiej Grygorcewicz
2
Barbara Dołęgowska
2

  1. West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Faculty of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, al. Piastów 42,71-065 Szczecin, Poland
  2. Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Chair of Microbiology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, al. Powstańców Wielkopolskich 72, 70-111 Szczecin, Poland
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Abstract

Complex rheological properties of yield-stress materials may lead to the generation of an intensive mixing zone near a rotating impeller. From the practical point of view, the zone should cover most of the stirred liquid. According to the literature review, several parameters may affect the size of the mixing zone, in particular forces exerted on the liquid. This paper presents both experimental and numerical investigation of axial and tangential forces generated during mechanical mixing of yield-stress fluids in a stirred tank. The tested fluids were aqueous solutions of Carbopol Ultrez 30 of concentration either 0.2 or 0.6 wt% and pH = 5:0. The study was performed for three types of impeller, pitched blade turbine, Prochem Maxflo T and Rushton turbine, in a broad range of their rotational speed, N = 60 - 900 rpm. The axial and tangential forces were calculated from the apparent mass of the stirred tank and torque, respectively. The experimental results were compared with CFD predictions, revealing their good agreement. Analysis of the generated forces showed that they are dependent on the rheological characteristic of liquid and the impeller type. It was also found that although axial force was smaller than tangential force, it significantly increased the resultant force.
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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Story
1
Grzegorz Story
1
Zdzisław Jaworski
1

  1. West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Faculty of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, al. Piastów 42,71-065 Szczecin, Poland

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Bibliographic data of the quoted literature should be arranged at the end of the manuscript in alphabetical order of surnames of the first author. It is obligatory to indicate the DOI number of those literature items, whose numbers have already been assigned. Journal titles should be specified by typing their right abbreviations or, when in doubts, according to the Science and Engineering Journal Abbreviations.

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Articles
Charpentier J. C., McKenna T. F., 2004. Managing complex systems: some trends for the future of chemical and process engineering. Chem. Eng. Sci., 59, 1617-1640. DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2004.01.044.
Information from books (we suggest adding the page numbers where the quoted information can be found)
Bird R. B., Stewart W.E., Lightfood E.N., 2002. Transport Phenomena. 2nd edition, Wiley, New York, 415-421.
Chapters in books
Hanjalić K., Jakirlić S., 2002. Second-moment turbulence closure modelling, In: Launder B.E., Sandham N.D. (Eds.), Closure strategies for turbulent and transitional flows. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 47-101.
Conferences
ten Cate A., Bermingham S.K., Derksen J.J., Kramer H.M.J., 2000. Compartmental modeling of an 1100L DTB crystallizer based on Large Eddy flow simulation. 10th European Conference on Mixing. Delft, the Netherlands, 2-5 July 2000, 255-264.



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