Applied sciences

Archives of Environmental Protection


Archives of Environmental Protection | 2021 | 47 | 3

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Environmental applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have recently attracted worldwide attentiondue to their excellent adsorption capacities and promising physical, chemical and mechanical properties, as well asthe preparation of novel membranes with attractive features for water purification. This paper critically reviews therecent progress on the preparation and applications of CNT based membranes in water and wastewater treatment. Various synthesis techniques for the preparation of CNT based membranes are discussed. The functionalization ofCNTs, which involves chemical/physical modification of pristine CNTs with different types of functional groups,improves the capabilities of CNT for water and wastewater treatment and/or removal of waterborne contaminants.The CNT-based membrane applications are found to possess a variety of advantages, including improving waterpermeability, high selectivity and antifouling capability. However, their applications at full scale are still limitedby their high cost. Finally, we highlight that CNT membranes with promising removal efficiencies for respectivecontaminants can be considered for commercialization and to achieve holistic performance for the purpose ofwater treatment and desalination. This paper may provide an insight for the development of CNT based membranesfor water purification in the future. With their tremendous separation performance, low biofouling potential andultra-high water flux, CNT membranes have the potential to be a leading technology in water treatment, especiallydesalination.
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Authors and Affiliations

Michał Bodzek
Krystyna Konieczny
Anna Kwiecińska-Mydlak

  1. Institute of Environmental Engineering Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland
  2. Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Poland
  3. Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal, Poland
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The Pb(II)-resistant bacterium was isolated from heavy metal-contained soils and used as a biosorbentto remove Pb(II). The strain was identified as Enterobacter sp. based on the 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Theeffect of biosorption properties (pH value, Pb(II) concentration, bacterial concentration and temperature) onPb(II) was investigated by batch experiments. Results of FTIR and XPS showed that the biosorption process mainly involved some oxygen-containing groups (-OH and -COOH groups). The experimental results and equilibrium data were fitted by pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir model, respectively. The experimental biosorption isotherms fitted the Langmuir model, and the maximum biosorption capacity was 40.75 mg/g at 298 K. The calculated ΔGо and ΔHо were –4.06 and 14.91(kJ/mol), respectively, which indicated that biosorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. Results show that Enterobacter sp. will be an efficient biosorbent for Pb(II) removal.
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Authors and Affiliations

Lei Liu
1 2
Mengya Xia
Jianwen Hao
Haoxi Xu
Wencheng Song
2 3

  1. School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Anhui Vocational and Technical College,Hefei, 230011, P.R. China
  2. Hefei Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, P. R. China
  3. Province Key Laboratory of Medical Physics and Technology, Institute of Health & Medical Technology,Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031, P.R. China
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The biofiltration process in the biologically activated carbon filters (BAC) is one of advanced methods of water treatment. It enables efficient elimination of dissolved organic matter and some inorganic pollutants. The production of high-quality drinking water requires an appropriate method of filter work control based on biofilm growth assessment. The first aim of the study was to assess the microbial development in beds of two BAC filters with the use of various methods. The second aim was to compare the obtained results and indicate the method which could support filter operators during routine control of biofiltration process. The study was carried out in a pilot scale on models of BAC filters during two filter runs. The analysis of Microorganisms was performed in water samples collected from different depths of the filter beds with the use of culture method (HPC), metabolica ctivity assay (with the FDA), epifluorescence microscopy – total cell count method (TCC) and biochemical method (system Vitek 2 Compact). No statistical correlation between HPC and metabolic activity assay was noted. Total bacteria number determined with the use of TCC was approx. 100–900 times higher than in the HPC method. The biochemical tests revealed the presence of several Gram-negative species. The comparison of the applied methods shows that microbial activity assay is the most useful, fast and low-cost method which may be applied additionally to the HPC method at standard water treatment plant laboratory.
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Authors and Affiliations

Dorota Holc
Beata Mądrecka-Witkowska
Małgorzata Komorowska-Kaufman
Elżbieta Szeląg-Wasielewska
Alina Pruss
Zefiryn Cybulski

  1. Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Engineering and Building Installations, Poland
  2. Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Faculty of Biology, Department of Water Protection, Poland
  3. Greater Poland Cancer Center, Microbiology Laboratory, Poland
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The chief purpose of this study is to investigate the process of adsorption of heavy metals in sands containing microplastics due to aging and bacterial culture. For this purpose, first, the experiment’s conditions were determined by reviewing previous studies and examining the effects of factors on the duration of bacterial culture and UV radiation. Finally, the test conditions were determined as follows: 25 g of adsorbent in 250 ml solution containing 50 mg/l of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, chromium, and nickel, 750 micrograms of microplastic, bacterial culture time two days, aging time with UV light 14 days. Results of the study show that the addition of virgin microplastics has little effected on increasing the adsorbent strength, except in the case of nickel whichreduces adsorption strength. The aging process increases the absorption of all studied metals by up to 60%. Bacterial culture without an aging process reduces the absorption of nickel and cadmium. Simultaneous use of bacterial culture and aging increases the adsorption power by up to 80% for all metals.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sara Seyfi
Homayoun Katibeh
Monireh Heshami

  1. Mining Exploration in Mining & Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
  2. Mineral Processing in Mining Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
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In Poland, in recent years, there has been a rapid accumulation of sewage sludge – a by-product in the treatment of urban wastewater. This has come about as a result of infrastructure renewal, specifically, the construction of modern sewage treatment plants. The more stringent regulations and strategic goals adopted for modern sewage management have necessitated the application of modern engineering methodology for the disposal of sewage sludge. One approach is incineration. As a consequence, the amount of fly ash resulting from the thermal treatment of municipal sewage sludge has grown significantly. Hence, intensive work is in progress for environmentally safe management of this type of waste. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the possibility of using the fly ash that results from municipal sewage sludge thermal treatment (SSTT) as an additive to hardening slurries. The article presents the technological and functional parameters of hardening slurries with an addition of fly ash obtained by SSTT. Moreover, the usefulness of these slurries is analyzed on the basis of their basic properties, i.e., density, contractual viscosity, water separation, structural strength, volumetric density, hydraulic conductivity, compressive and tensile strength. The research on technological and functional properties was carried out, the aim of which was to determine the practical usefulness of the hardening slurries used in the experiment. Subsequently, leaching tests were performed for heavy metals in the components, the structure of the hardening slurries. An experiment showed leaching of hazardous compounds at a level allowing their practical application. The article presents the potential uses of fly ash from SSTT in hardening slurry technology.
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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł Falaciński
Małgorzata Wojtkowska

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Building Services, Hydro and Environmental Engineering, Warsaw
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The aim of the study was to determine the time-delayed (after three years from the moment of soil pollution) effect of petroleum-derived products (PDPs) (petrol, diesel fuel and used engine oil) on the interaction between selected host plant (broad bean) and a herbivorous insect closely related to it (Sitona spp.). We assessed the condition of the plant exposed to pollutants (i.e. its growth and chemical composition), then we evaluated the attractiveness of the plant for both larvae and adults of the insect. The evaluation covered also the effect of bioremediation by using ZB-01 biopreparation. The results showed that after 3 years from soil contamination, engine oil and diesel fuel limited the feeding of adult sitona weevils while petrol caused increase in the attractiveness of plants for these insects. The PDPs negatively affected the growth of plants. The changes in element content depended on the type of pollutant. The biopreparation ZB-01 eliminated or reduced the differences caused by the presence of PDPs in the soil regarding the chemical composition of the host plant, and limited feeding by both the larvae and adult individuals of sitona weevils. The negative relationships between the contents of both some macroelements (Mg, S) and heavy metals (Zn, Ni), and feeding of imago of Sitona were observed. The obtained results indicate that PDPs remain for a long time in the environment and adversely affect not only the organisms directly exposed to the pollution – plants growing on polluted soil but also further links of the trophic chain, i.e. herbivores
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Authors and Affiliations

Milena Rusin
Janina Gospodarek
Aleksandra Nadgórska-Socha

  1. Department of Microbiology and Biomonitoring, University of Agriculture, Kraków, Poland
  2. Department of Ecology, University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland
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The paper presents the results of energy and environmental evaluation of geothermal CHP plant. The variant of CHP plant based on Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has been taken into consideration as the most favorable for the geothermal conditions prevailing in Poland. The existing geothermal well located in the city of Konin in Greater Poland (Wielkopolska) voivodship has been chosen as the case study. The conceptual design of CHP plant has been proposed and evaluated from energy and environmental point of view. The non-renewable primary energy consumption has been chosen as energy performance criterion. In the case of environmental performance carbon dioxide emission has been taken as evaluation criterion. The analysis has been performed for different operating conditions and three working fluids. The best energy performance can be spotted for working fluid R123, for which the reduction varies between 15200 and 11900 MWh/a. The working fluid R134a has a worse energy performance, which allows for the reduction of fossil fuels energy consumption in the range of 15000 and 11700 MWh/a. The total reduction of CO2 emission is the highest for working fluid R123: 5300 to 4150 MgCO2/a, the medium one for working fluid R134a: 5200 to 4100 MgCO2/a and the lowest for working fluid R227: 5000 to 4050 MgCO2/a. It has been shown that the construction of geothermal CHP plants based on Organic Rankine Cycle can be reasonable solution in Polish conditions. It is important concerning the need of reduction of fossil fuels primary energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Maciej Mróz
Weronika Grabowska

  1. Poznań University of Technology, Poland
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The hedonic tone of an environmental odor is a powerful predictor of annoyance. Pertinent field surveys combined with laboratory analysis of landfill, pharmaceutical factories and rubber factories have been conducted, with the purpose of obtaining a behavior curve of the hedonic tone for specific odor emissions, and comparing the annoyance potential and odor persistence of the sources under investigation. The 9-point scale was used to determine the hedonic tone, and the odor concentration was measured using the Triangle Odor Bag Method. The concentration to be presented to panel members comprises a range of 5 or 6 dilution steps which differ by a factor of approximately 3. Using a suitable curve fitting procedure, a line can be fitted through the points obtained in the experiment. Characteristic H values at any concentration can be derived from the hedonic behavior curve. The relationship between the hedonic tone and lgOC conforms to the quadratic polynomial for the three sources. The persistence of odor is expressed as a dose (concentration) response and (intensity) function. According to the rate of change in odor intensity, the pharmaceutical odor is the strongest, followed by the landfill odor, and then the rubber odor. Annoyance potential is calculated by multiplying lgOC with the max hedonic value, meaning that the three sources are sorted as follows: rubber factory>landfill>pharmaceutical factory. This study will further the understanding of the sensory characteristics of different odor source
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Authors and Affiliations

Fengyue Yan
1 2 3
Weifang Li
1 2
Gen Wang
1 2
Jing Geng
1 2
Zhiqiang Lu
1 2
Zengxiu Zhai
1 2 3
Yan Zhang
1 2 3

  1. State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Odor Pollution Control, Tianjin 300191, China
  2. Tianjin Academy of Eco-environmental Sciences, Tianjin, 300191, China
  3. Tianjin Sinodour Environmental Protection Science and Technology Development Co., Ltd.,Tianjin 300191, China
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The prediction of PM2.5 is important for environmental forecasting and air pollution control. In this study, four machine learning methods, ground-based LiDAR data and meteorological data were used to predict the ground-level PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing. Among the four methods, the random forest (RF) method was the most effective in predicting ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. Compared with BP neural network, support vector machine (SVM), and various linear fitting methods, the accuracy of the RF method was superior by 10%. The method can describe the spatial and temporal variation in PM2.5 concentrations under different meteorological conditions, with low root mean square error (RMSE) and mean square deviation (MD), and the consistency index (IA) reached 99.69%. Under different weather conditions, the hourly variation in PM2.5 concentrations has a good descriptive ability. In this paper, we analyzed the weights of input variables in the RF method, constructed a pollution case to correspond to the relationship between input variables and PM2.5, and analyzed the sources of pollutants via HYSPLIT backward trajectory. This method can study the interaction between PM2.5 and air pollution variables, and provide new ideas for preventing and forecasting air pollution.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zhiyuan Fang
1 2 3
Hao Yang
1 2 3
Cheng Li
1 2 3
Liangliang Cheng
1 2 3
Ming Zhao
1 2
Chenbo Xie
1 2

  1. Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Optics, Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, China
  2. Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science and Technology of China,Hefei 230026, China
  3. Advanced Laser Technology Laboratory of Anhui Province, Hefei 230037, Chin
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This study describes the correlation between emission of gaseous pollutants to the atmosphere and the combustion parameters of a coal-fired 25 MW heating capacity water boiler with mechanical grate (boiler type WR-25) in unstable working conditions: start-up, shutdown and loads below the technical minimum. Whereas measurements were made for a specific type and size of coal-fired water boiler with mechanical grate, the measurements and calculations are applicable to WR boilers with a different heating power as well as OR type steam boilers, which have a practically identical design. In sum, there are more than 1,000 coal-fired water and steam boilers of these types in Poland. In addition, the analysis reported in this paper highlights the important role played by boilers operating in unstable conditions in terms of emission of gaseous pollutants to the atmosphere. The conclusions are relevant for other boilers fi red with gas, oil or biomass operating under conditions such as start-up, shutdown and loads below the technical minimum. This article fi lls a gap in air protection engineering practice and the literature with regard to indicators and emission standards, drawing on measurements of pollutant concentrations in the exhaust gases from unstable WR boiler working conditions. The measurements can be used to assess the emission of pollutants to the atmosphere in such boiler working conditions and their impact on air quality. The analyses presented were based on the authors’ own measurements in WR-25 boiler technical installations using portable gas analyser GASMET DX-4000, which uses the FT-IR measurement method for compounds such as SO2, NOx, HCl, HF, NH3, CH4, and CO. Concentrations of CO, NOx and SO2 in exhaust gases were determined with multiple regression with the STATISTICA statistical software and with linear regression complemented by the “smart” package in the MATLAB environment. The study provides computational models to identify pollutant concentrations in the exhaust gases in any working conditions of WR-25 boilers
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Authors and Affiliations

Ryszard Zwierzchowski
Ewelina Różycka-Wrońska

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

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All Reviewers in 2022

Alonso Rosa (University of the Basque Country/EHU, Bilbao, Spain), Alwaeli Mohamed (Silesian University of Technology), Arora Amarpreet (Sherpa Space Inc., Republic of Korea), Babu A.( Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Republic of Korea), Barbieri Maurizio (Sapienza University of Rome), Bień Jurand (Wydział Infrastruktury i Środowiska, Politechnika Częstochowska), Bogacki Jan (Wydział Instalacji Budowlanych, Hydrotechniki i Inżynierii Środowiska, Politechnika Warszawska), Bogumiła Pawluśkiewicz (Katedra Kształtowania Środowiska, SGGW), Boutammine Hichem (Laboratory of Industrial Process Engineering and Environment, Faculty of Process Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Bab-Ezzouar, Algiers, Algeria), Burszta-Adamiak Ewa (Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy we Wrocławiu), Cassidy Daniel (Western Michigan University, United States), Chowaniec Józef (Polish Geological Institute - National Research Institute), Czerniawski Robert (Instytut Biologii, Uniwersytet Szczeciński), da Silva Elaine (Fluminense Federal University, UFF, Brazil), Dąbek Lidia (Wydział Inżynierii Środowiska, Geodezji i Energetyki Odnawialnej, Politechnika Świętokrzyska), Dannowski Ralf (Leibniz-Zentrum für Agrarlandschaftsforschung: Müncheberg, Brandenburg, DE), Delgado-González Cristián Raziel (Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Tulancingo , Mexico), Dewil Raf (KU Leuven, Belgium), Djemli Samir (University Badji Mokhtar Annaba, Algeria), Du Rui (University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China), Egorin AM (Institute of Chemistry FEBRAS, Russia), Fadillah‬ ‪Ganjar‬‬ (Universitas Islam Indonesia, Indonesia), Gangadharan Praveena (Indian Institute of Technology Palakkad, India), Garg Manoj (Amity University, Noida, India), Gębicki Jacek (Politechnika Gdańska, Poland), Generowicz Agnieszka (Politechnika Krakowska, Poland), Gnida Anna (Silesian University of Technology, Poland), Golovatyi Sergey (Belarusian State University, Belarus), Grabda Mariusz (General Tadeusz Kosciuszko Military Academy of Land Forces, Poland), Guo Xuetao (Northwest A&F University, China), Gusiatin Mariusz (Uniwersytet Warminsko-Mazurski, Polska), Han Lujia (Instytut Badań Systemowych PAN, Polska), Holnicki Piotr (Systems Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland), Houali Karim (University Mouloud MAMMERI, Tizi-Ouzou , Algeria), Iwanek Małgorzata (Lublin University of Technology, Poland), Janczukowicz Wojciech (University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland), Jan-Roblero J. (Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Carpio y Plan de Ayala s/n. Col. Sto. Tomás, Mexico), Jarosz-Krzemińska Elżbieta (AGH, Wydział Geologii, Geofizyki i Ochrony Środowiska, Katedra Ochrony Środowiska), Jaspal Dipika (Symbiosis Institute of Technology (SIT), Symbiosis International (Deemed University), (SIU), Jorge Dominguez (Universidade de Vigo, Spain), Kabała Cezary (Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland), Kalka Joanna (Silesian University of Technology, Poland), Karaouzas Ioannis (Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, Greece), Khadim Hussein (University of Baghdad, Iraq), Khan Moonis Ali (King Saud University, Saudi Arabia), Kojić Ivan (University of Belgrade, Serbia), Kongolo Kitala Pierre (University of Lubumbashi, Congo), Kozłowski Kamil (Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy w Poznaniu, Poland), Kucharski Mariusz (IUNG Puławy, Poland), Lu Fan (Tongji University, China), Łukaszewski Zenon (Politechnika Poznańska; Wydział Technologii Chemicznej), Majumdar Pradeep (Addis Ababa Sciennce and Technology University, Ethiopia), Mannheim Viktoria (University of Miskolc, Hungary), Markowska-Szczupak Agata (Zachodniopomorski Uniwersytet Technologiczny w Szczecinie; Wydział Technologii i Inżynierii Chemicznej), Mehmood Andleeb (Shenzhen University, China), Mol Marcos (Fundação Ezequiel Dias, Brazil), Mrowiec Bożena (Akademia Techniczno-Humanistyczna w Bielsku-Białej, Poland), Nałęcz-Jawecki Grzegorz (Zakład Toksykologii i Bromatologii, Wydział Farmaceutyczny, WUM), Ochowiak Marek (Politechnika Poznańska, Poland), Ogbaga Chukwuma (Nile University of Nigeria, Nigeria), Oleniacz Robert (AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow, Poland), Pan Ligong (Northeast Forestry University, China) Paruch Adam (Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Norway), Pietras Dariusz (ATH Bielsko-Biała, Poland), Piotrowska-Seget Zofia (Uniwersytet Ślaski, Polska), Płaza Grażyna (IETU Katowice, Poland), Pohl Alina (IPIS PAN Zabrze, Poland), Poikane Sandra (European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra, Italy), Poluszyńska Joanna (Łukasiewicz Research Network - Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials, Poland), Dudzińska Marzenna (Katedra Jakości Powietrza Wewnętrznego i Zewnętrznego, Politechnika Lubelska), Rawtani Deepak (National Forensic Sciences University, Gandhinagar, India) Rehman Khalil (GC Women University Sialkot, Pakistan), Rogowska Weronika (Bialystok University of Technology, Poland), Rzeszutek Mateusz (AGH, Wydział Geodezji Górniczej i Inżynierii Środowiska, Katedra Kształtowania i Ochrony Środowiska), Saenboonruang Kiadtisak (Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok), Sebakhy Khaled (University of Groningen, Netherlands), Sengupta D.K. (Regional Research Laboratory, Bhubaneswar. India), Shao Jing (Anhui University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chile), Sočo Eleonora (Rzeszów University of Technology, Poland), Sojka Mariusz (Poznan University of Life Sciences, Poland), Sonesten Lars (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden), Song Wencheng (Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Medical Physics and Technology, Chinese), Song ZhongXian (Henan University of Urban Construction, China), Spiak Zofia (Uniwersyet Przyrodniczy we Wrocławiu, Poland), Srivastav Arun (Chitkara University, Himachal Pradesh, India), Steliga Teresa (Instytut Nafty i Gazu -Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, Poland), Surmacz-Górska Joanna (Silesian University of Technology, Poland), Świątkowski Andrzej (Wojskowa Akademia Techniczna, Poland), Symanowicz Barbara (Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Poland), Szklarek Sebastian (European Regional Centre for Ecohydrology, Polish Academy of Sciences), Tabina Amtul (GC University,Lahore, Pakistan), Tang Lin (Hunan University, China), Torrent Sergi (Innovación, Aigües de Manresa, S.A, Manresa, Spain, Spain), Trafiałek Joanna (Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland), Vijay U. (Department of Microb, Jaipur, India, India), Vojtkova Hana (University of Ostrava, Czech Republic), Wang Qi (City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong), Wielgosiński Grzegorz (Wydziału Inżynierii Procesowej i Ochrony Środowiska, Politechnika Łódzka), Wilk Pawel (IMGW-PIB, Poland), Wiśniewska Marta (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland), Yin Xianqiang (Northwest A&F University, Yangling China), Zając Grzegorz (University Of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland), Zalewski Maciej (European Regional Centre for Ecohydrologyunder the auspices of UNESCO, Poland), Zegait Rachid (Ziane Achour University of Djelfa), Zerafat Mohammad (Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran), Zgórska Aleksandra (Central Mining Institute, Poland), Zhang Chunhui (China University of Mining & Technology, China), Zhang Wenbo (Northwest Minzu University, Lanzhou China), Zhu Guocheng (Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan, China), Zwierzchowski Ryszard (Zakład Systemów Ciepłowniczych i Gazowniczych, Politechnika Warszawska)

All Reviewers in 2021

Adamkiewicz Łukasz, Aksoy Özlem, Alwaeli Mohamed, Aneta Luczkiewicz, Anielak Anna, Antonkiewicz Jacek, Avino Pasquale, Babbar Deepakshi, Badura Marek, Bajda Tomasz, Biedka Paweł, Błaszczak Barbara, Bodzek Michał, Bogacki Jan, Burszta-Adamiak Ewa, Cheng Gan, Chojecka Agnieszka, Chrzanowski Łukasz, Chwojnowski Andrzej, Ciesielczuk Tomasz, Cimochowicz-Rybicka Małgorzata, Curren Emily, Cydzik-Kwiatkowska Agnieszka, Czajka Agnieszka, Danielewicz Jan, Dannowski Ralf, Daoud Mounir, Değermenci Gökçe, Dejan Dragan, Deluchat Véronique, Demirbaş Ahmet, Dong Shuying, Dudzińska Marzenna, Dunalska Julita, Franus Wojciech, G. Uchrin Christopher, Generowicz Agnieszka, Gębicki Jacek, Giergiczny Zbigniew, Gierszewski Piotr, Glińska-Lewczuk Katarzyna, Godłowska Jolanta, Gokalp Fulya, Gospodarek Janina, Górecki Tadeusz, Grabińska-Sota Elżbieta, Grifoni M., Gromiec Marek, Guo Xuetao, Gusiatin Zygmunt, Hartmann Peter, He Jianzhong, He Yong, Heese Tomasz, Hybská Helena, Imhoff Silvia, Iurchenko Valentina, Jabłońska-Czapla Magdalena, Janowski Mirosław, Jordanov Igor, Jóżwiakowski Krzysztof, Juśkiewicz Włodzimierz, Kabsch-Korbutowicz Małgorzata, Kalinowski Radosław, Kalka Joanna, Kapusta Paweł, Karczewska Anna, Karczmarczyk Agnieszka, Kicińska Alicja, Kiciński Jan, Kijowska-Strugała Małgorzata, Klejnowski Krzysztof, Kłosok-Bazan Iwona, Kolada Agnieszka, Konieczny Krystyna, Kostecki Maciej, Kowalczewska-Madura Katarzyna, Kowalczuk Marek, Kozielska Barbara, Kozłowski Kamil, Krzemień Alicja, Kulig Andrzej, Kwaśny Justyna, Kyzioł-Komosińska Joanna, Ledakowicz Stanislaw, Leites Luchese Claudia, Leszczyńska-Sejda Katarzyna, Li Mingyang, Liu Chao, Mahmood Khalid, Majewska-Nowak Katarzyna, Makisha Nikolay, Malina Grzegorz, Markowska-Szczupak Agata, Mocek Andrzej, Mokrzycki Eugeniusz, Molenda Tadeusz, Molkenthin Frank, Mosquera Corral Anuska, Muhmood Atif, Myrta Anna, Narayanasamy Selvaraju, Nzila Alexis, OIkuski Tadeusz, Oleniacz Robert, Pacyna Jozef, Pająk Tadeusz, Pal Subodh Chandra, Panagopoulos Argyris, Paruch Adam, Paszkowski Waldemar, Pawęska Katarzyna, Paz-Ferreiro Jorge, Paździor Katarzyna, Pempkowiak Janusz, Piątkiewicz Wojciech, Piechowicz Janusz, Piotrowska-Seget Zofia, Pisoni E., Piwowar Arkadiusz, Pleban Dariusz, Policht-Latawiec Agnieszka, Polkowska Żaneta, Poluszyńska Joanna, Rajca Mariola, Reizer Magdalena, Riesgo Fernández Pedro, Rith Monorom, Rybicki Stanisław, Rydzkowski Tomasz, Rzepa Grzegorz, Rzeźnik Wojciech, Rzętała Mariusz, Sabovljevic Marko, Scudiero Rosaria, Sekret Robert, Sheng Yanqing, Sławomir Stelmach, Słowik Leszek, Sočo Eleonora, Sojka Mariusz, Sophonrat Nanta, Sówka Izabela, Spiak Zofia, Stachowski Piotr, Stańczyk-Mazanek Ewa, Stebel Adam, Sulieman Magboul, Surmacz-Górska Joanna, Szalinska van Overdijk Ewa, Szczerbowski Radosław, Szetela Ryszard, Szopińska Kinga, Szymański Kazimierz, Ślipko Katarzyna, Tepe Yalçin, Tórz Agnieszka, Tyagi Uplabdhi, Uliasz-Bocheńczyk Alicja, Urošević Mira, Uzarowicz Łukasz, Vakili Mohammadtaghi, Van Harreveld A.P., Voutchkova Denitza, Wang Gang, Wang X.K., Werbińska-Wojciechowska Sylwia, Wiatkowski Mirosław, Wielgosiński Grzegorz, Wilk Pawel, Willner Joanna, Wisniewski Jacek, Wiśniowska Ewa, Włodarczyk-Makuła Maria, Wojciechowska Ewa, Wojnowska-Baryła Irena, Wolska Małgorzata, Wszołek Tadeusz, Wu Yonghua, Yusuf Mohammad, Zuberi Amina, Zuwała Jarosław, Zwoździak Jerzy.

All Reviewers in 2020

Adamiec Ewa, Adamkiewicz Łukasz, Ahammed M. Mansoor, Akcicek Ekrem, Ameur Houari, Anielak Anna, Antonkiewicz Jacek, Avino Pasquale, Badura Marek, Barabasz Wiesław, Barthakur Manoj, Battegazzore Daniele, Biedka Paweł, Bilek Maciej, Bisschop Lieselot, Błaszczak Barbara, Błażejewski Ryszard, Bochoidze Inga, Bodzek Michał, Bogacki Jan, Borella Paola, Borowiak Klaudia, Borralho Teresa, Boyacioglu Hülya, Bunjongsiri Kultida, Burszta-Adamiak Ewa, Calderon Raul, Chatveera Burachat Chatveera, Cheng Gan, Chiwa Masaaki, Chojnicki Józef, Chrzanowski Łukasz, Ciesielczuk Tomasz, Czajka Agnieszka, Czaplicka Marianna, Daoud Mounir, Dąbek Lidia, Değermenci Gökçe, Dejan Dragan, Deluchat Véronique, Dereszewska Alina, Dębowski Marcin, Dong Shuying, Dudzińska Marzenna, Dunalska Julita, Dymaczewski Zbysław, El-Maradny Amr, Farfan-Cabrera Leonardo, Filizok Işık, Franus Wojciech, García-Ávila Fernando, Gariglio N.F., Gaya M.S, Gebicki Jacek, Giergiczny Zbigniew, Glińska-Lewczuk Katarzyna, Gnida Anna, Gospodarek Janina, Grabińska-Sota Elżbieta, Gusiatin Zygmunt, Harnisz Monika, Hartmann Peter, Hawrot-Paw Małgorzata, He Jianzhong, Hirabayashi Satoshi, Hulisz Piotr, Imhoff Silvia, Iurchenko Valentina, Jabłońska-Czapla Magdalena, Jacukowicz-Sobala Irena, Jeż-Walkowiak Joanna, Jordanov Igor, Jóżwiakowski Krzysztof, Kabsch-Korbutowicz Małgorzata, Kajda-Szcześniak Małgorzata, Kalinowski Radosław, Kalka Joanna, Karczewska Anna, Karwowska Ewa, Kim Ki-Hyun, Klejnowski Krzysztof, Klojzy-Karczmarczyk Beata, Korniłłowicz-Kowalska Teresa, Korus Irena, Kostecki Maciej, Koszelnik Piotr, Koter Stanisław, Kowalska Beata, Kowalski Zygmunt, Kozielska Barbara, Krzyżyńska Renata, Kulig Andrzej, Kwarciak-Kozłowska Anna, Kyzioł-Komosińska Joanna, Lagzdins Ainis, Ledakowicz Stanislaw, Ligęza Sławomir, Liu Xingpo, Loga Małgorzata, Łebkowska Maria, Macherzyński Mariusz, Makisha Nikolay, Makowska Małgorzata, Masłoń Adam, Mazur Zbigniew, Michel Monika, Miechówka Anna, Miksch Korneliusz, Mnuchin Nathan, Mokrzycki Eugeniusz, Molkenthin Frank, Mosquera Corral Anuska, Muhmood Atif, Muntean Edward, Myrta Anna, Nahorski Zbigniew, Narayanasamy Selvaraju, Naumczyk Jeremi, Nawalany Marek, Noubactep C., Nowakowski Piotr, Obarska-Pempkowiak Hanna, Orge C.A., Paul Lothar, Pawęska Katarzyna, Paździor Katarzyna, Pempkowiak Janusz, Peña A., Pietr Stanisław, Piotrowska-Seget Zofia, Pisoni E., Płaza Grażyna, Polkowska Żaneta, Reizer Magdalena, Renman Gunno, Rith Monorom, Romanovski Valentin, Rybicki Stanisław, Rydzkowski Tomasz, Rzętała Mariusz, Sadeghi Mahdi, Sakakibara Yutaka, Scudiero Rosaria, Semaan Mary, Seredyński Franciszek, Sergienko Ruslan, Shen Yujun, Sheng Yanqing, Sidełko Robert, Sočo Eleonora, Sojka Mariusz, Sówka Izabela, Spiak Zofia, Stegenta-Dąbrowska Sylwia, Steliga Teresa, Sulieman Magboul, Surmacz-Górska Joanna, Suryadevara Nagaraja, Suska-Malawska Małgorzata, Szalinska van Overdijk Ewa, Szczerbowski Radosław, Szetela Ryszard, Szpyrka Ewa, Szulczyński Bartosz, Szwast Maciej, Szyszlak-Bargłowicz Joanna, Ślipko Katarzyna, Świetlik Ryszard, Tabernacka Agnieszka, Tepe Yalçin, Tobiszewski Marek, Treichel Wiktor, Tyagi Uplabdhi, Uliasz-Bocheńczyk Alicja, Uzarowicz Łukasz, Van Harreveld A.P., Wang X. K., Wasielewski Ryszard, Wiatkowski Mirosław, Wielgosiński Grzegorz, Willner Joanna, Wisniewski Jacek, Witczak Joanna, Witkiewicz Zygfryd, Włodarczyk Małgorzata, Włodarczyk-Makuła Maria, Wojciechowska Ewa, Wojtkowska Małgorzata, Xinhui Duan, Yang Chunping, Yaqian Zhao Yaqian, Załęska-Radziwiłł Monika, Zamorska Justyna, Zasina Damian, Zawadzki Jarosław, Zdeb Monika M., Zheng Guodi, Zhu Ivan X., Ziułkiewicz Maciej, Zuberi Amina, Zwoździak Jerzy, Żabczyński Sebastian, Żukowski Witold, Żygadło Maria.

Plagiarism Policy

Anti-plagiarism policy

In accordance with AEP requirements, the authors of all articles submitted to the Editorial Office declare that the paper is an original work. Articles that have been approved by the Editorial Board for further processing are checked for originality using the program and iThenticate. As plagiarism, the Editorial Board (according to the definition of plagiarism/anti-plagiarism) recognizes:

• claiming someone else's work or parts of it as your own;
• copying someone else's or your own (self-plagiarism) fragments of articles without reference to the publication (title of the work, names of authors) from which it was taken
• inserting fragments of other works into the article, changing only the order of the sentence or introducing only minor changes to it
• an article in which the copied fragments, despite citing their sources, constitute a significant/major part of the article.

In case of plagiarism/self-plagiarism, further work on this article is stopped and it is removed from the Editorial System. The authors of the article (via the corresponding author) submitted to the Editorial Office of the AEP are informed about the reasons for removing the article.

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