Nauki Techniczne

Archives of Civil Engineering

Zawartość

Archives of Civil Engineering | 2021 | vol. 67 | No 3 |

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Abstrakt

The state of the art in the field of composite polymer bridges in Poland is presented below. Such bridges were built from 1999. Some of them are fully composite polymer structure. Others are developed as hybrid structure. There are two kind of structures: steel girders with FRP deck and FRP girders with concrete deck. Different production methods of FRP elements were used: pultrusion and infusion. Some bridges are the result of research programs, but there are also some commercial projects. Also, the short application history of FRP bridges all over the world is presented and material properties of the construction material are given in the paper. Those materials are much more lighter than steel or concrete. Low weight of FRP materials is an advantage but also disadvantage. It is good from structural and economical point of view because the dimensions of girders, piers and foundation will be smaller. From opposite side to light structure could cause problems related to response of structure against dynamic actions. As a final result the fatigue strength and durability will be reduced. Of course, the high cost of FRP (CFRP especially) limits at the moment range of application. The presented in the paper bridge structures show that despite of mentioned above problems they are now in good conditions and their future life looks optimistic. It could be supposed that modification and/or development of FRP production technologies more better utilizing their properties will create more elegant and useful bridges.
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Bibliografia


[1] Chróścielewski J., Miśkiewicz M., Pyrzowski Ł, Wilde K., “Composite GFRP U-shaped footbridge”, Polish Maritime Research, Special Issue 2017 S1 (93) 2017 Vol. 24, pp. 25–31.
[2] Chróścielewski J., Miśkiewicz M., Pyrzowski Ł, Sobczyk B., Wilde K., “A novel sandwich footbridge – Practical application of laminated composites in bridge design and in situ measurements of static response”, Composites Part B Vol. 126, 2017, pp. 153–161.
[3] De Corte W., Jansseune A., Van Paepegem W., Peeters J., “Structural behaviour and robustness assessment of an InfraCore inside bridge deck specimen subjected to static and dynamic local loading”, Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi’an, 2017.
[4] Dong C.J., “Development of a process model for the vacuum assisted resin transfer molding simulation by the response surface method”, Composites: Part A Vol. 37, 2006, pp. 1316–1324.
[5] Grotte, B., Karwowski W., Mossakowski, P., Wróbel, M., Zobel, H., Żółtowski, P.: Steel, arch footbridge with composite polymer deck. „Wroclaw Bridge Days” - „Footbridges – Architecture, design, construction, research”. 29–30 November 2007, pp. 135–146.
[6] Grotte B., Karwowski W., Mossakowski P., Wróbel M., Zobel H., Żółtowski P., “Steel, arch footbridge with composite polymer deck with suspended composite polymer deck over S-11 highway nearby Kórnik”, Inżynieria i Budownictwo 1-2/2009, pp. 69–73.
[7] Karwowski W., “Material - structural conditions of joints in FRP bridges”, Ph. D. thesis, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw 2011.
[8] Madaj A., “Composite polymer bridges. New structural solutions of bridge girders”, Mosty 3/2015, pp. 58-60.
[9] Mossakowski P., Wróbel M., Zobel H., Żółtowski P. ,Pedestrian steel arch bridge with composite polymer deck. IV International Conference on “Current and future trends in bridge design, construction and maintenance”. Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia. October 2005.
[10] Mylavarapu R., Patnaik A., Puli K., R. K., “Basalt FRP: A new FRP material for infrastructure market?”, Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Advanced Composite Materials in Bridges and Structures, Canadian Society of Civil Engineers, Montreal, 2004.
[11] Patnaik A., “Applications of basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) reinforcement for transportation infrastructure”. Developing a Research Agenda for Transportation Infrastructure, TRB November, 2009.
[12] Pilarczyk K., “Application of composite panels InfraCore inside bridge structures”, Mosty 5/ 2019, pp. 74–75.
[13] Siwowski T., Kaleta D., Rajchel M., “Structural behaviour of an all-composite road bridge”, Composite Structures 192: pp. 555–567, 2018.
[14] Siwowski T., Rajchel M., Własak L., “Experimental study on static and dynamic performance of a novel GFRP bridge girder”, Composite Structures Vol. 259, 2021.
[15] Siwowski T., Rajchel M., Kulpa M, “Design and field evaluation of a hybrid FRP composite – lightweight concrete road bridge”, Composite Structures, Vol. 230, 2019.
[16] Siwowski T., Rajchel M., “Structural performance of a hybrid FRP composite – lightweight concrete bridge girder”, Composites Part B Vol. 174, 2019.
[17] Wąchalski K., “The design of renovation and widening of the J. Piłsudskiego bridge across Vistula river in Toruń, Poland”, Mosty 1/2021, pp. 50–56, (in Polish).
[18] Zobel H., Karwowski W, Wróbel M., „GFRP pedestrianbridge”, Inżynieria i Budownictwo nr 2/2003, pp. 107–108, (in Polish).
[19] Zobel H., “Composite Polymer Bridges”, Proceedings of 50-tie Conference „Scientific and Research Problems in Civil Engineering”, Krynica 2004, Vol I, pp. 381–410 (in Polish).
[20] Zobel H., Grotte B., Karwowski W., Wasiliew P., Wrobel M., Zoltowski P.: Pedestrian steel arch bridge with composite polymer deck and CFRP stays. IABSE Symposium “Metropolitan Habitats and Infrastructure”. Shanghai, China. September 2004. pp. 88–89 + CD.
[21] Zobel H., Karwowski W., Bridge composite polymer decks. Inżynieria i Budownictwo 11/2005, pp. 594–598. (in Polish).
[22] PN-EN 13706-3: 2004 Composite polymers. Technical Specifications for the profiles produced with pultrusion method. Part 3: Detailed requirements.
[23] http://www.mdacomposites.org/, 2005.
[24] Information Materials of the Mostostal Warszawa S.A. “Com-bridge – construction of the FRP structure”, 2016.
[25] Report of the Research Project “Material and structural conditions for joints in bridge structures made of FRP profiles realized in the Faculty of Civil Engineering at Warsaw University of Technology”. The project realized in 2005–2008 and financed by the Polish Ministry of Education and Science.
[26] https://fiberline.com/, 2021.
[27] https://www.kolbudy.pl, 2021.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Tomasz Siwowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Henryk Zobel
2
ORCID: ORCID
Thakaa Al-Khafaji
2
ORCID: ORCID
Wojciech Karwowski
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Rzeszow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil & Environmental Engineering & Architecture, ul. Powstancow Warszawy 12, 35-859 Rzeszow, Poland
  2. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstrakt

The subject of this paper is to analyse the climate change and its influence on the energy performance of building and indoor temperatures. The research was made on the example of the city of Kielce, Poland. It was was carried out basing on the Municipal Adaptive Plan for the city of Kielce and climate data from the Ministry of Investment and Development.The predicted, future parameters of the climate were estimated using the tool Weather Shift for Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP). The analysis took into consideration the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios for years 2035 and 2065, representing different greenhouse gas concentration trajectories. Scenario RCP4.5represents possible, additional radiative forcing of 4.5 W/m2 in 2100, and RCP8.5 an additional 8.5 W/m2. The calculated parameters included average month values of temperature and relative humidity of outdoor air, wind velocity and solar radiation. The results confirmed the increase of outdoor temperature in the following year. The values of relative humidity do not change significantly for the winter months, while in the summer months decrease is visible. No major changes were spotted in the level of solar radiation or wind speed. Based on the calculated parameters dynamic building modelling was carried out using the TRNSYS software. The methodology and results of the calculations will be presented in the second part of the paper.
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Bibliografia


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[2] H. Kawase et al., “Changes in extremely heavy and light snow-cover winters due to global warming over high mountainous areas in central Japan,” Prog. Earth Planet. Sci., 2020, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40645-020-0322-x
[3] Z. Zhou et al., “Is the cold region in Northeast China still getting warmer under climate change impact?,” Atmos. Res., 2020, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2020.104864
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[5] Z. W. Kundzewicz et al., “Flood risk and climate change: global and regional perspectives,” Hydrol. Sci. J., 2014, https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2013.857411
[6] L. Gu et al., “Projected increases in magnitude and socioeconomic exposure of global droughts in 1.5 and 2 °C warmer climates,” Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 2020, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-24-451-2020
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[9] V. Diaz, G. A. Corzo Perez, H. A. J. Van Lanen, D. Solomatine, and E. A. Varouchakis, “Characterisation of the dynamics of past droughts,” Sci. Total Environ., 2019, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134588
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[14] A. F. S. Ribeiro, A. Russo, C. M. Gouveia, P. Páscoa, and C. A. L. Pires, “Probabilistic modelling of the dependence between rainfed crops and drought hazard,” Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 2019, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2019-37
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[19] D. M. Lawrence, C. D. Koven, S. C. Swenson, W. J. Riley, and A. G. Slater, “Permafrost thaw and resulting soil moisture changes regulate projected high-latitude CO2 and CH4 emissions,” Environ. Res. Lett., 2015, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/10/9/094011
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[23] A. Goliger et al., “Comparative study between poland and south africa wind climates, the related damage and implications of adopting the eurocode for wind action on buildings,” Arch. Civ. Eng., 2013, https://doi.org/10.2478/ace-2013-0003
[24] T. Skoczkowski, S. Bielecki, A. Węglarz, M. Włodarczak, and P. Gutowski, “Impact assessment of climate policy on Poland’s power sector,” Mitig. Adapt. Strateg. Glob. Chang., 2018, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-018-9786-z
[25] A. Miszczuk, “Influence of air tightness of the building on its energy-efficiency in single-family buildings in Poland,” in MATEC Web of Conferences, 2017, vol. 117, https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201711700120
[26] S. Firlag, “Wpływ rodzaju systemu ogrzewczego na komfort cieplny i zużycie energii w jednorodzinnych budynkach pasywnych,” Czas. Tech., vol. 107, no. 4, pp. 49–57, 2010.
[27] Sotiris Vardoulakis, Chrysanthi Dimitroulopoulou, John Thornes, Ka-Man Lai, Jonathon Taylor, Isabella Myers, Clare Heaviside, Anna Mavrogianni, Clive Shrubsole, Zaid Chalabi, Michael Davies, Paul Wilkinson, Impact of climate change on the domestic indoor environment and associated health risks in the UK, Environment International, Volume 85, 2015, Pages 299–313, ISSN 0160-4120, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2015.09.010
[28] Mancini F, Lo Basso G. How Climate Change Affects the Building Energy Consumptions Due to Cooling, Heating, and Electricity Demands of Italian Residential Sector. Energies. 2020; 13(2): p. 410. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13020410
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[41] J. Wibig, “Heat waves in Poland in the period 1951–2015: trends, patterns and driving factors”, Meteorol. Hydrol. Water Manag., 2017, https://doi.org/10.26491/mhwm/78420
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Szymon Firląg
1
ORCID: ORCID
Artur Miszczuk
1
ORCID: ORCID
Bartosz Witkowski
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Faculty of Civil Engineering, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Na Grobli 15, 50-421 Wrocław, Poland
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Abstrakt

In this study, we tried to understand the horizontal bearing performances of step-tapered piles using numerical simulations. The influence of the geometric parameters, e.g. the diameter ( D) and the distance (L), and the length ( H) of the pile were considered, and the soil distribution imposed on the horizontal bearing capacity of the piles was simulated. Numerical results show that when the other geometrical parameters of step-tapered piles are kept unchanged: (a) the increasing diameter ( D) of the enlarged upper part of step-tapered piles improves the horizontal ultimate bearing capacity of step-tapered piles; (b) reduced distance ( L) improves the horizontal ultimate bearing capacity of the step-tapered piles; (c) Increasing length ( H) of the enlarged upper part of steptapered piles increases the horizontal ultimate bearing capacity; (d) the reduced length ( H) decreases the bending moment of the pile body. Higher soil strength surrounding the enlarged upper part of step-tapered piles can increase the horizontal ultimate bearing capacity of step-tapered piles. The change of soil strengths at the end of the step-tapered piles does not influence the horizontal ultimate bearing capacity of step-tapered piles.
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Bibliografia


[1] M. Ghazavi, O. Tavasoli, “Characteristics of non-uniform cross-section piles in drivability”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 43: pp. 287–299, 2012.
[2] A.M. Rybnikov, “Experimental investigations of bearing capacity of bored-cast-in-place tapered piles”, Foundation Engineering 43: pp. 48–52, 1990.
[3] K.K. Jayantha, D.M. Ian, “Axial response of tapered piles in cohesive frictional ground”, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 119: pp. 675–693, 1993.
[4] M. Sakr, M.H. El Naggar, M. Nehdi, “Wave equation analyses of tapered FRP–concrete piles in dense sand”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 27: pp. 166–182, 2007.
[5] J.H. Lee, K.H. Paik, D.H. Kim, S.H. Hwang, “Estimation of axial load capacity for bored tapered piles using CPT results in sand”, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 135: pp. 1284–1294, 2009.
[6] Y.G. Zhan, H. Wang, “Numerical study on load capacity behavior of tapered pile foundations”, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 17: pp. 1969–1980, 2012.
[7] G.Q. Kong, H. Zhou, H.L. Liu, X.M. Ding, R. Liang, “A simplified approach for negative skin friction calculation of special-shaped pile considering pile-soil interaction under surcharge”, Journal of Central South University of Technology, 21: pp. 3648–3655, 2014.
[8] N. Hataf, A. Shafaghat, “Optimizing the bearing capacity of tapered piles in realistic scale using 3D finite element method”, Geotech Geol Eng 33: pp. 1465–1473, 2015.
[9] F.I. Nabil, “Behavior of step tapered bored piles in sand under static lateral loading”, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 136: pp. 669–676, 2010.
[10] Y.R. Lv, H.L. Liu, X.M. Ding, G.Q. Kong, “Field tests on bearing characteristics of x-section pile composite foundation”, Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities 26: pp. 180–189, 2012.
[11] L.X. Xiong, H.J. Chen, “A numerical study and simulation of vertical bearing performance of step-tapered pile under vertical and horizontal loads”, Indian Geotech J 50: pp. 383–409, 2020.
[12] N.F. Ismael, “A behavior of laterally loaded bored piles in cemented sands”, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 116: pp. 1678–1699, 1990.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Liangxiao Xiong
1
Haijun Chen
2
Zhongyuan Xu
3
Changheng Yang
1

  1. School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013, PR China
  2. Geotechnical Engineering Department, Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, 210029, PR China
  3. Department of Earth Sciences, University of Delaware, DE 19716, United States
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Abstrakt

The overall efficiency of a construction of a deep excavation urban project does not depend only on the duration of the construction but also on its influence on the urban environment and the traffic [9, 10]. These two things depend greatly on the excavation method and the construction stages defined during the design process. This paper describes the construction stages of three metro stations (two stations in Warsaw and one in Paris) and discusses their advantages and disadvantages including among other things its impact on neighbouring infrastructure and the city’s traffic. An important conclusion drawn from this analysis is that the shape of the slabs used can considerably affect the design and the construction stages. For example, a vaulted top slab allows an almost immediate traffic restoration and a vaulted bottom raft allows a much shorter dewatering period.
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Bibliografia

[1] A. Stańczyk, “Doświadczenia z budowy stacji metra "Ratusz" i "Marymont" w Warszawie”, Inżynieria i Budownictwo, 5, pp. 244–247, 2008.
[2] Daktera, T., Bourgeois, E., Schmitt, P., Jeanmaire, T., Delva, L., & Priol, G., “Design of deep supported excavations: comparison between real behavior and predictions based on the subgrade coefficient method”, Proceedings of the XVII European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, pp. 2608–2615, 2019.
[3] Daktera T. “Amélioration des méthodes de calcul des écrans de soutènement à partir du retour d'expérience de grands travaux récents » PhD Thesis, Univ Gustave Eiffel, (to be published) 2020.
[4] M. Graff, “Subway in Warsaw”, Transport systems, 12, pp. 25–35, 2018.
[5] K.F. Unrug, “Shaft design criteria”, International Journal of Mining Engineering, 2, 141–155, 1984.
[6] ILF CONSULTING ENGINEERS, “Design and construction of the underground line II from “Rondo Daszyńskiego” station to the “DworzecWileński” station in Warsaw”, 2010.
[7] M. Mitew-Czajewska, “Geotechnical investigation and static analysis of deep excavation walls – a case study of metro station construction in Warsaw”, Ann. Warsaw Univ. Life Sci. – SGGW, Land Reclam. 47 (2), pp. 163–171, 2015. http://doi.org/10.1515/sggw-2015-0022
[8] A. Sieminska-Lewandowska, “Budowa obiektu a obudowa wykopu – niełatwe zależności”, Nowoczesne Budownictwo Inżynieryjne, marzec kwiecień, pp. 64–71, 2010.
[9] A. Siemińska-Lewandowska, “Głębokie wykopy. Projektowanie i wykonawstwo.”, WKŁ, Warszawa, 2010.
[10] G. Kacprzak, S. Bodus, “The modelling of excavation protection in a highly urbanised environment”, Technical Transactions, Vol. 1, pp. 133–142, 2019. https://doi.org/10.4467/2353737XCT.19.009.10049
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Grzegorz Kacprzak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Tomasz Daktera
2
ORCID: ORCID
Andrzej Stańczyk
3
ORCID: ORCID
Urszula Tomczak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Seweryn Bodus
3
ORCID: ORCID
Michał Werle
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Soletanche Bachy International 280 Avenue Napoléon Bonaparte, 92500 Rueil Malmaison, France
  3. Warbud S.A.
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Abstrakt

The paper presents analysis of effect of structural soil backfill parameters on load capacity of culvert made as buried flexible steel structure. The work is divided into two parts. The first part is devoted to the assumptions of the Sundquist-Pettersson method. The principles of the analysis of the structure in terms of ultimate limit strength, serviceability and fatigue in permanent and temporary calculation situations are described. The second part presents a design example of a soil steel composite bridge in the form of a closed profile culvert made of MulitiPlate-type corrugated sheet. The static and strength calculations were conducted according to the Sundquist-Pettersson method and the guidelines presented in the Eurocodes. According to the guidelines, the value of the backfill tangent modulus was determined using the simplified (A) and precise (B) methods. It was found that the modulus values determined by the simplified method were about three times lower than for the exact method, leading to very conservative, uneconomical results. The structural calculations using the tangent modulus determined by the simplified method, indicated that the load capacity of the structure was exceeded, regardless of the thickness of the backfill used (in the range from 0.5 to 5 m). The use of the tangent modulus determined using the precise method resulted in a significant reduction in stress to bearing capacity ratio of analysed parameters. Similar reduction was observed with the increase in the thickness of the backfill.
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Bibliografia


[1] Cz. Machelski, “Modeling of soil–steel composite bridges” [in Polish], 1nd ed., Dolnośląskie Wydawnictwo Edukacyjne, Wrocław, 2008.
[2] A. Wysokowski and L. Janusz, “Soil steel composite bridges. Laboratory destructive testing. Failures during construction and operation” [in Polish], in Proceedings of Conference XXIII Konferencja Naukowo – Techniczna Awarie Budowlane – 23rd International Conference on Structural Failures, Szczecin-Międzyzdroje, 2007, pp. 541–550.
[3] A. Wysokowski and J. Vaslestadt, “Full scale fatigue testing of large-diameter multi-plate corrugated steel culverts”, Archives of Civil Engineering, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 31–57, 2002.
[4] A. Wysokowski, J. Vaslestad and A. Pryga, “Fatigue resistance of modern corrugated steel culverts” [in Polish], Konstrukcje Stalowe, no. 5, pp. 45–47, 2000.
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[6] D. Bęben, “Soil-steel bridge structures design problems and construction faults” [in Polish], Drogownictwo, no. 3, pp. 74–79, 2013.
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[8] Cz. Machelski, “Steel plate curvatures of soil-steel structures during construction and exploitation”, Roads and Bridges – Drogi i Mosty, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 207–220, 2016. https://doi.org/10.7409/rabdim.016.013
[9] L. Korusiewicz, “Verification of the method of estimating bending moments in soil-shell structures on the basis of shell deformation”, Roads and Bridges – Drogi i Mosty, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 221–230, 2016. https://doi.org/10.7409/rabdim.016.014
[10] J. Howis and A. Wysokowski, “Culverts in the communication infrastructure – part 9. Methods for calculating culverts – part III. New calculation methods" [in Polish], Nowoczesne Budownictwo Inżynieryjne, no. 5, pp. 72–81, 2010.
[11] L. Pettersson and H. Sundquist, “Design of soil steel composite bridges”, Trita-BKN, Report 112, 5th Edition, Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Structural Design and Bridges, Stockholm, Sweden, 2014.
[12] PN-EN 1997-1:2008. Projektowanie geotechniczne. Część 1: Zasady ogólne.
[13] PN-EN 1997-2:2009. Projektowanie geotechniczne. Część 2: Rozpoznanie i badanie podłoża gruntowego.
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[16] D. Bęben, “Soil-steel bridges. Design, maintenance and durability”, 1nd ed., Springer, Cham, 2020.
[17] A. Wysokowski and J. Howis, “Culverts in the communication infrastructure – part 1” [in Polish], Nowoczesne Budownictwo Inżynieryjne, no. 2, pp. 52–56, 2008.
[18] L. Pettersson, “Full scale tests and structural evaluation of soil steel flexible culverts with low height of cover”, PhD Thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Structural Design and Bridges, Stockholm, Sweden, 2007.
[19] PN-EN 1993-1-1:2006. Projektowanie konstrukcji stalowych. Część 1–1: Reguły ogólne i reguły dla budynków.
[20] L. Pettersson, “Design of soil steel composite bridges according to the Eurocode”, Archives of Institute of Civil Engineering, no. 12, pp. 21–25, 2012.
[21] PN-EN 1993-1-8:2008. Projektowanie konstrukcji stalowych. Część 1–8: Projektowanie węzłów.
[22] PN-EN 1991-2:2007. Oddziaływania na konstrukcje. Część 2: Obciążenia ruchome mostów.
[23] PN-EN 1993-1-9:2008. Projektowanie konstrukcji stalowych. Część 1–9: Zmęczenie.
[24] PN-EN 1993-2:2007. Projektowanie konstrukcji stalowych. Część 2: Mosty stalowe.
[25] www.viacon.pl (access: November 6, 2020).
[26] PN-EN 1990:2004. Podstawy projektowania konstrukcji.
[27] P. G. Kossakowski, “Fatigue Strength of an Over One Hundred Year Old Railway Bridge”, Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 166–173, 2013. https://doi.org/10.3846/bjrbe.2013.21
[28] P. G. Kossakowski, “Influence of Initial Porosity on Strength Properties of S235JR Steel at Low Stress Triaxiality”, Archives of Civil Engineering, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 293–308, 2021. https://doi.org/10.2478/v.10169-012-0017-9
[29] P. G. Kossakowski, “Experimental Determination of the Void Volume Fraction For S235JR Steel at Failure in the Range of High Stress Triaxialities”, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 167–172, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1515/amm-2017-0023
[30] P. G. Kossakowski, “Analysis of the Void Volume Fraction For S235JR Steel at Failure for Low Initial Stress Triaxiality”, Archives of Civil Engineering, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 101–115, 2018. https://doi.org/10.2478/ace-2018-0007
[31] P. G. Kossakowski, “Application of Damage Mechanics for Prediction of Failure of Structural Materials and Elements”, DEStech Transactions on Computer Science and Engineering, pp. 62–72, 2020. https://doi.org/10.12783/dtcse/msam2020/34228
[32] E. Bernatowska, “Numerical Simulations of Ductile Fracture in Steel Angle Tension Members Connected with Bolts”, Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 32–54, 2020. https://doi.org/10.2478/ceer-2020-0018
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Michał Bakalarz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Paweł Kossakowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Wiktor Wciślik
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Kielce University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Al. Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego 7, 25-314 Kielce, Poland
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Abstrakt

A comprehensive assessment of buildings in accordance with the concept of sustainable development requires their analysis in three economic, environmental and social aspects. J It is a multi-criteria assessment, which takes into account many factors and their significance for the purpose of this assessment. Due to the complexity of this assessment, it can be performed due to a particular aspect, and the result obtained is a component of the global quality indicator as an additive function. The article presents the results of research conducted in large-panel buildings (LPB) enabling their assessment due to the social aspect. It is particularly important in the assessment of residential buildings, and the existing large resources of LPB are the basis for choosing them for such assessment According to the PN-EN 16309 + A1: 2014-12 standard, during conducting a social assessment of buildings, six main categories should be taken into account, which include: accessibility, adaptability, health and comfort, impact on the neighborhood, maintenance and maintainability, safety and security. The presented data was obtained as a result of the analysis of the features of selected buildings from the “large panel” located in housing estates in Cracow and Jędrzejów using a computer application. It is based on a mathematical model that was developed as part of a doctoral dissertation.
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Bibliografia


[1] L. Runkiewicz, B. Szudrowicz, H. Prejzner, R. Geryło, J. Szulc and J. Sieczkowski, “Diagnostics and modernization of large-panel buildings”. Vol. 1 and Part 2, Przegląd budowlany, 7–8, 9 2014.
[2] J. Sieczkowski and J. Szulc, “Three-layer walls in large-panel buildings,” Inżynier budownictwa, 10 2019.
[3] M. Wójtowicz, “Possibility of failure of the outer walls of multi-panel buildings - a real problem or a media sensation,” in XXV Konferencja Naukowo-Techniczna „Awarie Budowlane”, Szczecin-Międzyzdroje, 2011.
[4] M. Wójtowicz, “Durability of large-panel buildings in the light of research,” in XIII Konferencja naukowo-techniczna. Warsztat Pracy rzeczoznawcy budowlanego, Cedzyna, 2014.
[5] J. Szulc, “General technical condition of large-panel buildings in the aspect of historical systemic irregularities,” IZOLACJE, http://www.izolacje.com.pl/artykul/id2763,ogolny-stan-techniczny-budynkow-wielkoplytowych-w-aspekcie-historycznych-nieprawidlowosci-systemowych?p=4, 08.04.2019.
[6] A. Radziejowska, A method of assessing the social performance of residential buildings in the aspect of sustainable construction, Cracow, 2018.
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[13] E. Marcinkowska and P. Urbański, “Assessment of the technical degree of wear of residential buildings using artificial neural networks,” Ekologia w inżynierii procesów budowlanych. Konferencja naukowa, Lublin-Kazimierz Dolny, pp. 319–325, 21–24 5 1998.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Aleksandra Radziejowska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Anna Sobotka
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology in Cracow, Department of Geomechanics, Civil Engineering and Geotechnics, Av. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow, Poland
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Abstrakt

The paper presents the comparison of dynamic modulus and phase lag in different loading conditions for asphalt concrete mixture with or without reclaimed asphalt shingles (RAS) addition. For each mixture, 6 samples were tested using the four point bending beam method, at four temperatures and at six frequencies. The results of the study were subjected to the analysis of the statistical significance of differences between mixtures. The graphic form of results presentation includes Black curves and Cole-Cole plots. Then, matching the sigmoidal functions enabled the creation of master curves of the complex stiffness module and the phase shift angle, being a function of the load frequency. It has been observed that the mixture with the addition of RAS has higher stiffness and elasticity in the range of higher temperatures (20°C and 30°C) and lower load frequencies, which results in higher values of the complex stiffness module and lower values of the phase lag. At 0°C, the behavior of both mixtures is very similar, while at 10°C significant differences between the tested mixtures were found only for low frequency loads (up to 5 Hz). Test results have shown that mixtures with the addition of RAS have a lower thermal sensitivity in terms of the complex stiffness modulus and phase lag than the reference mixture. The above results confirmed an improvement in rutting resistance for RAS mixes observed in previous work.
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Bibliografia


[1] Pouranian M. R., Shishehbor M., “Sustainability Assessment of Green Asphalt Mixtures: A Review”, Environments 2019, 6, 73, p. 55. https://doi.org/10.3390/environments6060073
[2] Williams R.C., Cascione A., Yu J., Haugen D., Marasteanu M., McGraw J., “Performance of recycled asphalt shingles in hot mix asphalt”, Institute for Transportation and Iowa State University, August 2013.
[3] J.J. Foxlow, J.S. Daniel, A.K. Swamy, ”RAP or RAS? The differences in performance of HMA containing reclaimed asphalt pavement and reclaimed asphalt shingles”, Journal of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists, Volume 80, pp 347–376, 2011.
[4] Barry K., Daniel J. S., Foxlow J., Gray K., “An evaluation of reclaimed asphalt shingles in hot mix asphalt by varying sources and quantity of reclaimed asphalt shingles”, Road Materials and Pavement Design, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2014, pp. 259–271. https://doi.org/10.1080/14680629.2013.861765
[5] H. Baaj, M. Ech, N. Tapsoba, C. Sauzeat, H. Di Benedetto, “Thermomechanical characterization of asphalt Mixtures modified with high contents of asphalt shingle modifier (ASM®) and reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP)”, Materials and Structures, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-013-0015-7
[6] Zhou F., Li H., Hu S., Button J.W., Epps J.A., ”Characterization and best use of recycled asphalt shingles in hot-mix asphalt”, Report No. FHWA/TX-13/0-6614-2, TEXAS A&M TRANSPORTATION INSTITUTE, USA, 2013, p. 107.
[7] J. Darnell, C.A. Bell, ”Performance based selection of RAP/RAS in asphalt mixtures”, Report No. FHWA/OR-RD-16-08, Oregon Dept. of Transportation, Washington, USA, p. 107, 2015.
[8] Jaczewski M., Judycki J., Jaskuła P., „Lepkoplastyczne modelowanie mieszanek mineralno-asfaltowych przy długim czasie obciążenia za pomocą krzywych wiodących i jego ograniczenia”, Drogownictwo, 10/2015, pp. 336–340.
[9] P. Zieliński, “Study of the possibility of increasing manufacture waste asphalt shingles additive to hot mix asphalt”, 18 International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2018, Volume 18, 2018, pp. 191–198. https://doi.org/10.5593/sgem2018/4.2/S18.025
[10] PN-EN 12697-33 „Mieszanki mineralno-asfaltowe. Metody badań mieszanek mineralno-asfaltowych na gorąco”. Część 33: Przygotowanie próbek zagęszczanych urządzeniem wałującym.
[11] PN-EN 12697-26 „Mieszanki mineralno-asfaltowe. Metody badań mieszanek mineralno-asfaltowych na gorąco”. Część 26: Sztywność.
[12] Computer Program Statgraphics Plus v. 5.1, A Manugistics Inc. Product, Rockville, MD USA, 2000,
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Piotr Zieliński
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, ul. Warszawska 24, 31-155 Kraków, Poland
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Abstrakt

The cost estimation at the pre-project stage provides an important decision-making indicator for the future of the project. With a preliminary cost estimation, project participants can make financial decisions and cost control. The aim of this paper is to propose a model for estimating the costs of facade systems before the pre-design stage, using the GAM (Generalized Additive Model) method. The commonly used method for the valuation of facade systems is based on individual calculation. Such valuation process is complicated and time consuming. For this reason the search for a new forecasting method is justified. The database developed for modelling purposes includes 61 cases of real costs of system façade execution for public buildings. Each case is described by 16 parameters (namely, input variables). The average absolute percentage error (MAPE) was used to assess the model, which takes the value of 14,26% for the generalized model with a logarithmic binding function and 11.77% for the model with an identity binding function. On the basis of the studies and the results obtained, it can be concluded that the constructed model is useful and can improve the process of forecasting system façade costs at the pre-projection stage.
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Bibliografia


[1] D. A. Aczel, “Statystyka w Zarządzaniu”, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, 2017.
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[37] D. Wieczorek, E. Plebankiewicz, K. Zima, „Model estimation of the whole life cost of a building with respect to risk factors”, Technological and Economic Development of Economy, Vol. 25 No. 1, pp. 20–38, 2019. https://doi.org/10.3846/tede.2019.7455
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Agnieszka Leśniak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Monika Górka
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute, 24 Warszawska street, 31-155 Cracow, Poland
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Abstrakt

The paper presents the results of experimental tests on the reinforcement of bent laminated veneer lumber beams with carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) strips glued to the bottom of elements. CFRP strips (1.4×43×2800 mm) were glued to the beams by means of epoxy resin. The tests were performed on full-size components with nominal dimensions of 45×200×3400 mm. Static bending tests were performed in a static scheme of the so-called four-point bending. The increase in the load bearing capacity of the reinforced elements (maximum bending moment and loading force) was 38% when compared to reference beams. A similar increase was noted in relation to the deflection of the elements at maximum loading force. For the global stiffness coefficient in bending, the increase for reinforced beams was 21%. There was a change in the way elements were destroyed from brittle, sudden destruction for reference beams resulting from the exhaustion of tensile strength to more ductile destruction initiated in the compressive zone for reinforced beams. The presented method can be applied to existing structures.
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Bibliografia


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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Michał Bakalarz
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Kielce University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Al. Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego 7, 25-314 Kielce, Poland
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Abstrakt

The paper presents a modified finite element method for nonlinear analysis of 2D beam structures. To take into account the influence of the shear flexibility, a Timoshenko beam element was adopted. The algorithm proposed enables using complex material laws without the need of implementing advanced constitutive models in finite element routines. The method is easy to implement in commonly available CAE software for linear analysis of beam structures. It allows to extend the functionality of these programs with material nonlinearities. By using the structure deformations, computed from the nodal displacements, and the presented here generalized nonlinear constitutive law, it is possible to iteratively reduce the bending, tensile and shear stiffnesses of the structures. By applying a beam model with a multi layered cross-section and generalized stresses and strains to obtain a representative constitutive law, it is easy to model not only the complex multi-material cross-sections, but also the advanced nonlinear constitutive laws (e.g. material softening in tension). The proposed method was implemented in the MATLAB environment, its performance was shown on the several numerical examples. The cross-sections such us a steel I-beam and a steel I-beam with a concrete encasement for different slenderness ratios were considered here. To verify the accuracy of the computations, all results are compared with the ones received from a commercial CAE software. The comparison reveals a good correlation between the reference model and the method proposed.
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Bibliografia


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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Damian Mrówczyński
1
ORCID: ORCID
Tomasz Gajewski
2
ORCID: ORCID
Tomasz Garbowski
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Research and Development Division, FEMAT Sp. z o.o., Romana Maya 1, 61-371, Poznan, Poland
  2. Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Structural Analysis, Piotrowo 5, 60-965 Poznan, Poland
  3. Poznan University of Life Sciences, Department of Biosystems Engineering, Wojska Polskiego 50, 60-627 Poznan, Poland
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Abstrakt

The subject of the wind tunnel tests is a steel chimney 85 m high of cylindrical – type structure with a grid-type curtain structure situated at its upper part. The model of the upper part of the chimney made in the scale of 1:19 was equipped with 3 levels of wind pressure measurement points. Each level contained 24 points connected with pressure scanners. On the base of the pressure measurements, both mean and instantaneous aerodynamic drag and side force coefficients were determined. Next wind gust factors for these two wind action components were determined. Moreover, for each pressure signal Fast Fourier Transform was done. Mean wind action components were also determined using stain gauge aerodynamic balance. Obtained results make possible to conclude that the solution applied in the upper part of the designed chimney is correct from building aerodynamics point of view. Some minor vortex excitations were observed during model tests of the upper part of the chimney. The basic dynamic excitation of this part of the chimney is atmospheric turbulence.
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Bibliografia



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[8] Brownjohn, J. M. W., Carden, E. P., Goddard, C. R., & Oudin, G. (2010). “Real-time performance monitoring of tuned mass damper system for a 183 m reinforced concrete chimney”. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 98(3), pp. 169–179, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2009.10.013.
[9] Christensen, R. M., Nielsen, M. G., & Støttrup-Andersen, U. (2017). “Effective vibration dampers for masts, towers and chimneys”. Steel Construction, 10(3), pp. 234–240, https://doi.org/10.1002/stco.201710032.
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[11] Verboom, G. K., & van Koten, H. (2010). “Vortex excitation: Three design rules tested on 13 industrial chimneys”. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 98(3), pp. 145–154, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2009.10.008.
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[13] Lupi, F., Höffer, R., & Niemann, H.-J. (2021). “Aerodynamic damping in vortex resonance from aeroelastic wind tunnel tests on a stack”. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 208, pp. 104–438.
[14] Lupi, F., Niemann, H.-J., & Höffer, R. (2017). “A novel spectral method for cross-wind vibrations: Application to 27 full-scale chimneys”. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 171, pp. 353–365, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2017.10.014.
[15] Rahman, S., Jain, A. K., Bharti, S. D., & Datta, T. K. (2020). “Comparison of international wind codes for across wind response of concrete chimneys”. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 207, pp. 104–401.
[16] Ruscheweyh H., “Dynamische Windwirkung an Bauwerken. Band 2: Praktische Anwendungen. Bauverlag”. Wiesbaden und Berlin, 1982.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Andrzej Flaga
1
ORCID: ORCID
Renata Kłaput
1
ORCID: ORCID
Łukasz Flaga
1
ORCID: ORCID
Piotr Krajewski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Wind Engineering Laboratory, Jana Pawła II 37/3a, 31-864 Cracow
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Abstrakt

Being negatively impressed by the data published by the European Commission in CARE (Community database on Accidents on the Roads in Europe), where Poland is presented as the European Country with the highest rate of fatalities in road crashes involving cyclists during 4 years period (2009–2013), the Authors decided to analyse available data. Bikes become a more and more popular means of transport and the way of active recreation. In Warsaw, the share of bicycle trips rises 1 to 3% per year. The aforementioned, together with increasing traffic density, caused 4233 registered injuries among cyclists in 2018 in Poland. In 286 cases the accidents were direct reasons for the cyclists’ death. Considering these facts, it becomes extremely important to point the most influencing factors and conditions contributing to cyclists’ serious accidents. Onedimensional or two-dimensional statistics are not sufficient to find all important associations between the road conditions and the number of cyclists’ accidents. To overcome that the association analysis is applied. The results of the analysis can contribute to increasing the knowledge and safety of transport.
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Bibliografia


[1] Warsaw Cycle Report website: http://transport.um.warszawa.pl/ruch-rowerowy/raporty-rowerowe
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[9] M. Lasek, M. Pęczkowski, Analiza asocjacji i reguły asocjacyjne w badaniu wyborów zajęć dydaktycznych dokonywanych przez studentów. Zastosowanie algorytmu Apriori, Ekonomia. Rynek. Gospodarka, Warsaw, 2013.
[10] T. Klimanek, M. Szymkowiak, T. Józefowski, Application of market basket analysis in biological disability, Research Papers of Wrocław University of Economics 507, 2018. https://doi.org/10.15611/pn.2018.507.09
[11] A.M. Ahmed, A.A. Bakar AA, A.R. Hamdana, S.M. Abdullah, O. Jaafarb, Sequential pattern discovery algorithm for Malaysia rainfall prediction. Acta Phys Pol A 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.12693/APhysPolA.128.B-324
[12] A. Nicał, H. Anysz, The quality management in precast concrete production and delivery processes supported by association analysis, International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-019-02597-9
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[14] H. Anysz, B. Buczkowski, The association analysis for risk evaluation of significant delay occurrence in the completion date of construction project, International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-018-1892-7
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[16] A. Pande, M. Abdel-Aty, Market basket analysis of crash data from large jurisdictions and its potential as a decision support tool, Elsevier, Safety Science 47: pp. 145–154, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2007.12.001
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[18] D. Nenadić, Ranking dangerous sections of the road using MCDM model. Decision Making: Applications in Management and Engineering, 2(1): pp. 115–131, 2019. Retrieved from https://dmame.rabek.org/index.php/dmame/article/view/31
[19] P. Olszewski, P. Szagała, D. Rabczenko, & A. Zielińska, Investigating safety of vulnerable road users in selected EU countries. Journal of Safety Research, 68: pp. 49–57, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsr.2018.12.001
[20] https://ec.europa.eu/transport/road_safety/specialist/statistics# (access June 2019)
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Hubert Anysz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Paweł Włodarek
1
ORCID: ORCID
Piotr Olszewski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Salvatore Cafiso
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
  2. University of Catania, Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95131 Catania, Italy
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Abstrakt

Waste tyres are among the largest and most problematic sources of waste today, due to the large volume produced and their long-lasting decomposition and resistance to water and extreme temperatures. Since 2000 in Europe the EU Landfill Directive has forbidden the disposal of waste tyres in a landfill. Since then waste tyre derived products (TDP), including whole tyres, tyre bales, shreds, chips, and crumb rubber, have been widely used also in civil engineering applications. The baling is nowadays the best way for the product recycling of waste tyres. Waste tyre bales have considerable potential for use in road applications, particularly where their low density, permeability and ease of handling give them an advantage. Road applications include but are not limited to: embankments construction, slope stabilization and repair (landslides), road foundations over soft ground, backfill material for retaining walls and gravity retaining structures (gabion-type). Several case studies, showing the opportunities to use waste tyre bales in road construction, are presented and illustrated in the paper preceded by providing the engineering properties of waste tyre bales, used within the road structures constructed worldwide. The article also describes the first world application of abutment backfill from the tyre bales in a road bridge, realized in Poland.
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Bibliografia


[1] P.J. Bosscher, T.B. Edil, S. Kuraoka, “Design of highway embankments using tire chips”, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 123: pp. 295–304, 1997.
[2] J.H. Lee, R. Salgado, A. Bernal, C.W. Lovell, “Shredded tires and rubber-sand as lightweight backfill”, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 125: pp. 132–141, 1999. https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)1090-0241(1999)125:2(132).
[3] R.K. Mittal, G. Gill, “Sustainable application of waste tire chips and geogrid for improving load carrying capacity of granular soils”, Journal of Cleaner Production, 200: pp. 542–551, 2018. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.07.287.
[4] A. Mahgoub, H.E. Naggar, “Coupled TDA-geocell stress-bridging system for buried corrugated metal pipes”, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 146: July, 2020. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2020.103761.
[5] J.D. Simm, M.G. Winter, S. Waite, “Design and specification of tyre bales in construction”, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Waste and Resource Management, 161: pp. 67–76, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1680/warm.2008.161.2.67.
[6] M.G. Winter, J.M. Reid, P.I.J. Griffiths, “Tyre bales in construction: case studies”, Report PPR 045. TRL Limited, Crowthorne, UK, 2005.
[7] PAS (Publicly Available Specification), “Specification for production of tyre bales for use in construction”, PAS 108. London, UK, 2007.
[8] A. Duda, M. Kida, S. Ziembowicz, P. Koszelnik, “Application of material from used car tyres in geotechnics – an environmental impact analysis”, PeerJ 8:e9546, 2020. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9546
[9] M. Gualtieri, M. Andrioletti, C. Vismara, M. Milani, M. Camatini, “Toxicity of tire debris leachates”, Environment International, 31: pp. 723–730, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2005.02.001
[10] P. Hennebert, S. Lambert, F. Fouillen, B. Charrasse, “Assessing the environmental impact of shredded tires as embankment fill material”, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 51: pp. 469–478, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1139/cgj-2013-0194.
[11] L. Liu, G. Cai, J. Zhang, X. Liu, K. Liu, “Evaluation of engineering properties and environmental effect of recycled waste tire-sand/soil in geotechnical engineering: A compressive review”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 126: pp. 109–831, 2020. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2020.109831.
[12] K. Sonti, S. Senadheera. P. W. Jayawickrama, P. T. Nash, D. D. Gransberg, “Evaluate the uses for scrap tires in transportation facilities”. Research Study No 0-1808, Centre for Multidisciplinary Research in Transportation. Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA, 2000.
[13] I.F. Hodgson, S.P. Beales, M.J. Curd, “Use of tyre bales as lightweight fill for the A421 improvements scheme near Bedford, UK”, Engineering Geology Special Publications, 26: pp. 101–108, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1144/EGSP26.12.
[14] H. Harri, “Tyre bales form part of Finnish Road”, World Highways, 14: March, 18, 2005.
[15] M.G. Winter, G.R.A. Watts, P.E. Johnson, “Tyre bales in construction”. Report PPR 080. TRL Limited, Crowthorne, UK, 2006.
[16] W. Prikryl, R. Williammee, M.G. Winter, “Slope failure repair using tyre bales at Interstate Highway 20, Tarrant County, Texas, USA”, Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 38: pp. 377–386, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1144/1470-9236/04-065.
[17] M.G. Winter, “Road foundation construction using lightweight tyre bales”, Proceedings of the 18th ICSMGE, Paris, pp. 3275–3278, 2013.
[18] C. Mackenzie, T. Saarenketo, “The B871 tyre bale project. The use of recycled tyre bales in a lightweight road embankment over peat”, Research report. Roadscanners, Rovaniemi, Finland, 2003.
[19] P. Bandini, A. T. Hanson, F. P. Castorena, S. Ahmed, “Use of tire bales for erosion control projects in New Mexico”, ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication 179: Characterization, Monitoring, and Modeling of Geosystems, pp. 638–645, New Orleans, LA, USA, 2008.
[20] A. Duda, D. Sobala, “Initial research on recycled tyre bales for road infrastructure applications”, SSP - Journal of Civil Engineering, 12: pp. 55–62, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1515/sspjce-2017-0019
[21] A. Duda, T. Siwowski, “Pressure evaluation of bridge abutment backfill made of waste tyre bales and shreds: experimental and numerical study”, Transportation Geotechnics, 24: pp. 100–366, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trgeo.2020.100366.
[22] A. Duda, T. Siwowski, “Experimental investigation and first application of lightweight abutment backfill made of used tyre bales”, Proceedings of CEE 2019. Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, 47: pp. 66–73, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-27011-7_9
[23] B. Freilich, J.G. Zornberg, “Mechanical properties of tire bales for highway applications”. Report No. FHWA/TX-10/0-5517-1, Center for Transportation Research. University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA, 2009.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Aleksander Duda
1
ORCID: ORCID
Tomasz Siwowski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Rzeszow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Environment and Architecture, Al. Powstanców Warszawy 12, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland
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Abstrakt

Helicopters of the Medical Air Rescue (LPR) help transport the patients to large hospitals quickly. The requirements for the space around the helipad and flight safety mean that more elevated helipads than ground helipads are built at hospitals located in proximity to the city centres. Elevated helipads can vary in design and location depending on the opportunities offered by the hospital buildings and their surroundings. The Vibroacoustic Laboratory of the Warsaw Institute of Aviation took measurements to determine the impact of a helicopter on a hospital elevated helipad during landing or taking off. Helicopter landings are neither frequent nor long, however, they can have a significant impact on a helipad structure, the hospital building itself and its patients, staff or equipment. The impact of the helicopter includes both the noise, vibrations transmitted by the helicopter chassis and air pulsations under the rotor (low-frequency ones). This paper discusses some methods used for measuring vibration properties of several elevated helipads and building recorded during the landing and take-off of the EC135 helicopter. The sample results of such tests are also presented. The tests discussed can be used to verify both the assumptions and calculations referring to helipads and to meet the requirements of the standards in the field of noise and vibrations.
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Bibliografia

[1] Act dated 8 September 2006 r. on National Medical Rescue (J. of L. 191 No. 1410).
[2] Regulation of the Min. of Health, 27 June 2019 on the hospital emergency department (J. of L. 2019 No. 1213)
[3] Federal Aviation Administration, US Department of Transportation, 2012, Heliport Design -AC 150/5390-2c, Chapter 4 - Hospital Heliports.
[4] K. Wąchalski, „Wyniesione lądowiska dla helikopterów na budynkach szpitalnych” (Elevated helipads on hospital buildings), „Inżynier Budownictwa”, Warsaw, 2018.
[5] K. Wąchalski, “Assessment of the current construction conditions for elevated helipad on hospital buildings in Poland”, Warsaw, Prace Instytutu Lotnictwa No. 3 (244), pp 189–201, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.5604/05096669.1226158
[6] Polish Standard PN-B-02171_2017 “Ocena wpływu drgań na ludzi w budynkach” (Assessment of the effects of vibration on people in buildings).
[7] S. Cieślak, W. Krzymień, “Initial analysis of helicopter impact on hospital helipads”, Transactions of the Institute of Aviation (256), Warsaw, pp 14 –23, 2019, https://doi.org/10.2478/tar-2019-0014
[8] W. Krzymień, S. Cieślak, “Investigation of the vibration properties of concrete elevated hospital helipads”, Vibrations in Physical Systems No. 31, Poznan, 2020.
[9] M. Szmidt, W. Krzymień, S. Cieślak, “Vibration properties of steel constructed hospital elevated helipads”, Transactions on Aerospace Research (260), Warsaw, pp 11–20 , 2020. https://doi.org/10.2478/tar-2020-0013
[10] Eric E. Ungar, “Vibration criteria for healthcare facility floors”, Sound & Vibration, 41(9) pp. 26–27, 2007.
[11] P. Ruchała, K. Grabowska “Problems of an aerodynamic interference between helicopter rotor slipstream and an elevated heliport”, Journal of KONES Powertrain and Transport, Vol. 26, No. 3, 2019, http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/kones-2019-0072
[12] A. Dziubiński, A. Sieradzki, R. Żurawski, “The elevated helipads – study of wind and rotor wash influence for most common configuration types”, 44th European Rotorcraft Forum, Netherlands, 2018.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Wiesław Krzymień
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Aviation, Al. Krakowska 110/114, 02-256 Warsaw
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Abstrakt

The article presents numerical analysis of a typical residential building in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, which was erected in the early twentieth century and was not protected against mining ground deformations. The greatest impact of ground deformation on buildings are ground horizontal strain ε and ground curvature K. Numerical calculations included the building and the ground to take into account the effect of soilstructure interaction. The structure of the analysed building was made of masonry with wooden ceiling and roof elements. The ground was implemented as a layer 3.0m below the foundations and 3.0 m outside the building's projection. Construction loads are divided into two stages – permanent and functional loads as well as ground mining deformation. The maximum convex curvature K+ and the horizontal strain of the substrate ε+ were achieved in the 8th load step. The results of the analyses were presented in the form of stress and deformation maps. The most important results are the magnitude of the main tensile stresses σmax, which could to create cracks in the structure may occur after exceeding the tensile strength ft of the material. The presented method can be used to the analysis of endangered building objects by mining ground deformations.
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Bibliografia


[1] Ochrona powierzchni przed szkodami górniczymi, Group work, Publishing House Śląsk; 1980.
[2] J. Rusek, L. Słowik, K. Firek, M. Pitas, “Determining the Dynamic Resistance of Existing Steel Industrial Hall Structures for Areas with Different Seismic Activity”. Archives of Civil Engineering LXVI(4): 2020; pp. 525–542; https://doi.org/10.24425/ace.2020.135235.
[3] J. Rusek, W. Kocot, “Proposed Assessment of Dynamic Resistance of the Existing Industrial Portal Frame Building Structures to the Impact of Mining Tremors”. 2017 IOP Conference Series Materials Science and Engineering; 245(3):032020; https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/245/3/032020.
[4] J. Rusek, K. Tajduś, K. Firek, A. Jędrzejczyk, “Bayesian networks and Support Vector Classifier in damage risk assessment of RC prefabricated building structures in mining areas”. 2020 5th International Conference on Smart and Sustainable Technologies (SpliTech); https://doi.org/10.23919/SpliTech49282.2020.9243718
[5] Y. Jiang, R. Misa, K. Tajduś, A. Sroka, Y. Jiang, “A new prediction model of surface subsidence with Cauchy distribution in the coal mine of thick topsoil condition”. Archives of Mining Sciences 65(1): 2020; pp. 147–158; https://doi.org/10.24425/ams.2020.132712.
[6] A. Sroka, S. Knothe, K. Tajduś, R Misa., “Point Movement Trace Vs. The Range Of Mining Exploitation Effects In The Rock Mass”. Archives of Mining Sciences, Vol. 60 (2015), No 4, pp. 921–929; https://doi.org/10.1515/amsc-2015-0060
[7] K. Tajduś, “Analysis of horizontal displacement distribution caused by single advancing longwall panel excavation”. Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 1(4) 2015; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrmge.2015.03.012.
[8] R. Bals, “Beitrag zur Frage der Vorausberechnung bergbaulicher Senkungen. Mitteilungen aus dem Markscheidewese”. Verlag Konrad Witter. Stuttgart; 1931/32.
[9] Knothe S., „Równanie profilu ostatecznie wykształconej niecki osiadania”, Archiwum Górnictwa i Hutnictwa, 1953, t.1, z.1.
[10] W. Ehrhard, A. Sauer, “Die Vorausberechnung von Senkung, Schieflage und Krummung uber dem Abbau in flacher Lagerung”. Bergbau-Wissenschaften, 1961.
[11] K. Tajduś, “Numerical Simulation of Underground Mining Exploitation Influence Upon Terrain Surface”. Archives of Mining Sciences 58(3) 2013; https://doi.org/10.2478/amsc-2013-0042.
[12] M. Cała, J. Flisiak, A. Tajduś, „Wpływ niepodsadzkowych wyrobisk przyszybowych na deformacje powierzchni. Człowiek i środowisko wobec procesu restrukturyzacji górnictwa węgla kamiennego”. Biblioteka Szkoły Eksploatacji Podziemnej, 2001, nr 6.
[13] K. Tajduś, S. Knothe, A. Sroka, R. Misa, “Underground exploitations inside safety pillar shafts when considering the effective use of a coal deposit”. Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi 31(3): 2015; pp. 93–110; https://doi.org/10.1515/gospo-2015-0027.
[14] Z. Budzianowski, „Działanie wygiętego podłoża na sztywną budowlę znajdującą się w obszarze eksploatacji górniczej”. Inżynieria i Budownictwo, 1964, nr 6 i 7.
[15] O. Deck, M. Al Heib, F. Homand, “Taking the soil–structure interaction into account in assessing the loading of a structure in a mining subsidence area”. Engineering Structures 2003; 25, pp. 435–448; https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-0296(02)00184-0
[16] A. Saeidi, O. Deck, T. Verdel, “Development of building vulnerability functions in subsidence regions from empirical methods”. Engineering Structures 2009; 31 (10), pp. 2275–2286; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2009.04.010
[17] J. Kwiatek, “Protection of construction objects in mining areas”. Publishing House of Central Mining Institute, Katowice, (in Polish) 1997; p. 726.
[18] J. Kwiatek, “Construction facilities on mining areas”. Wyd. GiG Katowice (in Polish), 2007; p. 266.
[19] L. Szojda, “Numerical analysis of the influence of non-continuous ground displacement on masonry structure”. Silesian University of Technology Publishing House, Gliwice, Monography (in Polish), p. 194; 2009.
[20] D. Mrozek, M. Mrozek, J. Fedorowicz, “The protection of masonry buildings in a mining area”. Procedia Engineering 193 International Conference on Analytical Models and New Concepts in Concrete and Masonry Structures AMCM’2017, pp.184–191; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.06.202
[21] R. Misa, K. Tajduś, A. Sroka, “Impact of geotechnical barrier modelled in the vicinity of a building structures located in mining area”. Archives of Mining Sciences 2018; no 4, vol. 63 Kraków, pp. 919–933; https://doi.org/10.24425/ams.2018.124984
[22] A. Sroka, R. Misa, K. Tajduś, M. Dudek, “Analytical design of selected geotechnical solutions which protect civil structures from the effects of underground mining”. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsm.2018.10.002
[23] L. Szojda, Ł. Kapusta, “Evaluation of the elastic model of a building on a curved mining ground based on the result of geodetic monitoring”. Archives of Mining Sciences 65(2): 2020; pp. 213–224, https://doi.org/10.24425/ams.2020.133188
[24] L. Szojda, G. Wandzik, “Discontinuous terrain deformation - forecasting and consequences of their occurrence for building structures”. 29th International Conference on Structural Failures, 2019, art. no. 03010 pp. 1–12, https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201928403010
[25] L. Szojda, „Analiza numeryczna zmian naprężeń w konstrukcji ściany wywołanych nieciągłymi deformacjami podłoża górniczego”. Czasopismo Inżynierii Lądowej, Środowiska i Architektury, 2017 t. 34 z. 64, nr 3/I, p. 511–522, https://doi.org/10.7862/rb.2017.142
[26] V. Červenka, L. Jendele, J. Červenka, “ATENA Program documentation”. Part 1, Theory, Prague, 2016, p. 330.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Leszek Szojda
1
ORCID: ORCID
Łukasz Kapusta
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Silesian University of Technology, Department of Structural Engineering, ul. Akademicka 5,44-100 Gliwice, Poland
  2. Kielce University of Technology, Department of Environmental, Geomatic and Energy Engineering, al. Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego 7, 25-314 Kielce, Poland
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Abstrakt

This paper discusses the use of mechanical cone penetration test CPTM for estimating the soil unit weight of selected organic soils in Rzeszow site, Poland. A search was made for direct relationships between the empirically determined the soil unit weight value and cone penetration test leading parameters (cone resistance qc, sleeve friction fs. The selected, existing models were also analysed in terms of suitability for estimating the soil unit weight and tests were performed to predict the value soil unit weight of local, different organic soils. Based on own the regression analysis, the relationships between empirically determined values of soil unit weight and leading parameters cone penetration test were determined. The results of research and analysis have shown that both existing models and new, determined regression analysis methods are poorly matched to the unit weight values determined in laboratory, the main reason may be the fact that organic soils are characterized by an extremely complicated, diverse and heterogeneous structure. This often results in a large divergence and lack of repeatability of results in a satisfactorily range. Therefore, in addition, to improve the predictive performances of the relationships, analysis using the artificial neural networks (ANN) was carried out.
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Bibliografia


[1] EN 1997-1: 2008. Eurocode 7: Geotechnical Design – Part 1: General rules.
[2] EN 1997-2: 2009. Eurocode 7: Geotechnical Design – Part 2: Ground Investigation and Testing.
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[5] A. Goh, “Empirical design in geotechnics using neural networks”, Geotechnique 45: pp. 709–714, 1995. https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.1995.45.4.709
[6] M. Shahin, M. Jaksa, H. Maier, “Artificial neural network applications in geotechnical engineering”, Aust. Geomech. 36: 49–62, 2001.
[7] N. Nawari, R, Liang, J. Nusairat, “Artificial intelligence techniques for the design and analysis of deep foundations”. Electron. J. Geotech. Eng. 4: pp 1–21, 1999. Available online: http://geotech.civeng.okstate.edu/ejge/ppr9909/index.html (accessed on).
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[9] C.H. Zhiming, M. Guotao, Z. Ye, Z. Yanjie, H. Hengyang, “The application of artificial neural network in geotechnical engineering”, In Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Civil and Hydraulic Engineering (IConCHE 2018), Qingdao, China, 23–25 November 2018; IOP Publishing: Bristol, UK, 2018; http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/189/2/022054
[10] Z. Wang, Y. Li, “Correction of soil parameters in calculation of embankment settlement using a BP network back-analysis model”, Eng. Geol. 91: pp. 168–177, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2007.01.007
[11] M.J. Sulewska, “Applying Artificial Neural Networks for analysis of geotechnical problems”, Comput. Assist. Methods Eng. Sci. 18: pp. 230–241, 2011.
[12] M.J. Sulewska, “Artificial Neural modeling of compaction characteristics of cohesionless soil”, Comput. Assist. Methods Eng. Sci. 17: pp. 27–40, 2010.
[13] M.J. Sulewska, “Artificial Neural Networks in the Evaluation of Non-Cohesive Soil Compaction Parameters”, Committee Civil Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Warsaw, Poland, 2009.
[14] M.J. Sulewska, “Prediction Models for Minimum and Maximum Dry Density of Non-Cohesive Soils”, Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 19: pp. 797–804, 2010.
[15] M. Ochmański, J. Bzówka, “Selected examples of the use of artificial neural networks in geotechnics”, Civ. Environ. Eng. 4: pp. 287–294, 2013.
[16] A. Borowiec, K. Wilk, “Prediction of consistency parameters of fen soils by neural networks”, Comput. Assist. Methods Eng. Sci.21: pp. 67–75, 2014.
[17] M. Kłos, M.J. Sulewska, Z. Waszczyszyn, “Neural identification of compaction characteristics for granular soils”, Comput. Assist. Methods Eng. Sci.18: pp. 265–273, 2011.
[18] G. Wrzesiński, M.J. Sulewska, Z. Lechowicz, “Evaluation of the Change in Undrained Shear Strength in Cohesive Soils due to Principal Stress Rotation Using an Artificial Neural Network”, Appl. Sci. 8: p. 781, 2018. https://doi.org/10.3390/app8050781
[19] Z. Lechowicz, M. Fukue, S. Rabarijoely, M.J. Sulewska, “Evaluation of the Undrained Shear Strength of Organic Soils from a Dilatometer Test Using Artificial Neural Networks”, Appl. Sci. 8: p. 1395, 2018. https://doi.org/10.3390/app8081395
[20] S. Rabarijoely, “A new Approach to the Determination of Mineral and Organic Soil Types Based on Dilatometer Tests (DMT)”, Appl. Sci.8 (11):, p. 2249, 2018. https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112249
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Grzegorz Straż
1
ORCID: ORCID
Artur Borowiec
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Rzeszow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture Civil Engineering, Powstańców Warszawy 12 Av., 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland
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Abstrakt

The liquidation of underground mines by the flooding leads to movements of the rock mass and land surface as a result of pressure changes in the flooded zones. The changes resulting from the rising water table caused by the changes in the stress and strain state, as well as the physical and mechanical properties of rock layers, can lead to damage to building structures and environmental changes, such as chemical pollution of the surface water. For this reason, the ability to predict the movements of rock masses generated as a result of mine closure by flooding serves a key function in relation to the protection of the land surface and buildings present thereon. This paper presents an analysis of a steel industrial portal-frame structure under loading generated by the liquidation of a mine by flooding. The authors obtained land surface uplift results for the liquidated mine and used them in a numerical simulation for the example building. Calculations were performed for different cases, and the results were compared to determine whether limit states may be exceeded. A comparison was made between the cases for the design state and for additional loading caused by the uplift of the subsurface layer of the rock mass.
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Bibliografia


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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Mateusz Dudek
ORCID: ORCID
Janusz Rusek
ORCID: ORCID
Krzysztof Tajduś
ORCID: ORCID
Leszek Słowik
ORCID: ORCID
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Abstrakt

The article presents the results of investigation of mechanical and thermal properties of lightweight concrete with waste copper slag as fine aggregate. The obtained results were compared with the results of concrete of the same composition in which natural fine aggregate (river sand) was used. The thermal properties tests carried out with the ISOMET 2114 device included determination of the following values: thermal conductivity coefficient, thermal volume capacity and thermal diffusivity. After determining the material density, the specific heat values were also calculated. The thermal parameters were determined in two states of water saturation: on fully saturated material and dried to constant mass at 65°C. Compressive strength, open porosity and bulk density are given as supplementary values. The results of the conducted research indicate that replacing sand with waste copper slag allows to obtain concrete of higher ecological values, with similar mechanical parameters and allowing to obtain significant energy savings in functioning of cubature structures made of it, due to a significantly lower value of thermal conductivity coefficient.
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Bibliografia



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[47] H. Uysal, R. Demirboğa, R. Şahin, R. Gül, “The effects of different cement dosages, slumps, and pumice aggregate ratios on the thermal conductivity and density of concrete”, Cement and Concrete Research 34: pp. 845–848, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2003.09.018
[48] J. Kuterasińska, A. Król, „Żużel pomiedziowy jako surowiec w produkcji alkalicznie aktywowanych spoiw żużlowych”, Prace Instytutu Ceramiki i Materiałów Budowlanych 7: pp. 21–36, 2014.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Roman Jaskulski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Piotr Dolny
1
ORCID: ORCID
Yaroslav Yakymechko
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Mechanics and Petrochemistry, ul. Łukasiewicza 17, 09-400 Płock, Poland
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Abstrakt

The present paper focuses on the analysis of resistance of several prototypical under sleeper pads (USP) to severe environmental conditions. Taking into account the climate in Poland, evaluation of USP in regard to water and frost resistance should be performed and the influence of high temperatures should be analyzed. In the present paper results of several tests carried out on the selected USP are presented. The tests were performed in accordance with the rules given in PN-EN 16730. Concrete blocks with USP were immersed in water at room temperature for 24 h and then placed in a climatic chamber for resistance testing. The results show that the severe environmental conditions influence the damping-related parameters of USP, which affects the effectiveness of the vibration isolation. The performed analyses allowed the authors to indicate the most resistant pads that will undergo further testing. Additionally, requirements of several railway infrastructure managers as well as authors' recommendations concerning the properties of USP were given.
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Bibliografia


[1] C. Jayasuriya, B. Indraratna, T. Ngoc Ngo, “Experimental study to examine the role of under sleeper pads for improved performance of ballast under cyclic loading”, Transportation Geotechnics 19: pp. 61–73, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trgeo.2019.01.005
[2] C. Kraśkiewicz, A. Zbiciak, W. Oleksiewicz, W. Karwowski, “Static and Dynamic Parameters of Railway Tracks Retrofitted With Under Sleeper Pads”, Archives of Civil Engineering 64(4): pp. 187–201, 2018. https://doi.org/10.2478/ace-2018-0070
[3] M. Sol-Sánchez, F. Moreno-Navarro, C. Rubio-Gámez, “The use of elastic elements in railway tracks: A state of the art review”, Construction and Building Materials 75: pp. 293–305, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.11.027
[4] M. Sol-Sánchez, L. Pirozzolo, F. Moreno-Navarro, C. Rubio-Gámez, “A study into the mechanical performance of different configurations for the railway track section: A laboratory approach”, Engineering Structures 119: pp. 13–23, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2016.04.008
[5] M. Sol-Sánchez, F. Moreno-Navarro, C. Rubio-Gámez, “The Use of Deconstructed Tires as Elastic Elements in Railway Tracks”, Materials 7: 5903–5919, 2014. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7085903
[6] M. Sol-Sánchez, N.H. Thom, F. Moreno-Navarro, C. Rubio-Gámez, G.D. Airey, “A study into the use of crumb rubber in railway ballast” Construction and Building Materials 75: pp. 19–24, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.10.045
[7] J. Kennedy, P.K. Woodward, G. Medero, M. Banimahd, “Reducing railway track settlement using three-dimensional polyurethane polymer reinforcement of the ballast” Construction and Building Materials 44: pp. 615–625, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.03.002
[8] S. Kaewunruen, A. Aikawa, A.M. Remennikov, “Vibration attenuation at rail joints through under sleeper pads”. Procedia Engineering 189: pp. 193-198, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.05.031
[9] A. Omodaka, T. Kumakura, T. Konishi, “Maintenance reduction by the development of resilient sleepers for ballasted track with optimal under-sleeper pads”, Procedia CIRP 59: pp. 53–56, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2016.09.039
[10] T. Abadi, L. Le Pen, A. Zervos, W. Powrie, “Effect of Sleeper Interventions on Railway Track Performance”, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 145(4): 04019009, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0002022
[11] C. Jayasuriya, B. Indraratna, T.N. Ngo, “Experimental study to examine the role of under sleeper pads for improved performance of ballast under cyclic loading”, Transportation Geotechnics 19: pp. 61–73, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trgeo.2019.01.005
[12] C. Kraśkiewicz, A. Zbiciak, A. Al Sabouni-Zawadzka, A. Piotrowski, “Experimental Research on Fatigue Strength of Prototype under Sleeper Pads Used in the Ballasted Rail Track Systems”, Archives of Civil Engineering 66(1): pp. 241–255, 2020. https://doi.org/10.24425/ace.2020.131786
[13] Zbiciak, C. Kraśkiewicz, Al Sabouni-Zawadzka, J. Pełczyński, S. Dudziak, “A Novel Approach to the Analysis of Under Sleeper Pads (USP) Applied in the Ballasted Track Structures”, Materials 13(11): p. 2438, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112438
[14] IRS 70713-1: Railway Application – Track & Structure “Under Sleeper Pads (USP) - Recommendations for Use”, 1st edition 01.04.2018.
[15] PN-EN 16730:2016-08 Railway applications – track – concrete sleepers and bearers with under sleeper pads.
[16] RFI TCAR SF AR 03 007 C, Specifica tecnica di fornitura: Tappetini sotto traversa (USP), 2017.
[17] SNCF IG04013 Traverses et supports béton pour pose ballastée équipées de semelles résilientes en sous faces (ex CT IGEV 016) 14.08.2018.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Cezary Kraśkiewicz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Artur Zbiciak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Anna Al Sabouni-Zawadzka
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstrakt

In drill and blast tunneling method (D&B), non-electric detonators are the most commonly used initiation system. The constant development of excavation technology provides advanced tools for achieving better results of excavation. The research presented in this paper was focused on the attempt to evaluate the influence of electronic detonators, which nowadays are unconventional in tunnelling engineering, on the quality of the excavated tunnel contour. Based on the data form Bjørnegård tunnel in Sandvika, where electronic detonators were tested in five blasting rounds, detailed analysis of drilling was performed. The analysis was made based on the data from laser scanning of the tunnel. 103 profile scans were used for the analysis: 68 from non-electric detonators and 35 from electronic detonators rounds. The results analyzed in terms of contour quality showed that comparing to the results from rounds blasted with non-electric detonators, there was not significant improvement of the contour quality in rounds with electronic detonators.
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Bibliografia


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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Anna Monika Skłodowska
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Monika Mitew-Czajewska
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Now at: Instituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale – OGS, Borgo Grotta Gigante 42/C - 34010 - Sgonico, Italy & University of Trieste, Piazzale Europa 1, Trieste, Italy
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Abstrakt

This paper presents a study of laminated veneer lumber panels subjected to bending. Laminated veneer lumber (LVL) is a sustainable building material manufactured by laminating 3-4-mm-thick wood veneers, using adhesives. The authors of this article studied the behaviour of type R laminated veneer lumber (LVL R), in which all veneers are glued together longitudinally – along the grain. Tensile, compressive and bending tests of LVL R were conducted. The short-term behaviour, load carrying-capacity, mode of failure and load-deflection of the LVL R panels were investigated. The authors observed failure modes at the collapse load, associated with the delamination and cracking of veneer layers in the tensile zone. What is more, two non-linear finite element models of the tested LVL R panel were developed and verified against the experimental results. In the 3D finite element model, LVL R was described as an elastic-perfectly plastic material. In the 2D finite element model, on the other hand, it was described as an orthotropic material and its failure was captured using the Hashin damage model. The comparison of the numerical and experimental analyses demonstrated that the adopted numerical models yielded the results similar to the experimental results.
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Bibliografia

[1] A. M. Harte, “Timber engineering: an introduction”, in ICE Manual of Construction Materials: Volume I/II: Fundamentals and theory; Concrete; Asphalts in road construction; Masonry, M. Forde, Ed., ICE Publishing, Chapter 60, 2009.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Marcin Chybiński
1
ORCID: ORCID
Łukasz Polus
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Poznan University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Transport Engineering, Piotrowo 5 Street, 60-965 Poznan, Poland
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Abstrakt

In pursuing numerous construction projects, investors and contractors regularly face construction delay problems, many of which are likely to have been avoidable. There is found that payment delays and project delays are the two most critical effects of risk factors of construction management. The paper presents the practical application of the Earned Value Management method, which was used to estimate the possible extension of the duration of construction works during which realization disturbances occurred on the example of selected construction investment. The realization disturbances are usually an inseparable element in the implementation of construction works. They are the result of, among others: additional works, changes or design defects, as well as a badly adopted logistics strategy regarding the supply of construction materials. Delays or increasing the total cost of investment is a problem often encountered in the implementation of construction investments, despite advanced construction technologies, including system technologies and proven tools supporting the management of the construction process. The EVM method is used to control investments. It allows you to control delays and acceleration of construction works as well as to estimate their cost and completion date. In the analyzed case it was used to determine the scale of delays arising in construction works and related effects with the specification of the participation of individual participants of the investment process for delays. This paper is a continuation and supplementation of the research presented in the article: “The influence of construction works disturbances on the EVM analysis outcomes – case study” [23].
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Bibliografia


[1] N. Kongchasing, and G. Sua-Iam, “The major causes of construction delays identified using the Delphi technique: perspectives of contractors and consultants in Thailand”. Int J Civ Eng (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40999-020-00575-8.
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[3] ANSI EIA – 748 Standard – Earned Value Management Systems.
[4] K. Araszkiewicz, and M. Bochenek, “Control of construction projects using the Earned Value Method – case study”, Open Engineering 9 (2019), pp. 186–195. https://doi.org/10.1515/eng-2019-0020
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[6] D.W.M. Chan, T. O. Olawumi, and A. M.L. Ho, “Perceived benefits of and barriers to Building Information Modelling (BIM) implementation in construction: The case of Hong Kong”, Journal of Building Engineering, 25 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2019.100764
[7] R. Charef, S. Emmitt, H. Alaka, and F. Fouchal, (2019). “Building Information Modelling adoption in the European Union: An overview”. Journal of Building Engineering, 25, (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2019.100777
[8] T. Chen et al, “How do project management competencies change within the project management career model in large Chinese construction companies?”, International Journal of Project Management, 37 (2019), pp. 485–500. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2018.12.002
[9] U. Dwivedi, “Earned Value Management Explained”, 2019 Project Smart reserved, https://www.projectsmart.co.uk/earned-value-management-explained.php
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Anna Starczyk-Kołbyk
1
ORCID: ORCID
Leopold Kruszka
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Military University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy, ul. gen. Sylwestra Kaliskiego 2, 00–908 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Military University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy, ul. gen. Sylwestra Kaliskiego 2,00–908 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstrakt

The paper presents the description and results of ultrasonic pulse velocity tests performed on heated beams. The studies aimed to verify the suitability of the UPV method for the assessment of the damaged external layer in the cross-section of RC members after a fire. Four beams heated in a planned way from the bottom (a one-way heat transfer) for 60, 120, 180 and 240 minutes and one unheated beam were examined. The tests were performed using an indirect UPV method (linear measurement on the heated surface). Reference tests were conducted using a direct UPV method (measurement across the member section, parallel to the isotherm layout). Exponential transducers were used for testing concrete surface, which was degraded in high temperature and not grinded. The estimated thicknesses of the destroyed external concrete layer corresponded to the location of the isotherm not exceeding 230oC. Therefore, this test can be used to determine at which depth in the member crosssection the concrete was practically undamaged by high temperature.
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Bibliografia


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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Julia Wróblewska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Robert Kowalski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Michał Głowacki
1
ORCID: ORCID
Bogumiła Juchnowicz-Bierbasz
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstrakt

Pea gravel is a kind of a coarse aggregate with a specific particle size used to fill the annular gap between the lining segments and the surrounding ground when tunnel construction with shield machines is performed in hard rock. The main purpose of the present study is to propose quantitative morphological indices of the pea gravel and to establish their relations with the void content of the aggregate and the compressive strength of the mixture of pea gravel and slurry (MPS). Results indicate that the pea gravel of the crushed rock generally have a larger void content than that of the river pebble, and the grain size has the highest influence on the void ratio. Elongation, roughness and angularity have moderate influences on the void ratio. The content of the oversize or undersize particles in the sample affects the void ratio of the granular assembly in a contrary way. The compressive strength of the MPS made with the river pebble is obviously smaller than that of the MPS made with the crushed rock. In the crushed rock samples, the compressive strength increases with the increase of the oversize particle content. The relations between the morphological properties and the void content, and the morphological properties and the compressive strength of the MPS are expressed as regression functions. The outcomes of this study would assist with quality assessments in TBM engineering for the selection of the pea gravel material and the prediction of the compressive strength of the MPS.
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Bibliografia


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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Jinliang Zhang
1
Qiuxiang Huang
2
ORCID: ORCID
Chao Hu
2
Zhiqiang Wang
1

  1. Yellow River Engineering Consulting Co., Ltd. Zhengzhou, Henan, China
  2. State Key Lab of Geohazard Prevention and Environment Protection (SKLGP), Chengdu University of Technology (CDUT), Chengdu, Sichuan, China
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Abstrakt

The document presents current methods of forecasting aggregate production, mainly depending on the size and dynamics of changes in GDP. With a view to developing more accurate forecasts, this article presents the dependence of extraction and consumption of mineral aggregates used in construction on two indicators: the general business climate indicator in the construction industry and the cement consumption volume. The results obtained from regression and correlation analysis turned out more favourable for the dependence of aggregates production on cement consumption. This particularly applies to the dependence of sand and gravel aggregate production and total natural aggregate production on cement consumption. Good dependence has also been confirmed for other European countries as well as for the USA. For Poland, the indicator of sand and gravel aggregates production for cement production in recent years was between 9.5 and 12 Mg/Mg. The values of this indicator vary from country to country, mainly depending on the share of different types of aggregates in total production of aggregates in construction industry. Although the indicator values vary considerably, its advantage is that cement production is identified and included in the industrial production balance sheets of most countries, which is not the case when it comes to the identification or accurate record for the production of construction aggregates. The adoption of this indicator makes it possible to monitor the extraction of natural construction aggregates for individual countries and regions more accurately, as called for – among other things – by UN resolutions.
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Bibliografia


[1] I. R. Baic, W. Kozioł, Aggregates production in Poland and other selected countries – an analysis of dependence on cement production, Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi – Mineral Resources Management. Vol. 36. Issue. 3, pp. 59–73, 2020 https://doi.org/10.24425/gsm.2020.133938
[2] Bilanse zasobów kopalin i wód podziemnych w Polsce z lat 2008–2019 (The Balance of Mineral Resources and Waters in Poland, eds. Szuflicki et al.). PIG – PIB, Warsaw, 2009–2020.
[3] Bilans Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi Polski i Świata (The Balance of Mineral Raw Materials in Poland and the World), 2012, IGSMiE PAN – PIG PIB, Warsaw 2014.
[4] Cement na świecie 2019 (Cement in the World, 2019), Budownictwo – technologie – architektura, no. 8, pp. 76–77.
[5] L. Czarnecki My pursuit of truth in building materials engineering, Archives of Civil Engineering, Vol. 66 no 3 pp. 3-35, 2020. https://doi.org/10.24425/ace.2020.131819
[6] J. Hydzik-Wiśniewska The relationship between the mechanical properties of aggregates and their geometric parameters on the example of Polish carpathian sandstones, Archives of Civil Engineering Vol. 66 no 3 pp. 209–223, 2020. https://doi.org/10.24425/ace.2020.134393
[7] P. Kawalec, Analiza produkcji i zużycia kruszyw w zależności od wybranych wskaźników wzrostu gospodarczego w Polsce i innych krajach UE (An Analysis of Aggregate Production and Consumption Depending on Selected Economic Growth Indicators in Poland and Other EU Member States), a doctoral dissertation. AGH Kraków, 2007
[8] K. Kolibarski, Piasek zaczyna się kończyć. Rynek przejmują mafie (Sand Starts to Run Out. Mafias Take Over the Market). https://next.gazeta.pl/ next/7,172392,26340627,piasek-bedacy-fundamentem-naszej-cywilizacji-zaczyna-sie-konczyc.html#s=BoxOpImg5, 2020.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Ireneusz Ryszard Baic
1
ORCID: ORCID
Wiesław Kozioł
1
ORCID: ORCID
Artur Miros
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institue of Mechanised Construction & Rock Mining, Warszawa, Poland
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Abstrakt

The effectiveness of applied means of traffic noise protection can be determined through examining acoustic climate of the areas located near the communication routes. It allows to determine sound level in a specific area and determine the extent that its inhabitants are exposed to the effects of noise. The research and the analysis of the acoustic climate were carried out in the town of Podszosie, located in the vicinity of the S7 expressway. The aim of the research was: to determine the level of noise emitted by traffic on the S7 expressway, to determine the effectiveness of noise barriers installed in a given area, to determine the sound level in the vicinity of properties located in Podszosie, to determine whether the noise level in Podszosie is normal. The conducted research allowed the authors to determine the sound level prevailing in the study area, and to what extent its inhabitants are exposed to the effects of noise and how to prevent it. Showing the scale of the problem posed by noise from road transport. In addition to carrying out activities aimed at reducing its level, society should also be made aware of the harmful effects of its impact.
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Bibliografia


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[7] Division of Process Automation and Logistics “Analysis of the causes and methods of noise prevention in road transport” Kazimierz Pulaski University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, 2018.
[8] P. Górski, T. Krukowicz, L. Morzyński, “Ocena możliwości zastosowania aktywnych metod redukcji hałasu w transporcie drogowym. Assessment of the possibility of using active noise reduction methods in road transport” (in [Polish]). Warszawa, CIOP-BIP, pp. 72–94. 2008.
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[15] Z. Łukasik, A. Kuśmińska-Fijałkowska, J. Kozyra, S. Olszańska, “Analysis of investment processes in a transport environment and the aspect of financing transport means”. Proceedings of the 23nd International Conference Transport Means 2019, pp. 1579–1584. 2019.
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[19] P. Veselik, M. Sejkorova, A. Nieoczym, J. Caban, “Outlier identification of concentrations of pollutants in environmental data using modern statistical methods”. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 29(1), pp. 853–860. 2020. https://doi.org/10.15244/pjoes/112620.
[20] J. Ližbetin, M. Hlatká, L. Bartuška, “Issues concerning declared energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of FAME biofuels”. Sustainability, 10(9), pp. 25–30. 2018. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093025.
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[23] W. Paszkowski, M. Dąbrowski, “The use of acoustic maps in modeling features of objects oriented on acoustic quality of the environment”. Proceedings of 17th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference. Informatics, geoinformatics and remote sensing. Cartography and GIS, 17(23), pp. 769–776. 2017. https://doi.org/10.5593/sgem2017/23/S11.096.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Zbigniew Łukasik
1
ORCID: ORCID
Aldona Kuśmińska-Fijałkowska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jacek Kozyra
1
ORCID: ORCID
Sylwia Olszańska
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Faculty of Transport, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kazimierz Pulaski University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, Radom, Poland
  2. Chair of Logistics and Process Engineering, University of Information Technology and Management in Rzeszow, Rzeszow, Poland
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Abstrakt

The aim of the study was to indicate the procedure of using laboratory physical model tests of scour around bridge piers for the purposes of determining the potential scour of a riverbed on field bridge crossings. The determination of the uniform modeling scale coefficient according to the criterion of reliable sediment diameter limits the application of the results of tests on physical models to selected types of sediment. The projected depths of scouring of the riverbed at the pier in nature were determined for an object reproduced in the scale of 1:15 determined from the relationship of flow resistance, expressed by hydraulic losses described by the Chézy velocity coefficient, the value of which, in the model and in nature, should be the same. Expressing the value of the Chézy velocity coefficient with the Manning roughness coefficient and introducing the Strickler parameter, it was shown that the coarse sand used in the laboratory bed models the flow resistance corresponding to the resistance generated by gravel in nature. The verification of the calculated size of scouring was based on popular formulas from Russian literature by Begam and Volčenkov [16], Laursen and Toch’s [20] from the English, and use in Poland according to the Regulation ... (Journal of Laws of 2000, No. 63, item 735) [32].
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Bibliografia


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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Sławomir Bajkowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Marta Kiraga
1
ORCID: ORCID
Janusz Urbański
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Warsaw University of Life Sciences WULS-SGGW, Institute of Civil Engineering, ul. Nowoursynowska 159, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstrakt

The article analyses the changes occurring in accidents in the construction industry in Poland. It was analyzed the influence of the season on the number and structure of accidents. Research and analyzes were carried out on the basis of statistical data, made available by the Central Statistical Office, regarding accidents at work in construction that occurred in the period from 2010 to 2018. The total number of accidents at work in the construction sector in in these years shows a significant downward trend. A similar downward trend can also be seen in individual groups of accidents, broken down into light, serious and fatal. Based on the research carried out, the decisive impact of the season on the accident rates in construction sector was noticed. The smallest value of the accident frequency rate in most of the accident types considered can be observed in the winter season. In turn, the highest value of the light and fatal accident frequency rate can be observed in summer season (July - September). Weather conditions, for example, high temperatures and sunshine can lead to dangerous situations which can result in accidents at work. Climate conditions should therefore play an increasingly important role in assessing the risk of accidents.
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Bibliografia


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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Iwona Szer
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jacek Szer
1
ORCID: ORCID
Monika Kaszubska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jakub Miszczak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Bożena Hoła
2
ORCID: ORCID
Ewa Błazik-Borowa
3
ORCID: ORCID
Marek Jabłoński
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Lodz University of Technology, Department of Building Materials Physics and Sustainable Design, Politechniki 6, 90-924 Łódź, Poland
  2. Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, pl. Grunwaldzki 11, 50-377 Wrocław, Poland
  3. Lublin University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ul. Nadbystrzycka 40, 20-618 Lublin, Poland
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Abstrakt

The paper presents an introduction to the method enabling the estimation of the range of investments necessary for the realisation of the mobility policy understood as the correction of the modal split into the sustainable proportion between car and non-car journeys. The models allow the calculation of the number of travellers required to shift into the public transport mode and the scale of selected investments including the development of the transport network, interchanges, rolling stock, and technical infrastructure. The basis of such calculations is the results of traffic surveys. The worldwide context of the study and similar actions are also presented. The paper consists of five sections. The first section contains a review of current problems connected with the sustainable mobility policy and the role of modal split. The second section focuses on the case study with the presentation of the local mobility policy and selected results of complex traffic surveys. The models used to estimate the investment challenges with exemplary calculations and presentation of similar effects of the intervention are described in the next section (3). Section four contains a discussion on the described methodology. The conclusions in section five end the main part of the paper.
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Bibliografia


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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Maciej Kruszyna
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland
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Abstrakt

The paper studies the mechanical properties of glass fibre reinforced polymers (GFRP) with various types and orientation of reinforcement. Analyzed specimens manufactured in the infusion process are made of polymer vinyl ester resin reinforced with glass fibres. Several samples were examined containing different plies and various fibres orientation [0, 90] or [+45, –45]. To assess the mechanical parameters of laminates, a series of experimental tests were carried out. The samples were subjected to the uniaxial tensile tests, which allowed us to obtain substitute parameters, such as modulus of elasticity or strength. After all, results from experiments were used to validate the numerical model. A computational model was developed employing ABAQUS software using the Finite Element Method (FEM). The analysis was performed to verify and compare the results obtained from numerical calculations with the experiments. Additionally, the following failure criteria were studied, based on the index of failure IF Maximum Stress, Maximum Strain, Tsai–Hill, and Tsai–Wu. The results confirmed the assumptions made for the footbridge's design purpose, which is made using examined material. Moreover, comparing the experimental and numerical results found that in the linear-elastic range of the material, they are consistent, and there is no significant difference in results.
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Bibliografia


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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Tomasz Wiczenbach
1
ORCID: ORCID
Tomasz Ferenc
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Gabriela Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk
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Abstrakt

The article presents method of assessment of one of the three basic aspects of sustainable construction concerning social utility properties of residential buildings. The study was based on the recommendations of standards [1] and [2], on the basis of which the area of features characterizing the social aspect of buildings was determined. Additionally, the presented method includes criteria which are necessary for the assessment of this aspect, and which are not included in the normative guidelines. The presented method fits in with the current trend of sustainable construction. This method enables and facilitates the comparison of social utility properties in different residential buildings. It is also allows for the classification of buildings according to the degree to which they meet their social utility properties; that can be a practical tool to support the decision on the future of the building (i.e., the sequence of necessary refurbishments) or the decision to buy or sell the property by indicating its strengths and weaknesses. By developing a way to assess a comprehensive set of criteria, the proposed method allows you to quickly and easily assess the social quality of residential buildings. In addition, the proposed measures for individual criteria can easily be adapted to requirements in other countries. The proposed “star” classification can also be used as a universal scale for assessing the social quality index of buildings.
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Bibliografia


[1] EN 15643-3, Sustainability of construction works – Assessment of buildings – Part 3: Framework for the assessment of social performance, 2012.
[2] EN 16309, Sustainability of construction works – Assessment of social performance of buildings – Calculation methodology, 2014.
[3] A. U.S. Environmental Protection, https://www.epa.gov/, 26.01.2018. [Online].
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[7] H. Zabihi, F. Habib and L. Mirsaeedie, “Sustainability in Building and Construction: Revising Definitions and Concepts,” International Journal of Emerging Sciences, 2(4), pp. 570–578, December 2012.
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[9] J. Arendalski, Durability and reliability of residential buildings, Warsaw: Arkady, 1978.
[10] P. Knyziak, “Analysis of the Technical State for Large-Panel Residential Buildings Using Artificial Neural Networks,” Wydawnictwo Politechniki Warszawskiej, January 2007.
[11] M. R. M. K. J. Miks L., “Assessment of the technical condition of older urban buildings as a base for reconstruction proposals,” Slovak, pp. 30–34, 03 2004.
[12] A. M. A. S. Langevine R., “Decision support tool for the maintenance management of buildings,,” Joint International Conference on Computing and Decision Making in Civil and Building Engineering, Montreal–Canada, 14–16 June 2006.
[13] K. Firek and J. Dębowski, “Influence of the mining effects on the technical state of the panel housing,” Technical Transactions. Architecture, pp. 275–280, 2007.
[14] A. Wodyński, Technical wear of buildings in mining areas, Cracow: Uczelniane Wydaw. Nauk.-Dydakt. AGH im. S. Staszica, 2007.
[15] M. Wójtowicz, “Durability of buildings in the light of Regulation No. 305/2011,” Building Materials, pp. 28–29, December 2012.
[16] J. Konior, “Technical Assessment of Old Buildings by Fuzzy Approach,” Archives of Civil Engineering 65(1), pp. 130–141, March 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/ace-2019-0009
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[19] A. Kaklauskas, E. Zavadskas and S. Raslanas, “Mulivariant design and multiple criteria analysis of building refurbishemnt,” Energy and Buildings, pp. 361–372, 2005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2004.07.005
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Aleksandra Radziejowska
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology in Cracow, Department of Geomechanics, Civil Engineering and Geotechnics, Av. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow, Poland
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Abstrakt

The cable force of a cable-stayed bridge plays a vital role in its internal force state. Different cable forces on both sides of the main tower make the force characteristics of the polygonal-line tower quite different from those of the straight-line tower. Therefore, the determination of the cable force of the polygonal-line tower cable-stayed bridge is a crucial aspect of any evaluation of its mechanical characteristics. A single-cable plane prestressed concrete broken-line tower cable-stayed bridge is taken as a case study to conduct a model test and theoretical cable force determination. The reasonable cable force of the bridge is determined by the minimum bending energy method combined with false load and internal force balance methods. analysis includes a comparison between cable force calculation results, model test results, and the design value of the actual bridge. The distribution law of the dead load cable force of the completed bridge is determined accordingly.
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Bibliografia


[1] E. Atashpaz-Gargari, C. Lucas. „Imperialist competitive algorithm: an algorithm for optimization inspired by imperialistic competition”. [J] Proceedings of 2007 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation. Singapore: IEEE, 2007: pp. 4661–4667.
[2] A. Kaveh, S. Talatahari. “Optimum design of skeletal structures using imperialist competitive algorithm”. [J] Computers and Structures, 2010, 88: pp. 1220–1229.
[3] M. M. Hassana, A. O. Nassef, E. Damatty. “Determination of optimum post-tensioning cable forces of cable-stayed bridges”. [J] Engineering Structures, 2012(1): pp. 248–259.
[4] Z. J. Chen, Y. Liu, L. F. Yang. “Optimization of Stay Cable Tension of Completed Bridge of Single-Pylon Cable-Stayed Bridge Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm”. [J] Bridge Construction, 2016 46(3): pp. 40–44.
[5] S. Q. Qin, Z Y Gao. „Developments and Prospects of Long-Span High-Speed Railway Bridge Technologies in China”. [J] Engineering, 2017, 3(6): pp. 787–794.
[6] J. L. Wang, L He. “A Prestressing Tendon Element Geoenvironmental Engineering”, 2013, 139(8): pp. 1262–1274.
[7] T. Carey, B. Mason, A. R. Barbosa, et al. “Modeling Framework for Soil-bridge System Response during Sequential Earthquake and Tsunami Loading”. [C] Tenth US National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Anchorage [s.n.], 2014.
[8] H. Tao, X. F. Shen. “Strongly subfeasible sequential quadratic programming method of cable tension optimization for cable-stayed bridges”. [J] Chinese Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2006, 38(3): pp. 381–384. (in Chinese)
[9] X. H. Zhou, P. Dai, D. Jin. “Optimization analysis of cable tensions of dead load state for cable-stayed bridge with steel box girder” [J] Journal of Architecture and Civil Engineering, 2007, 24(2): pp. 19–23. (in Chinese)
[10] A. Baldomir, S. Hernandez, F. Nieto, et al. “Cable optimization of along span cable stayed bridge in La Coruña (Spain)”. [J]. Advances in Engineering Software, 2010,41: pp. 931–938.
[11] A. M. B. Martins, L. M. C. Simoes, J. H. J. O. Negrao. “Optimization of cable forces on concrete cable-stayed bridges including geometrical nonlinearities”. [J] Computers and Structures, 2015, 155: pp. 18–27.
[12] M. M. Hassan, A. A. EI Damatty, A. O. Nassef. “Database for the optimum design of semi-fan composite cable-stayed bridges based on genetic algorithms”. [J] Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, 2014, 11(8): pp. 1054–1068.
[13] X. Wu, R. C. Xiao. “Optimization of cable force for cable-stayed bridges with mixed stiffening girders based on genetic algorithm”. [J] Journal of Jiangsu University (Natural Science Edition), 2014, 35(6): 2016, 12(2): pp. 208–222.
[14] Y. C. Sung, C. Y. Wang, E. H. Teo. “Application of particle swarm optimisation to construction planning of cable-stayed bridges by the cantilever erection method”. [J] Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, 2016, 12(2): pp. 208–222.
[15] B. S. Smith. “The Single a Palne Cable-stayed Girder Bridge: a Method of Analysis Suitable for Computer Use”. [J] Civil engineering,1967,37(5): pp.183–194.
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[20] X. Guo, Y. K. Wu, Y. Guo. “Time-dependent Seismic Fragility Analysis of Bridge Systems under Scour Hazard and Earthquake Loads”. [J] Engineering Structures, 2016, 121: pp. 52–60.
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[22] A. E. Haiderali, G. Madabhushi. “Evaluation of Curve Fitting Techniques in Deriving P-Y Curves for Laterally Loaded Piles”. [J] Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 2016, 34(5): pp. 1453–1473.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Yanfeng Li
1
ORCID: ORCID
Tianyu Guo
1
ORCID: ORCID
Longsheng Bao
1
ORCID: ORCID
Fuchun Wang
1

  1. School of Transportation Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang 110168, China
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Abstrakt

In order to investigate the influence of vertical ground motion on seismic responses of story-isolation structures mounted on triple friction pendulum (TFP) bearings, the finite element model of a six-story building with various types of interlayer isolation TFP bearings under far field or near fault ground motions is established and analysed. A discrepancy rate function of peak interlayer shear, acceleration and displacement results is adopted to discuss the influence of the vertical seismic motions on isolation structural responses. Furthermore, the isolation form, the isolation period and the friction coefficient of bearings are changed to study their effect on the vertical seismic component’s influence. The results show that the influence of the vertical seismic component is considerable on the isolation layer especially under near-fault ground motions, so it should not be overlooked during the structural design; The change of isolation forms will greatly affect the influence of the vertical seismic component especially in the isolation layer and isolation systems with isolation devices set on higher stories or with less isolation layers will have less vertical seismic effect on story acceleration; The increase of the isolation period will globally result in the decrease of the influence of vertical seismic components, though in some cases it shows some sort of fluctuation before the final decrease; The increase of the friction coefficient will lead to the global decrease in the influence of the vertical seismic component in single-layer isolation structures, while it does not obviously affect those in the multi-layer isolation systems.
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Bibliografia


[1] K. Ryan, C. Earl. “Analysis and Design of Inter-story Isolation Systems with Nonlinear Devices,” Journal of Earthquake Engineering 14(7): pp. 1044–1062, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632461003668020
[2] D.C.Charmpis, P.Komodromos, M.C.Phocas. “Optimized earthquake response of multi‐storey buildings with seismic isolation at various elevations,” Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics 41(15): pp. 2289–2310, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.2187
[3] H. Fakhri, G.G. Amiri. “Nonlinear Response-History Analysis of Triple Friction Pendulum Bearings (TFPB), Installed Between Stories,” 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Lisbon, 2012.
[4] A. Reggio, M.D. Angelis. “Optimal energy‐based seismic design of non‐conventional Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) implemented via inter‐story isolation,” Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics 44(10): pp. 1623–1642, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.2548
[5] M. Rabiei, F. Khoshnoudian. “Response of multistory friction pendulum base-isolated buildings including the vertical component of earthquakes,” Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering 38(10): pp. 1045–1059, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1139/l11-064
[6] K. Faramarz, R. Montazar. “Seismic Response of Double Concave Friction Pendulum Base-Isolated Structures Considering Vertical Component of Earthquake,” Advances in Structural Engineering 13(1): pp. 1–14, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1260/1369-4332.13.1.1
[7] V. Loghman, F. Khoshnoudian, M. Banazadeh. “Effect of vertical component of earthquake on seismic response of triple concave friction pendulum base-isolated structures,” Journal of Vibration & Control 21(11): pp. 2099–2113, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077546313503359
[8] D.M. Fenz, M.C. Constantinou. “Spherical sliding isolation bearings with adaptive behavior: Theory,” Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 37(2): pp. 163-183, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.751
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Zhao Fang
1
Ping Yan
2

  1. Nanjing Institute of Technology, School of Architecture Engineering, Hongjing Avenue 1, 211167 Nanjing, China
  2. Jiangsu Provincial Architectural D&R Institute LTD, Chuangyi Road 86, 211167 Nanjing, China
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Abstrakt

Cutting blasting has been widely used for tunnel excavation. The cutting forms significantly influence the blasting effect. This research focuses on the study of the relationship between cutting forms and blasting effects. Similarity theory is proposed for the experimental study of the rock blasting using small models. Then four experimental modes with different cutting forms are used to study the blasting effect due to the cutting forms. The cutting depth, borehole utilization rate, fragments volume, and average fragment size are analysed. The blasting effects with various cutting forms are compared. The influences of the borehole space and the blasting delay are discussed. It is concluded that the spiral cutting form can produce more fragments and is recommend for the small section tunnel excavation.
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Bibliografia


[1] Sato, T., T. Kikuchi, and K. Sugihara, “In-situ experiments on an excavation disturbed zone induced by mechanical excavation in Neogene sedimentary rock at Tono mine, central Japan,” Engineering geology 56(1): pp. 97–108, 2000. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0013-7952(99)00136-2.
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[10] Liu, H., D. Williams, D. Pedroso, et al., “Numerical procedure for modelling dynamic fracture of rock by blasting”, in Controlling Seismic Hazard and Sustainable Development of Deep Mines: 7th International Symposium On Rockburst and Seismicity in Mines (rasim7), Vol 1 and 2: Rinton Press, 2009.
[11] Saharan, M.R. and H. Mitri, “Numerical procedure for dynamic simulation of discrete fractures due to blasting,” Rock mechanics and rock engineering 41(5): pp. 641–670, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-007-0136-9.
[12] Ma, G. and X. An, “Numerical simulation of blasting-induced rock fractures,” International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences. 45(6): pp. 966–975, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2007.12.002.
[13] Wang, Z.-L., Y.-C. Li, and R. Shen, “Numerical simulation of tensile damage and blast crater in brittle rock due to underground explosion,” International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences. 44(5): pp. 730–738, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2006.11.004.
[14] Wang, Z., Y. Li, and J. Wang, “A method for evaluating dynamic tensile damage of rock”, Engineering fracture mechanics. 75(10): pp. 2812–2825, 2008.
[15] Zhu, Z., B. Mohanty, and H. Xie, “Numerical investigation of blasting-induced crack initiation and propagation in rocks,” International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences. 44(3): pp. 412–424, 2007.
[16] Huang, D., X.Y. Qiu, X.Z. Shi, et al., “Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Blast-Induced Vibration for Short-Delay Cut Blasting in Underground Mining,” Shock and Vibration. 2019: 13, 2019.
[17] Liu, K., Q.Y. Li, C.Q. Wu, et al., “A study of cut blasting for one-step raise excavation based on numerical simulation and field blast tests” ,International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 109: pp. 91–104, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2018.06.019.
[18] Man, K., X.L. Liu, J. Wang, et al., “Blasting Energy Analysis of the Different Cutting Methods” ,Shock and Vibration. 2018: p. 13, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9419018.
[19] Xie, L.X., W.B. Lu, Q.B. Zhang, et al., “Analysis of damage mechanisms and optimization of cut blasting design under high in-situ stresses” , Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. 66: pp. 19–33, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2017.03.009.
[20] Xie, L.X., W.B. Lu, Q.B. Zhang, et al., “Damage evolution mechanisms of rock in deep tunnels induced by cut blasting”, Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. 58: pp. 257–270, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2016.06.004.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Huaming An
1
ORCID: ORCID
Yushan Song
1
ORCID: ORCID
Deqiang Yang
2

  1. Kunming University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Public Security and Emergency Management, 650093, Kunming, China
  2. University of Science and Technology Beijing, School of Civil and Resource Engineering, 100083, Beijing, China
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Abstrakt

Several months after August 4, 2020, Lebanon is still recovering from the enormous explosion at the port of Beirut that killed more than 200 people and injured more than 7500. This explosion ripped the city to shreds and significantly damaged the Beirut port silos. Saint Joseph University of Beirut “the school of engineering ESIB” in collaboration with “Amann” Engineering performed a 3D scan of the Beirut port silos to assess the silos’ level of damage. The obtained data was then compared to the numerical modelling results, obtained from Abaqus explicit, in order to estimate the blast magnitude and to check if the pile foundation can be reused in building new silos at the same place due to the limited space available at the port of Beirut while considering the soil-foundation-structure interaction effect. In addition, the silos’ structural response against the filling of the silos at the time of explosion was investigated. The displacement of the silos and the amount of silos’ damage obtained from the fixed and flexible numerical models indicate that a blast magnitude of 0.44 kt TNT (approximately 1100 tons of Ammonium Nitrate) best estimates the 20 to 30 cm silos’ tilting in the direction of the blast. In addition, the soil and the foundation played a positive role by absorbing part while dissipating less amount of the blast energy. Also, the grains at the time of the event did not affect the silos’ deformation and damage amount. Noting that the displacement of the pile foundation exceeded all limits set by design codes, indicating that the pile foundation cannot be reused to build new silos at the same place.
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Bibliografia


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[11] G. Valsamos, M. Larcher and F. Casadei, “Beirut explosion 2020: A case study for a large-scale urban blast simulation”, Journal of Safety Science, vol. 137, pp. 105190, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2021.105190
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[15] J. Rusek , L. Słowik , K. Firek and M. Pitas, “Determining the dynamic resistance of existing steel industrial hall structures for areas with different seismic activity”, Archives of Civil Engineering, LXVI vol. 4, pp. 525–542, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.24425/ace.2020.135235
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Sahar Ali Ismail
1
ORCID: ORCID
Wassim Raphael
1
Emmanuel Durand
2
ORCID: ORCID
Fouad Kaddah
1
ORCID: ORCID
Fadi Geara
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Civil Engineering Department, Saint Joseph University of Beirut, Beirut 17-5208, Lebanon
  2. Amann Engineering, Geneva 1212, Switzerland
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Abstrakt

This paper reports on efficient experimental and numerical techniques used in the design of critical infrastructure requiring special protection measures regarding security and safety. The presented results, some of which have already been reported in [1], were obtained from perforation experiments carried out on S235 steel sheets subjected to impacts characterized as moderate velocity (approximately 40–120 m/s). The metal was tested using the Hopkinson Bar Technique and pneumatic gun. The originality of perforation testing consist on using a thermal chamber designed to carry out experiments at higher temperatures. 3D scanners and numerically controlled measuring devices were used for the final shape deformation measurements. Finally, the results of FEM analysis obtained using explicit solver are presented. The full-scale CAD model was used in numeric calculations.
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Bibliografia


[1] M. Grazka, L. Kruszka, W. Mocko and M. Klosak, “Advanced Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Behavior Structural Materials Including Dynamic Conditions of Fracture for Needs of Designing Protective Structures”, in Soft Target Protection, NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security, Springer, 2020, pp. 121–137. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-024-1755-5_10
[2] N. Jones, and J. Paik, “Impact perforation of aluminium alloy plates”, International Journal of Impact Engineering, vol. 48, pp. 46–53, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1679-78252013000400006
[3] L. Kruszka and R. Rekucki, “Experimental Analysis of Impact and Blast Resistance for Various Built Security Components”, in Soft Target Protection. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security, L. Hofreiter, V. Berezutskyi, L. Figuli, Z. Zvaková (eds). Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 211–239, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-024-1755-5_18
[4] Council Directive 2008/114/EC of 8 December 2008 on the identification and designation of European critical infrastructures and the assessment of the need to improve their protection, European Union, 2008.
[5] L. Kruszka and Z. Kubíková, “Critical Infrastructure Systems Including Innovative Methods of Protection”, in Critical Infrastructure Protection. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series D: Information and Communication Security, L. Kruszka, M. Klosak, P. Muzolf P. (eds), IOS Press, Amsterdam, 2019.
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[7] European Standard EN10025:2004.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Maciej Klosak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Michał Grazka
2
ORCID: ORCID
Leopold Kruszka
3
ORCID: ORCID
Wojciech Mocko
4
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universiapolis, Technical University of Agadir, Technopole d'Agadir, Qr Tilila, 80000 Agadir, Morocco
  2. Military University of Technology, Faculty of Mechatronics, Armaments and Aviation, ul. gen. Sylwestra Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw, Poland
  3. Military University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy, ul. gen. Sylwestra Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw, Poland
  4. Motor Transport Institute, Center for Material Testing, Jagiellońska 80, 03-301 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstrakt

The flexural toughness of chopped steel wool fiber reinforced cementitious composite panels was investigated. Reinforced cementitious composite panels were produced by mixing of chopped steel wool fiber with a ratio range between 0.5% to 6.0% and 0.5% as a step increment of the total mixture weight, where the cement to sand ratio was 1:1.5 with water to cement ratio of 0.45. The generated reinforced cementitious panels were tested at 28 days in terms of load-carrying capacity, deflection capacities, post-yielding effects, and flexural toughness. The inclusion of chopped steel wool fiber until 4.5% resulted in gradually increasing load-carrying capacity and deflection capacities while, provides various ductility, which would simultaneously the varying of deflection capability in the post-yielding stage. Meanwhile, additional fiber beyond 4.5% resulted in decreased maximum load-carrying capacity and increase stiffness at the expense of ductility. Lastly, the inclusion of curves gradually.
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Bibliografia


[1] Rajak D.K., Pagar D. D., Menezes P. L., and Linul E, “ Fiber-reinforced polymer composites: Manufacturing, properties, and applications”, Polymers 11: p. 1667, 2019. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11101667
[2] Rajak D.K., Pagar D.D., Kumar R., and Pruncu C.I., “Recent progress of reinforcement materials: A comprehensive overview of composite materials”, Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 8: pp. 6354–6374, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2019.09.068
[3] Cejuela E., Negro V., and del Campo J.M., “Evaluation and Optimization of the Life Cycle in Maritime Works”, Sustainability 12: 4524, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114524
[4] Pushkar S. and Ribakov Y., “Life-Cycle Assessment of Strengthening Pre-Stressed Normal-Strength Concrete Beams with Different Steel-Fibered Concrete Layers”, Sustainability 12: p. 7958. 2020. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12197958
[5] Rashiddadash P., Ramezanianpour A.A., and Mahdikhani M., “Experimental investigation on flexural toughness of hybrid fiber reinforced concrete (HFRC) containing metakaolin and pumice”, Construction and Building Materials 51: pp. 313–320, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.10.087
[6] Felekoğlu B.,Türkel S.,and Altuntaş Y., “Effects of steel fiber reinforcement on surface wear resistance of self-compacting repair mortars”, Cement and Concrete Composites 29: pp. 391–396, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2006.12.010
[7] Abdulkareem M., Havukainen J., and Horttanainen M., “How environmentally sustainable are fibre reinforced alkali-activated concretes?”, Journal of Cleaner Production 236: p. 117601, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.07.076
[8] Zhang P., Zhao Y-N, Li Q-F, Wang P., and Zhang T.H., “Flexural toughness of steel fiber reinforced high performance concrete containing nano-SiO2 and fly ash”, The Scientific World Journal 1–11 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/403743
[9] Faris, M.A., Abdullah, M.M.A.B., Ismail, K.N., Mortar, N.A.M., Hashim, M.F.A. and Hadi, A. “Pull-Out Strength of Hooked Steel Fiber Reinforced Geopolymer Concrete”, In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 55: pp. 012–080, 2019. https://doi:10.1088/1757-899X/551/1/012080
[10] Aggelis D.G., Soulioti D., Barkoula N.M., Paipetis A.S., Matikas T.E., and Shiotani T., “Acoustic emission behavior of steel fibre reinforced concrete under bending”, Construction and Building Materials 23: pp. 32–40, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2009.06.042
[11] Ragalwar K., Heard W.F., Williams B.A., Kumar D., and Ranade R., “On enhancing the mechanical behavior of ultra-high performance concrete through multi-scale fiber reinforcement”, Cement and Concrete Composites 105: p. 103422, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2019.103422
[12] Amer, Akrm A. Rmdan, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah, Yun Ming Liew, Ikmal Hakem A Aziz, Jerzy J. Wysłocki, Muhammad Faheem Mohd Tahir, Wojciech Sochacki, Sebastian Garus, Joanna Gondro, and Hetham AR Amer, “Optimizing of the Cementitious Composite Matrix by Addition of Steel Wool Fibers (Chopped) Based on Physical and Mechanical Analysis”, Materials 14: p. 1094, 2021. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14051094
[13] Sharma, A.K., Bhandari, R., Aherwar, A. and Rimašauskienė, R, “Matrix materials used in composites: A comprehensive study”, Materials Today: Proceedings 21: pp. 1559–1562, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2019.11.086
[14] García A., Norambuena-C. J., and Partl, M.N., “A parametric study on the influence of steel wool fibers in dense asphalt concrete”, Materials and Structures 47: 1559–1571, 2014. https://doi.10.1617/s11527-013-0135-0
[15] Ponikiewski T., Katzer J., Bugdol M., and Rudzki M., “Determination of 3D porosity in steel fibre reinforced SCC beams using X-ray computed tomography”, Construction and Building Materials 68: pp. 333–340, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.06.064
[16] Koenig A., “Analysis of air voids in cementitious materials using micro X-ray computed tomography (µXCT)”, Construction and Building Materials 244:118313, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.118313
[17] Chajec A., and Sadowski L., “The Effect of Steel and Polypropylene Fibers on the Properties of Horizontally Formed Concrete”, Materials 13: p. 5827, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13245827
[18] Zhou S., Xie L., Jia Y., and Wang C., “Review of cementitious composites containing polyethylene fibers as repairing materials”, Polymers 12: p. 2624, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12112624
[19] Martinelli E., Pepe M., and Fraternali F., “Meso-Scale Formulation of a Cracked-Hinge Model for Hybrid Fiber-Reinforced Cement Composites”, Fibers 8: p. 56, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3390/fib8090056
[20] Zhou H., Jia B., Huang H., and Mou Y., “Experimental study on basic mechanical properties of basalt fiber reinforced concrete “, Materials (Basel) 13: p. 1362, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061362
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Akrm A. Rmdan Amer
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah
2
ORCID: ORCID
Yun Ming Liew
2
ORCID: ORCID
Ikmal Hakem A. Aziz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Muhammad Faheem Mohd Tahir
2
Shayfull Zamree Abd Rahim
3
Hetham A.R. Amer
4
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Geopolymer & Green Technology, Center of Excellence (CEGeoGTech), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Perlis, Malaysia
  2. Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Malaysia
  3. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Perlis, Malaysia
  4. Omar Al-Mukhtar Universiti, Civil Engineering Department, Libya
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Abstrakt

Red-light running at intersections is a common problem that may have severe consequences for traffic safety. The present paper investigates driver behavior in dilemma zones in Polish conditions. Based on the empirical research conducted at 25 urban and rural signalized intersections, type II dilemma zone boundaries were determined. In this study, generalized linear regression models were used to fit the probability of stopping to explanatory variables. Seeing as the dependent variable is dichotomous (stop/go), binary logistic regression was used for predicting the probability of the outcome based on the values of continuous or categorical predictor variables. The results show that factors which have a statistically significant effect on drivers’ propensity to stop include: vehicle type, the geometry of the intersection, location of signal heads and platooning on the approach to the stop line. Type-II dilemma zone boundaries are situated at the following distance: the beginning from 1.9 s to 2.4 s, and end from 5.0 to 5.9 s (on average 2.2 ÷ 5.4 s) from the stop line.
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Bibliografia


[1] R. Bąk, „Sposoby obliczania czasów międzyzielonych na skrzyżowaniach zamiejskich”, Technika Transportu Szynowego 9/2012.
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[3] S. Gondek, R. Bąk, „Badania wjazdów na sygnale czerwonym na zamiejskich skrzyżowaniach z sygnalizacją świetlną”, Transport Miejski i Regionalny 5/2012, pp. 18–24.
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[7] S. Ghanipoor Machiani, M. Abbas. “Safety surrogate histograms (SSH): A novel real-time safety assessment of dilemma zone related conflicts at signalized intersections”. Accident Analysis and Prevention 96, 2015, pp. 361–370.
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[9] P.S. Parsonson, R. Roseveare, J.M. Thomas, “Southern Section ITE Technical Council Committee 18: Small-Area Detection at Intersection Approaches”, Traffic Engineering, 1974.
[10] T. Gates, D.A. Noyce, L. Laracuente, “Analysis of Dilemma Zone Driver Behavior at Signalized Intersections”, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Vol. 2030, Washington D.C., 2007, pp. 29–39.
[11] T. Gates, H. McGee, K. Moriarty, M. Honey-Um, “A comprehensive evaluation of driver behavior to establish parameters for timing of yellow change and red clearance intervals”. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Vol. 2298, Washington, D.C. 2012.
[12] A. Maxwell, K. Wood, “Review of traffic signals on high speed roads”, European Transport Conference, Strasbourg 2006.
[13] D. Middleton, “Guidelines for detector placement on high-speed approaches to signalized intersections”, Texas Department of Transportation, Austin, Texas 1997.
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[15] W. Kim, J. Zhang, A. Fujiwara, “Analysis of Stopping Behavior at Urban Signalized Intersections, Empirical Study in South Korea”. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2080, Washington, D.C., 2008, pp. 84–91.
[16] P. Papaioannou, “Driver behaviour, dilemma zone and safety effects at urban signalized intersections in Greece”, Accident Analysis and Prevention 39, 2007, pp. 147–158.
[17] B.K. Pathivada, V. Perumal, “Analyzing dilemma driver behavior at signalized intersection under mixed traffic conditions”. Transportation Research Part F, Vol. 60, 2019, pp. 111–120
[18] A. Al-Mudhaffar, “Impacts of traffic signal control strategies”, PhD diss., Royal Institute of Technology KTH, Stockholm, 2006.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Radosław Bąk
1
Janusz Chodur
1
Nikiforos Stamatiadis
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, ul. Warszawska 24, 31-155 Cracow, Poland
  2. University of Kentucky, Department of Civil Engineering, Lexington, KY 40506, United States
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Bibliografia


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[3] CTS Cement Manufacturing Corporation, “Innovative, high-performance products for new construction, restoration and repairs”, Rapid Set® Construction Cement, 12442 Knott Street, Garden Grove, CA 92841, USA.
[4] EN 12390-1 Part 1: Shape, dimensions and other requirements for speciments and moulds.
[5] EN 1992-1-1 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures - Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings.
[6] Khoshnevis B. “Automated construction by Contour Crafting – related robotics and information technologies”, Automation in Construction, Vol. 13, Issue 1, pp. 5–19, 2004.
[7] Korodur International GmbH “Product Information”. 92-224 Amberg, Germany.
[8] Kurdowski W. „Chemia cementu i betonu”, Stowarzyszenie Producentów Cementu – Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Kraków – Warszawa, 2010.
[9] Locher F.W. “Cement, principles of production and use”, Erkrath Verlag Bau+Technik 2013.
[10] Maeda J. “Development and Application of the SMART System”, Automation and Robotics in Construction, Elsevier Science B.V., pp. 457–464, 1994.
[11] Patent UP RP nr P-414864, Warszawa 2019-01-25 „Urządzenie przejezdne do wykonania monolitycznego stropu z szybkowiążącego betonu”, Biuletyn Urzędu Patentowego; ISSN 0137-8015; 2017 nr 11, p. 27.
[12] PN-EN 206+A1 A1:2016. „Beton. Wymagania, właściwości, produkcja i zgodność” wraz z krajowym uzupełnieniem PN-B-06265.
[13] Ramseyer C., Bescher E., 93. Annual Meeting of the Transport Research, Washington, USA, 2014.
[14] Taylor M. “Automated construction in Japan”, Civil Engineering 156, Paper 12562, pp. 34–41, 2003.
[15] Więckowski A. „Automating CSA cement-based reinforced monolithic ceiling construction”, Automation in Construction, 2019, 0926-5805.
[16] Więckowski A. “JA-WA - A wall construction system using unilateral material application with a mobile robot”, Automation in Construction, V 83, 11/2017, pp. 19-20, 2017
[17] Więckowski A. “Principles of the NNM method applied in the analysis of process realisation”, Automation in Construction, Elsevier Science BV, 11(3.4), pp. 409–420, 2002.
[18] Zimka R. „Pełzanie betonu na szybkowiążącym cemencie siarczano-gliniano-wapniowym w okresie tężenia”, Praca doktorska, WGiG AGH, Kraków, 2019.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Andrzej Więckowski
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Abstrakt

A large portion of the credits and financial resources of countries is spent on the preparation and construction of building projects because their implementation would create housing, job opportunities, financial turnover, and economic prosperity. At present, many construction projects are under construction in developing countries, and most of these projects are facing rising costs. The local scope of this research is construction projects in Yazd city. This research is operational in terms of purpose and was carried out in a descriptive and survey manner with an analytical-mathematical method. Data collection was done by documentary and survey methods. The Statistical Society consisted of 150 managers and officials, contractors, and actors involved in construction projects. Data analysis by hierarchical analysis technique showed that the criterion of management factors with a weight of 0.582 has the highest priority in increasing building costs. The criterion of environmental factors with a weight of 0.309 is at the second priority. The criterion of legal and administrative factors with a weight of 0.109 is in the third priority. Therefore, a key element in increasing the cost of construction projects in the under-studied city is the management factor that can be reduced by establishing new management systems and improving the quality of construction projects.
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Bibliografia


[1] M. Aslam, E. Edmund Baffoe-Twum, F. Saleem, “Design Changes in Construction Projects Causes and Impact on the Cost”, Civil Engineering Journal, 5(7), pp. 1647–1655, 2019. https://doi.org/10.28991/cej-2019-03091360
[2] U. Haider, U. Khan, A. Nazir, M. Humayon, “Cost Comparison of a Building Project by Manual and BIM”, Civil Engineering Journal, 6(1), pp. 34-49, 2020. https://doi.org/10.28991/cej-2020-03091451.
[3] K. Ernest, A.K. Adjei-Kumi Theophilus, B. Edward, “Exploring cost planning practices by Ghanaian construction professionals”, Int. J. Project Organisation and Management, 9(1), pp. 83–93, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJPOM.2017.083112
[4] N. Ramlee, N. J. Tammy, R. Mohd Noor, R. N. H. Ainun Musir, A., Abdul Karim, N., H. B. Chan, , S. R. Mohd Nasir, “Critical success factors for construction project”, AIP Conference Proceedings, 1774, 030011, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4965067
[5] T. A. Ghuzdewan, B. Petra, K. Narindr, “Project Cost Estimation Based on Standard Price of Goods and Services”, (SHBJ) MATEC Web of Conferences, 2018, p. 159, https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201815901012
[6] T. Al Amria, M. Marey-Pérezb, “Towards a sustainable construction industry: Delays and cost overrun causes in construction projects of Oman”, Journal of Project Management, Journal of Project Management, 5, pp. 87–102, 2020. https://doi.org/10.5267/j.jpm.2020.1.001
[7] S. Štuheca, G. Verhoevenb, I. Štuhecc, “Modelling building costs from 3d building models estimating the construction effort from image-based surface models of dry-stone shepherd shelters (kras, slovenia)”, The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XLII-2/W9, https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-2-W9-691-2019.
[8] D. Aničić1, J. Aničić, “Cost management concept and project evaluation methods, Journal of Process Management New Technologies”, International, 7(2), pp. 54–59, 2019. https://doi.org/10.5937/jouproman7-21143.
[9] A. Q. Memon, A. H. Memon, M. A. Soomro, I. A. Rahman, “Common factors affecting time and cost performance of construction projects in Pakistan”, Pakistan Journal of Science, 71, pp. 64–68, 2019. http://apicee.org/Files/Paper1%20(11).pdf
[10] B. Boahene Akomah, W. Justice, M. Zakari, S. Kottey, “Cost impacts of variations on building construction projects”, MOJ Civil Eng, 4(5), pp. 386‒392, 2018. https://doi.org/10.15406/mojce.2018.04.00133.
[11] A. Pirasteh, “Studying factors affecting the increase in delays and costs of construction projects”, In: The second conference on civil engineering, architecture and urban planning of the Islamic World, Tabriz, 2018. https://civilica.com/doc/1021202/
[12] I. Gurkhani, M. Mohammadi, A. Sabet, “Identifying the effective factors on the occurrence of delays and cost increases in case study of Mehr Housing projects”, The First national conference on management, ethics and business, Shiraz, 2019. https://www.civilica.com/Paper-MEBCONF01-MEBCONF01_164.html
[13] M. Ahmadvand,H. Eghbali, N. Habibi Lasibi, “Presenting a model for evaluating the factors causing delays and increasing costs in construction projects”, Sixth National Conference on Applied Research in Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Management, Tehran, 2019. https://www.civilica.com/Paper-CEUCONF06-CEUCONF06_0086.html
[14] A. Ebrahimi Chamani, N. Ramezanpour, V. Azizifar, “Investigating the most important causes of delays and increased costs in road construction projects Case study: Mazandaran province road construction projects”, In: Fifth International Conference on Modern Research in Civil Engineering, Architecture, Urban Management and Environment, Karaj, 2019. https://civilica.com/doc/1000494/
[15] M. Hejazi, R. Norouzpour, “The role of project integration management in reducing construction project costs”, In: 7th national conference on accounting and management Applications, Tehran, Asia Golden Communication Group, 2015. https://civilica.com/doc/807502/
[16] M. A. Rasouli,T. Pourrostam, J. Majrouhi, “Simultaneous study of factors affecting time delays and cost increases in iranian hospital projects”, In: The first international conference on civil engineering, architecture and sustainable green city, Hamedan, 2017. https://civilica.com/doc/673678/
[17] M. Khalilzadeh, R. Mohammadi, “Factors affecting increasing the cost of construction projects in construction projects (Qazvin City)”, In: 12th international conference on project management, Tehran, 2016. https://civilica.com/doc/575121/
[18] T. L. Saaty, “Relative Measurement and its Generalization in Decision Making: Why Pairwise Comparisons are Central in Mathematics for the Measurement of Intangible Factors – The Analytic Hierarchy/Network Process”, Madrid: Review of the Royal Spanish Academy of Sciences, 2008, Series A, Mathematics. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03191825
[19] O. Moselhi, N. Roofigari-Esfahan, “Compression of project schedules using the analytical hierarchy process.” J. Multi-Criteria Decis Anal 2012; 19: pp. 67–78, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1002/mcda.490
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[24] C. Cole, “Calculating the information content of an information process for adomain expert using Shannon’s mathematical theory of communication: Apreliminary analysis”, Inform Process Manag.; 33: pp. 715–726, 1997. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4573(97)00038-1.
[25] T. Cunningham, “Cost Control during the Pre-Contract Stage of a Building Project An Introduction”, Report prepared for Dublin Institute of Technology, 2015. https://doi.org/10.21427/83w4-r689.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Seyedkazem Seyedebrahimi
1
Alireza Mirjalili
1
Abolfazl Sadeghian
2

  1. Department of Civil Engineering, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd , Iran
  2. Department of Management, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran

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1. Cooperating with the scientific editor and / or editorial office and the authors in the field of improving the reviewed material;
2. Being objective and expressing the views clearly with appropriate supporting arguments.
3. Assessing of the entrusted works in a careful and objective manner, if possible with an assessment of their scientific reliability and with appropriate justification of the comments submitted;
4. identifying relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors
5. calling to the editor's attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published data of which they have personal knowledge
6. Maintaining the principle of fair play, excluding personal criticism of the author (s)
7. Maintaining confidentiality, which is not showing or discussing with others except those authorized by the editor. Any manuscripts received for review are treated as confidential documents.
8. Performing a review within the set time limit or accepting another solution jointly with ACE in the event of failure to meet this deadline.
9. Notifying the editor if the invited reviewer feels unqualified to review the manuscript or knows that its timely review will be impossible.
10. identifying relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors
11. Not considering evaluating manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the submission.

Author Responsibilities
1. Results of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the manuscript. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behaviour and are unacceptable.
2. The authors should follow the principle of originality, which is submitting only their own original works, and in the case of using the works of other authors, marking them in accordance with the rules of quotation, or obtaining consent for the publication of previously published materials from their owners or administrators;
3. An author should not in general publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication. Parallel submission of the same manuscript to more than one journal constitutes unethical publishing behaviour and is unacceptable.
4. Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study and phenomena such as ghostwriting or guest authorship in the event of their detection must be actively counteracted.
5. All authors should report in a Reliable manner the sources they used to create their own study and their inclusion in the attachment bibliography;
6. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be named in an Acknowledgement section.
7. The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors (according to the above definition) and no inappropriate co-authors are included in the author list of the manuscript, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.
8. All authors should disclose in their manuscript any financial or other substantive conflict of interest that might be construed to influence the results or their interpretation in the manuscript. All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed.
9. When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal’s editor or publisher and cooperate with them to either retract the paper or to publish an appropriate erratum.

Publisher’s Confirmation
In cases of alleged or proven scientific misconduct, fraudulent publication or plagiarism the publisher, in close collaboration with the editors, will take all appropriate measures to clarify the situation and to amend the article in question. This includes the prompt publication of an erratum or, in the most severe cases, the complete retraction of the affected work.

Procedura recenzowania

Manuscript Peer-Review Procedure

”Archives of Civil Engineering” makes sure to provide transparent policies for peer-review, and reviewers have an obligation to conduct reviews in an ethical and accountable manner. There is clear communication between the journal and the reviewers which facilitates consistent, fair, and timely review.

-The model of peer-review is double-blind: the reviewers do not know the names of the authors, and the authors do not know who reviewed their manuscript (but if the research is published reviewers can eventually know the names of the authors). A complete list of reviewers is published in a traditional version of the journal: in-print.
-It is the editor who appoints two reviewers; however, if there are discrepancies in the assessment the third reviewer can be appointed.
-After having accepted to review the manuscript (one-week deadline), the reviewers have approximately 6 weeks to finish the process.
-The paper is published in ACE provided that the reviews are positive. All manuscripts receive grades from 1-5, 5 being positive, 1 negative, the authors receive reviews to read and consider the comments.
-Manuscript evaluations are assigned one of five outcomes: accept without changes, accept after changes suggested by the reviewer, rate manuscript once again after major changes and another review, reject, withdraw.
-Manuscripts requiring minor revision (accept after changes suggested by the reviewer) does not require a second review. All manuscripts receiving a "Rate manuscript once again after major changes and another review " evaluation must be subjected to a second review. Rejected manuscripts are given no further consideration. There are cases when the article can be withdrawn, often upon the request of an author, technical reason (e.g. names of authors are placed in the text, lack of references, or inappropriate structure of the text), or plagiarism.
-The revised version of the manuscript should be uploaded to the Editorial System within six weeks. If the author(s) failed to make satisfactory changes, the manuscript is rejected.
-On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to suit house style.
-Paper publication requires the author's final approval.
- As soon as the publication appears in print and in electronic forms on the Internet there is no possibility to change the content of the article.

Editor’s responsibilities
-The editor decides whether the paper fulfills all requirements i.e. formal and scientific and which articles submitted to the journal should be published.
-In making these decisions, the editor may be guided by the policies of the journal’s editorial board as well as by legal requirements regarding libel, copyright infringement, and plagiarism.
-The editor maintains the integrity of the academic record, precludes business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards, and is always willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions, and apologies when needed.
-The editor evaluates manuscripts for intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the author(s).
-The editor does not disclose any information about a manuscript under consideration to anyone other than the author(s), reviewers and potential reviewers, and in some instances the editorial board members, as appropriate.

Reviewers' responsibilities
Any manuscripts received for review are treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except if authorized by the editor. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review is kept confidential and not used for personal advantage Any invited reviewer who feels unqualified to review the manuscript or knows that its timely review will be impossible should immediately notify the editor so that alternative reviewers can be contacted. Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation. A reviewer should also call to the editor's attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published data of which they have personal knowledge. Reviewers should not consider evaluating manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the submission. Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is unacceptable. Referees should express their views clearly with appropriate supporting arguments. All reviews must be carried out on a special form available in the Editorial System.

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