Applied sciences

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials

Content

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials | 2022 | vol. 67 | No 3

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Abstract

In the present investigation Ni particles were added in varying weight fractions (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) to AA6061 alloy during stir casting. To prepare Al-Ni intermetallic reinforced Aluminium Metal Matrix Composites (Al MMCs), as-cast samples were subjected to T6 treatment (Solutionization at 550°C followed by ageing at 2,4,6,8 and 10 hours). Base alloy was also subjected to T6 treatment for comparison purpose. Hardness of the samples were obtained using Vickers hardness test. Samples in the peak aged (T6) condition were subjected to metallographic examination. Influence of Ni particles on the hardness and grain refinement was investigated. X-ray Diffraction analysis of the Ni added samples revealed the presence of Al-Ni intermetallic phase formation in the peak aged (T6) Condition. Scanning Electron Microscope – Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy analysis of composites in the peak aged (T6) condition were carried out to study the formation of the Al-Ni intermetallic phase. Effect of Al-Ni intermetallic phase on wear and friction behavior of the composite samples were studied and compared with that of the base alloy in the peak aged (T6) condition.
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Authors and Affiliations

J. Abuthakir
1
ORCID: ORCID
R. Subramanian
1
ORCID: ORCID
K. Somasundara Vinoth
2
ORCID: ORCID
G. Venkatesh
1
ORCID: ORCID
G. Suganya Priyadharshini
3
ORCID: ORCID
K. Krishnakumar
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Metallurgical Engineering, PSG College of Technology, India-641004
  2. Production Engineering, PSG College of Technology, India-641004
  3. Mechanical Engineering, Coimbatore Institute of Technology, India-641004
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Abstract

This study mixes four different powders to produce Ti-6Cu-8Nb-xCr3C2 (x = 1, 3, and 5 mass%) alloys in three different proportions. The experimental results reveal that when 5 mass% Cr3C2 was added to the Ti-6Cu-8Nb alloys, the specimen possessed optimal mechanical properties after sintering at 1275°C for 1 h. The relative density reached 98.23%, hardness was enhanced to 67.8 HRA, and the transverse rupture strength (TRS) increased to 1821.2 MPa, respectively. The EBSD results show that the added Cr3C2 in situ decomposed into TiC and NbC during the sintering process, and the generated intermetallic compounds (Ti2Cu) were evenly dispersed in the Ti matrix. Furthermore, the reduced Cr atom acts as a β-phase stabilizing element and solid-solution in the Ti matrix. Consequently, the main strengthening mechanisms of the Ti-6Cu-8Nb-xCr3C2 alloys include dispersion strengthening, solid-solution strengthening, and precipitation hardening.
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Authors and Affiliations

Shih-Hsien Chang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Chen-Yu Weng
1
ORCID: ORCID
Kuo-Tsung Huang
2
ORCID: ORCID
Cheng Liang
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. National Taipei University of Technology, Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Taipei 10608, Taiwan, ROC
  2. National Kangshan Agricultural Industrial Senior High School, Department of Auto-Mechanics, Kaohsiung 82049, Taiwan, ROC
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Abstract

The microstructural properties and hardness of a model ternary Fe-4Cr-6Ti ferritic alloy aged at 800°C for 8, 16 and 24 h are investigated in detail. Fine Fe2Ti Laves phase particles precipitate in the α-Fe (ferrite) matrix phase after solutionizing and subsequent aging treatments. The size and amount of Fe2Ti precipitates gradually increase with increasing aging time. The magnetic measurements of the aged samples confirm the variations in the microstructural properties including the volume fraction of the constituent phases, and Ti content of the α-Fe matrix phase. The mean Vickers microhardness value also increases from 203.5 to 238.4 with increasing aging time from 8 to 24 h. In addition, the cyclic oxidation behavior of 24 h aged sample, which contains maximum amount of Fe2Ti precipitates, is also investigated in detail. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that scale product is α-Fe2O3 (hematite). Significant scale spallation and void formation is observed on the surfaces of 24 h aged Fe-4Cr-6Ti sample oxidized at 500°C.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ahmet Demirel
1
ORCID: ORCID
Emre Can Çetin
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ali Karakuş
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mehmet Şahin Ataş
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mehmet Yildirim
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Konya Technical University, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Konya , Turkey
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Abstract

The influence of microwave (MW) plasma on magnetization and morphology of sol-gel synthesized MnFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles is investigated in this study. Manganese (II) nitrate hexahydrate, ferric (III) nitrate nanohydrate and citric acid were used to synthesize ferrite nanoparticles via a facile sol-gel route. These ferrite nanostructures were heat-treated at 700ºC and then given MW plasma treatment for 10 min. The pristine MnFe2O4 and plasma treated MnFe2O4 showed almost similar structural formation with a slight increase in crystallinity on plasma treatment. However, XRD peak intensity slightly increased after plasma treatment, reflecting better crystallinity of the nanostructures. The size of the particle increased from 35 nm to 39 nm on plasma treatment. It was challenging to deduce the surface morphology of the nanoparticles since both samples were composed of a mixture of big and small clusters. Clusters that had been treated with plasma were larger in size than pristine ones. The band gap energy of the pristine MnFe2O4 sample was about 5.92 eV, which increased to 6.01 eV after treatment with MW plasma. The saturation magnetization of MnFe2O4 sample was noted about 0.78 emu/g before plasma treatment and 0.68 emu/g after MW plasma treatment.
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Authors and Affiliations

Muhammad Aqib Busharat
1
ORCID: ORCID
Muhammad Yasin Naz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Shazia Shukrullah
1
ORCID: ORCID
Muhammad Zahid
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Physics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, 38040, Pakistan
  2. Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, 38040, Pakistan
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Abstract

Stainless steels have a wide usage field, their needs as structural parts are increasing day by day due to their resistance to corrosion and providing sufficient mechanical strength in environments that would cause corrosion. In addition to high mechanical properties of the stainless steels, the low heat transmission coefficients bring problems during machining. In this study, the suitable cutting tool and cutting parameters have been evaluated in terms of cutting forces and the tool temperature, the experimental results and finite element analysis have been compared in the milling of Custom 450 stainless steel which offers especially an excellent working opportunity at high temperature and salinity environment. Milling experiments have been carried out using L16 experimental design for Taguchi method. Four simulations have been made using finite element method with corresponding values in L16 orthogonal array for optimum cutting tool and the results were compared in terms of cutting forces and tool temperature changes.
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Authors and Affiliations

Harun Gökçe
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Industrial Design Engineering Department in Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey
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Abstract

Flap peening (FP) is a cold working technique used to apply a compressive force using small shots, this will lead to enhance the surface properties that it can sustain for long life during working conditions. In this study, several aircraft aluminum alloys materials namely; 2219 T6, 2024 T6, 7075T6, and 6061 T6 were flap peened under different rotational speeds. The effect of rotational speed on the average surface roughness (Ra) and average surface micro hardness have been investigated. As seen by the Scanning Electron Microscope SEM phots that the hardness of peened layer is increased. It was found that as the flap peening speeds increase the percent change in surface roughness (Ra) increases, and the percent change in surface micro hardness decreases. The maximum increase in Ra occurs in 2219 T80 and the minimum in 6061 T6 alloys, and for hardness, it is reported that the maximum occurs in 6061 T6 and the minimum in 2019 T80 alloy.
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Authors and Affiliations

Nabeel Abu Shaban
1
ORCID: ORCID
Nabeel Alshabatat
2
Safwan Al-Qawabah
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan, Mechanical Engineering Department, Amman, Jordan
  2. Tafila Technical University, Mechanical Engineering Department, Tafila 66110, Jordan
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Abstract

High manganese steel, also called Hadfield steel, is an alloy essentially made up of iron, carbon, and manganese. This type of steel occupies an important place in the industry. It possesses high impact toughness and high resistance against abrasive wear and hardens considerably during work hardening. The problem with this kind of steel is the generation of carbides at the grain boundaries after the casting. However, heat treatment at the high-temperature range between 950°C and 1150°C followed by rapid quenching in water is proposed as a solution to remove carbides and obtain a fully austenitic structure. Under the work hardening effects, the hardness of Hadfield steel increases greatly due to the transformation of the austenite γ to martensite ε or α and mechanical twinning, which acts as an obstacle for sliding dislocations. Hot machining is the only solution to machine Hadfield steel adequately without damage of tools or changing the mechanical characteristics of the steel. The choice of welding parameters is important to prevent the formation of carbides and obtain welded steel with great characteristics. This paper aims to give an overview about Hadfield steel, element addition effect, microstructure, heat treatments, work hardening, machinability and welding processes.
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Authors and Affiliations

R. Zellagui
1
ORCID: ORCID
L. Hemmouche
2
ORCID: ORCID
H. Ait-Sadi
2
ORCID: ORCID
A. Chelli
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Direction de recherche scientifique et technologique, École supérieure du matériel, Algieria
  2. Polytechnic Military School, Materials Engineering Laboratory, Bordj El Bahri, Alger, Algeria
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Abstract

In this study we analyzed the rolling contact fatigue behavior of two types of coatings made by thermal coating, by the method of atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) from two commercially available powders: Ni5Al5Mo and Al2O3 – 13 TiO2. The contact fatigue behavior was studied on an installation specially designed. The specimens were tested for 54 hours (at 1380 rpm), at a load of 944 N. For both types of coatings, the appearance of a wear path was observed, much more obvious in the case of the Ni matrix layer, also confirmed by profilometry. The mechanism of the wear phenomenon was predominantly of plastic deformation type (the material was pushed towards the edges of the wear path) in the case of NiAlMo coating. In the case of ceramic coating, the wear path width was very small (300-450 μm), with very few changes at the surface level of the coating, which recommends this type of material for applications that require wear resistance to rolling.
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Authors and Affiliations

D. Chicet
1
ORCID: ORCID
S. Toma
1
ORCID: ORCID
R. Haraga
1
ORCID: ORCID
C. Bejinariu
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Blvd. Mangeron, No. 41, 700050, Iasi, Romania
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Abstract

The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of partial substitution of Mn by Nb on structure and thermomagnetic properties in the (Mn, Nb)-Co-Ge alloy. The master alloys were prepared by arc-melting in an arc furnace with high purity of constituent elements under a low pressure of Ar. The prepared specimens were studied in as-cast state. The X-ray was performed by BRUKER D8 Advance diffractrometer with Cu Kα radiation. The analysis of the XRD pattern revealed coexistence of two orthorhombic phases with different lattice constants. The analysis of the temperature dependence of magnetizaton confirmed the XRD results and showed that produced material manifested two magnetic phase transitions corresponding to detected phases. The values of the Curie temperature were 275 and 325 K. The values of magnetic entropy change ∆SM equaled 3.30 and 2.13 J/(kg K), respectively for recognized phases. Biphase structure of produced material allowed to reach relatively high refigeration capacity 307 J/(kg). Moreover, the analysis of field dependences of magnetic entropy change (∆SM = CBn) allowed to construct temperature dependence of exponent n. The analysis of elaborated n vs. T curve confirmed biphasic structure of produced material.
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Authors and Affiliations

K. Kutynia
1
ORCID: ORCID
P. Gębara
1
ORCID: ORCID
A. Przybył
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Czestochowa University of Technology, Institute of Physics, 19 Armii Krajowej Av., 42-200, Częstochowa, Poland
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Abstract

Many modern processes for the production and casting of metals and their alloys are carried out in protective gas atmospheres, which protect them, for example, from oxygen pollution. This applies, for example, to titanium, magnesium or aluminum alloys. Most liquid alloys are comprised of constituents that differ in vapor pressures, resulting in harmful phenomenon during melting due to evaporation of some of its components. This harmful process may be limited by the selection of a suitable gas atmosphere in which the liquid metal treatment process is carried out. In the paper, results of study on the impact of the type of gas atmosphere on the rate of evaporation of zinc in argon – hydrogen mixtures are presented. It should be noted that such mixtures are used, for example, in metal welding processes, in which it is also possible to evaporate a component of the so-called liquid metal pool. The research results showed that the rate of zinc evaporation increases with the increase of hydrogen content in the gas atmosphere.
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Authors and Affiliations

T. Matuła
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Engineering, 8 Krasińskiego Str., 40-019 Katowice, Poland
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Abstract

In this study, microstructure, mechanical, corrosion and corrosive wear properties of Mg-xAg the as-cast and extruded alloys (x: 1, 3 and 5 wt. % Ag) were investigated. According to the experimental results, as the amount of Ag added in the casting alloys increases, the secondary phases (Mg4Ag, Mg54Ag17) emerging in the structure have become more clarified. Furthermore, it was observed that as the amount of Ag increased, the grain size decreased and thus the mechanical properties of the alloys increased. Similarly, the extrusion process enabled the grains to be refined and the mechanical properties to be increased. As a result of the in vitro tests performed, the Mg-1Ag exhibited very bad corrosion properties compared to other alloys. On the other hand, according to corrosive wear tests results, a high wear rate and friction coefficient were found for Mg-5Ag alloys.
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Authors and Affiliations

Levent Elen
1
ORCID: ORCID
Yunus Turen
2
ORCID: ORCID
Hayrettin Ahlatci
2
ORCID: ORCID
Yavuz Sun
2
ORCID: ORCID
Mehmet Unal
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Karabuk University, TOBB Vocational School of Technical Sciences, Machinery and Metal Technologies Department, Karabuk, Turkey
  2. Karabuk University, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Turkey
  3. Karabuk University, Manufacturing Engineering, Technology Faculty, Turkey
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Abstract

FeMnSiCrNi alloys represent a promising class of FeMnSi-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) characterized by excellent characteristics of formability and corrosion resistance. The present paper is focused on a 68Fe-18Mn-3Si-7Cr-4Ni (mass. %) SMA, produced by powder metallurgy routine, which was tested to creep, using a dual cantilever specimen holder, and analyzed by means of the dedicated software of a dynamic mechanical analyzer. The specimens were tested at five temperatures by applying, at each of them, four bending force values, during 2000 s. The variation of bending creep deflection with time, temperature and force was discussed both from the point of instant value and 1000 s-value. These results enabled plotting a space diagram of stabilized creep rate variation with both applied force and test temperature. In such context, a theoretical model in a multifractal paradigm of motion was built, considering that FeMnSiCrNi shape memory alloy can be assimilated, both structurally and functionally, with a multifractal object. Finally, this model was validated by means of experimental data.
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Authors and Affiliations

L. Ciurcă
1
ORCID: ORCID
B. Pricop
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Agop
1
ORCID: ORCID
L.-G. Bujoreanu
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iași, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Blvd. Dimitrie Mangeron 61A. 700050 Iași, Romania
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Abstract

The thermal expansion of a ZrO2-20 mol% Gd2O3 pellet has been systematically investigated using a thermo-mechanical analyzer in the temperature range of 293-1773 K. Variations in the thermal expansion coefficient and density upon temperature change were calculated using the thermal expansion data. The average linear thermal expansion coefficient of the ZrO2-20 mol% Gd2O3 pellet was found to be 9.522 × 10–6 K–1 in the range of 298-1073 K. This value is smaller than that of ZrO2 and larger than that of Gd2O3. Further, with an increase in temperature to 1773 K, the density of ZrO2-20 mol% Gd2O3 pellet was found to decrease to 94.98 % of the initial density at 293 K.
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Authors and Affiliations

Kweonho Kang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Seok-Min Hong
1
ORCID: ORCID
Changhwa Lee
1
ORCID: ORCID
Yongjun Cho
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
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Abstract

The Ti-Zr and Ti-Zr/sol-gel were used as pretreatment layers before the electroless nickel coating on AM60B magnesium alloy. Scanning Electron Microscopy was employed to investigate the surface morphology of the pretreated layers and applied electroless coatings. Chemical analysis of the Ti-Zr layer, and nickel coatings was done using the Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. Moreover, the X-ray Diffraction and Atomic Force Microscopy methods were utilized to evaluate the microstructure and surface roughness of the electroless coatings, respectively. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy was employed to study the corrosion behavior of Ni-P coatings. The results show that Ti-Zr layer has structural cracks, and the sol-gel film was covered all cracks entirely. The cauliflower-like electroless nickel coating was applied on both mentioned pretreated layers. The cross-sectional images revealed the higher thickness for the electroless coating on Ti-Zr/sol-gel layer, probably due to a large number of Ni nucleation centers. The EIS results demonstrate that the electroless coating on Ti-Zr/sol-gel has high corrosion protection and microhardness value.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zhale Nazari
1
ORCID: ORCID
Davod Seifzadeh
1
ORCID: ORCID
Zahra Rajabalizadeh
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Faculty of Science, Corrosion and Industrial Electrochemistry Research Laboratory, Ardabil-Iran
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Abstract

In this paper, a study was carried out to investigate the surface roughness and material removal rate of low carbon NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) machined by Wire Electro Spark Erosion (WESE) technique. Experiments are designed considering three parameters viz, spark ON time (SON), spark OFF time (SOFF), and voltage (V) at three levels each. The surface roughness increased from 2.1686 μm to 2.6869 μm with an increase in both SON time, SOFF time and a decrease in voltage. The material removal rate increased from 1.272 mm3/min to 1.616 mm3/min with an increase in SON time but a varying effect was observed the SOFF time and voltage were varied. The analysis revealed that the intensity and duration of the spark had an unswerving relation with the concentration of the microcracks and micropores. More microcracks and micropores were seen in the combination of SON = 120 µs, voltage = 30 V. The concentration of the microcracks and micropores could be minimised by using an appropriate parameter setting. Therefore, considering the surface analysis and material removal, the low carbon NiTi alloy is recommended to machine with 110 μs – 55 μs – 30 v (SON – SOFF – V respectively), to achieve better surface roughness with minimal surface damage.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ebenezer George
1
ORCID: ORCID
Adam Khan M.
1
ORCID: ORCID
Chellaganesh Duraipandi
1
Winowlin Jappes J.T.
1
Julfikar Haider
2

  1. School of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering and Centre for Surface Engineering, Kalasalingam Academy of Research and Education, Tamil Nadu, India
  2. Manchester Metropolitan University, Advanced Materials and Surface Engineering (AMSE) Research Centre, Chester Street, M1 5GD, UK
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Abstract

One of the most important factors directly affecting microstructure and mechanical properties in directional solidification process is secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS). It is very important to measure the SDAS and examine the factors that may affect them. To investigate the effect of growth rate on the SDAS, the alloy specimens were directional solidified upward with different growth rates ( V = 8.3-83.0 μm/s) at a constant temperature gradient ( G = 4 K/mm) in a Bridgman-type growth apparatus. After the specimens are directionally solidified, they were exposed to metallographic processes in order to observe the dendritic solidification structure on the longitudinal section of the specimens. Coarsen secondary dendrite arm spacings (λ 2C) were measured excluding the first arms near the tip of the dendrite. Local solidification times ( tf) were calculated by ratio of spacings to growth rates. It was determined that the tf values decreased with increasing V values. The relationships between tf and λ 2C were defined by means of the binary regression analysis. Exponent values of tf were obtained as 0.37, 0.43, 0.46 and 0.47 according to increasing V values, respectively. These exponent values are close to the exponent value (0.33) predicted by the Rappaz-Boettinger theoretical model and good agreement with the exponent values (0.33-0.50) obtained by other experimental studies.
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Authors and Affiliations

Erkan Üstün
1
ORCID: ORCID
Emin Çadirli
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Niğde Ömer Halisdemir University, Institute of Science, Department of Physics, Niğde, Turkey
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Abstract

Magnesium-based MMCs are widely used in structural-based applications due to their lightweight, high hardness, corrosion and wear resistance. Also, machining is an important manufacturing process that is necessary to ensure dimensional accuracy and produce intricate shapes. In this context, the machining of Magnesium based metal matrix composites is undertaken to study the impact of the cutting parameters on the machinability behaviour. In this work, turning of pure Mg/SiCp on a Lathe is done and an in-depth assessment on the machining forces, machined surface quality, chip microstructure, and tool morphology has been carried out using TiAlN coated tooling insert. The analysis revealed that the thrust force decreased due to the thermal softening of the matrix meanwhile the feed force also followed the similar trend at higher cutting speeds because of the minimized built-up edge and cutting depth whereas principal cutting force was inconsistent at higher cutting speeds. The surface finish was better at high cutting speed – low feed combination. The chip microstructure revealed that gross fracture propagation at the free surface and variations in the shear bands have occurred at different cutting speeds. Tool studies using SEM analysis revealed wear modes like chipping and built-up edge at low cutting speeds, but with a reduced impact at intermediate cutting conditions, whereas abrasion wear was observed predominantly in the tool nose at higher cutting speeds.
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Authors and Affiliations

K. Gobivel
1
ORCID: ORCID
K.S. Vijay Sekar
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. KCG College of Technology, Karapakkam, Chennai, India
  2. Sri Sivasubramaniya Nadar College of Engineering, Kalavakkam, India
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Abstract

In the current paper, the effect of tool wear for a constant period of time (360 s) during conventional and ultrasonic assisted machining of Inconel 718 is investigated in terms of cutting forces, temperature, and deviation measurements. For fixed process parameters turning experiments have been performed with and without the application of tangential vibration. Ultrasonic assisted turning (UAT) experiments have been compared with conventional turning (CT). The experimental results reveal that cutting forces and temperature increase linearly in the case of UAT whereas remaining constant in CT for a constant period of time. Besides the tool wear rate in the case of UAT is more than that in the CT.
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Authors and Affiliations

Srihari Dodla
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi-221005, India
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Abstract

In this work, nanosized Ni (nNi) powders of 50 nm are mixed with Cr and Ni submicron-powders (600 nm) to fabricate ­Cr-50 mass% Ni alloys by vacuum hot pressing. In order to evaluate the influence of the nanosized Ni powders, different amounts of nanosized Ni powders are added to produce the Cr-(50-x) mass% Ni-x mass% nNi alloys (x = 0, 10, 20 , and 30). The hot pressing was maintained at 1275°C, 48 MPa for 1 h. The microstructure evaluation, mechanical, and electrical properties were performed. The results reveal that mechanical and electrical properties are enhanced when increasing the nNi addition. The Cr-20 mass% ­Ni-30 mass% nNi presents the highest relative density of 96.53% and the electrical conductivity of 2.18×104 Scm–1, moreover, the hardness and transverse rupture strength values increase to 76.1 HRA and 1217 MPa, respectively. Moreover, a more homogeneous microstructure and a decrease in the mean grain size to 3.15 μm are acquired. Significantly, this fabrication procedure (adding 30 mass% nanosized nickel powders) results in the optimal microstructure, electrical and mechanical properties of submicron-structured Cr-(50-x) mass% Ni-x mass% nNi alloys.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jhong-Ren Huang
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Shih-Hsien Chang
3
ORCID: ORCID
Cheng-Liang Liao
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Tohoku University, Department of Metallurgy, Materials Science and Materials Processing, 6-6-04 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579, Japan
  2. National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Taipei 10607, Taiwan, ROC
  3. National Taipei University of Technology, Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Taipei 10608, Taiwan, ROC
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Abstract

The effect of titanium nitride (TiN) thickness as the support layer for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) growth was investigated by depositing three different thicknesses: 20 nm, 50 nm and 100 nm. This TiN support layer was deposited on SiO2 pads before depositing nickel (Ni) as the catalyst material. The Ni distribution on different TiN thicknesses was studied under hydrogen environment at 600°C. Then, the samples were further annealed at 600°C in acetylene and hydrogen environment for CNTs growth. The results show that, the optimum TiN thickness was obtained for 50 nm attributed by the lowest D to G ratio (0.8).
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Authors and Affiliations

Muhammad M. Ramli
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
N.H. Osman
2 3
ORCID: ORCID
D. Darminto
4
ORCID: ORCID
M.M.A.B. Abdullah
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Geopolymer & Green Technology, Centre of Excellence (CEGeoGTech), Perlis, Malaysia
  2. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Faculty of Electronic Engineering Technology, Perlis, Malaysia
  3. Universiti Putra Malaysia, Faculty of Science, Department of Physic, Applied Electromagnetic Laboratory, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
  4. Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Faculty of Science and Analytical Data, Department of Physic, Campus ITS Sukolilo-Surabaya 60111, Indonesia
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Abstract

The formation of internal cracks in as-cast billet is mainly attributed to the stress and strain states near the solidifying front. This study investigates the effect of chamfer configuration of as-cast billet on the maximal principal stress and the tensile stress during soft reduction process. The LIT and ZDT of GCr15 bearing steel are calculated by the solidification phase transformation model. What’s more, the 3D finite element models is established to investigate stress and strain states in the brittle temperature range. The relationships between chamfer angle and maximal principal stress, internal crack, as well as equivalent plastic strain are analyzed. Numerical results reveal that a chamfer configuration of as-cast billet is much more effective than a rectangular one on decreasing the risk of internal cracks.
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Authors and Affiliations

Nanfu Zong
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Sida Ma
2
Weizhao Sun
2
Yang Liu
3
ORCID: ORCID
Tao Jing
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. R&D Institute of Bengang Steel Plates Co., Ltd., Benxi 117000, China
  2. Tsinghua University, Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing 100084, China
  3. Jiangsu Changqiang Iron and Steel Corp., Ltd., Jiangsu 214500, China
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Abstract

Cold spraying as a low-temperature coating deposition method is intended for thermally sensitive materials. Due to its precise temperature control, it limits the formation of structural defects, and can therefore be easily applied to spray corrosion protective coatings made from metal or metal-ceramic powders. However, the formation of pure ceramic coatings with the use of cold spraying is still not so common. Titanium dioxide is one of the most interesting ceramics due to its photocatalytic properties. Nevertheless, these types of coating materials usually work in a corrosion favoring humid atmosphere. In the presented paper, amorphous TiO2 powder was deposited onto aluminum alloys and steel substrates and then submitted to potentiodynamic corrosion tests in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The as-sprayed coating showed phase transition from amorphous TiO2 to anatase, and also revealed porosity. As a result, electrolytes penetrated the coating and caused undercoating corrosion in the tested environment of an aqueous NaCl solution. The analysis of the potentiodynamic curves showed that the presence of the coating decreased corrosion potential on both substrates. It arose from the mixed phases of TiO2, which consisted of photocathode – amorphous material and photoanode – crystalline anatase. The phase mixture induced the galvanic corrosion of metallic substrates in the presence of electrolytes. Moreover, pitting-like corrosion and coating delamination were detected in aluminium alloy and steel samples, respectively. Finally, the corrosion mechanism of the titanium dioxide coatings was characterized and described.
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Authors and Affiliations

M.M. Lachowicz
1
M. Winnicki
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Department of Metal Forming, Welding and Metrology, 5 Lukasiewicza S tr., 50-371 Wroclaw, Poland
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Abstract

Present study introduces effect of forge application and elimination on microstructural and mechanical properties of AISI 316 during friction welding. Temperature measurements, microstructure, micro-hardness, tensile test, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were evaluated. Maximum temperature recorded was 819°C while forge was applied between 357°C-237°C. Thermo-mechanically affected zone and highly plastically deformed zone were created at the interface at elimination and application of forge respectively. Ultimate tensile strength decreased and ductility increased when forge elimination compared to forge application. Tensile fracture was occurred adjacent to the welding interface for both cases, though, after forge application, ductile fracture mode and cleavage features through the fingerprints were observed in the fracture morphology. Redistribution and concentration of gamma iron in 111 level after forge application and heat treated of AISI 316.
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Authors and Affiliations

A. Jabbar Hassan
1
T. Boukharouba
1
D. Miroud
2

  1. Houari Boumediene University of Sciences and Technology (USTHB), Advanced Mechanic Laboratory (LMA), BP. 32, El-Alia, 16111 Bab-Ezzoaur, Algiers-Algeria
  2. Houari Boumediene University of Sciences and Technology (USTHB), Materials Science and Process Engineering Laboratory (LSGM), BP. 32, El-Alia,16111 Bab-Ezzoaur, Algiers-Algeria
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Abstract

Dolomite can be used as a source of aluminosilicate to produce geopolymers; however, this approach is limited by its low reactivity. This study analyzes the viability of producing geopolymers using dolomite/fly-ash with sodium silicate and NaOH solutions (at multiple concentrations) by determining the resultant geopolymers’ compressive strengths. The dolomite/fly-ash-based geopolymers at a NaOH concentration of ~22 M resulted in an optimum compressive strength of 46.38 MPa after being cured for 28 days, and the SEM and FTIR analyses confirmed the denser surface of the geopolymer matrix. The synchrotron micro-XRF analyses confirmed that the Ca concentration exceeded that of Si and Mg, leading to the formation of calcium silicate hydrate, which strengthens the resulting geopolymers.
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Authors and Affiliations

Emy Aizat Azimi
1
M.A.A. Mohd Salleh
1
Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ikmal Hakem A. Aziz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Kamarudin Hussin
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jitrin Chaiprapa
2
ORCID: ORCID
Petrica Vizureanu
3
ORCID: ORCID
Sorachon Yoriya
4
ORCID: ORCID
Marcin Nabiałek
5
ORCID: ORCID
Jerzy J. Wyslocki
5
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (Unimap), Centre of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology (CeGeoGTech), Perlis, Malaysia
  2. Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI), 111 University Avenue, Muang District, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000, Thailand
  3. ”Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Blvd. D. Mangeron 71, 700050 Lasi, Romania
  4. National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC), 114 Thailand Science Park, Phaholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klongluang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand
  5. Czestochowa University of Technology, Department of Physics, 42-200, Czestochowa, Poland
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Abstract

Two standardised grades of spheroidal cast iron determined in standard EN PN 1563 – 1997 as: EN-GJS-350 – 22LT (T = –40°C) and EN GJS 400 – 18LT (T = –20°C) are intended for work at low temperatures: –20 and –40oC. The main mechanical property of these cast iron grades is a high impact strength at a work temperature down to: –40°C. A series of controlled melts was performed to optimise the production technology of spheroidal cast iron, which in as-cast state is characterised by ferritic matrix (the best without any pearlite), fine precipitates of nodular graphite and high purity (without non-metallic inclusions). Variable structures of metal charges and various spheroidisation techniques (the modification methods) (slender ladle with a tight cover – Tundish technology as well as the technology with cored wire) were applied in the research. In order to obtain refinement of graphite precipitates and to achieve the ferritic matrix multistage inoculations of technologies were applied. Cast iron was subjected to refining to limit non-metallic inclusions since they decrease the impact strength. The production process of cast iron was controlled by the thermal derivative analysis at the stage of initial cast iron and after its secondary metallurgy (modification and inoculation). It was pointed out, that the reproducible production of cast iron for work at low temperatures was only possible when all elements of the technological process were strictly adhered to. It was pointed out, in the hereby paper, that: it should be strived to maintain Si content not higher than 2.50÷2.60%, which at producing spheroidal cast iron is sometimes difficult and requires using a lot of pig iron in the metal charge. For a fast assessment of the cast iron quality, concerning its impact strength, the proposed – in the hereby paper – index quality (IQu) can be applied. It is determined on the bases of measuring the cast iron hardness and propagation velocity of ultrasound wave.
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Authors and Affiliations

J. Zych
1
ORCID: ORCID
T. Jurga
2
J. Mocek
1
M. Myszka
1
T. Snopkiewicz
1

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Foundry Engineering, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
  2. Odlewnia Żeliwa Drawski S.A, Drawski Młyn, Poland
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Abstract

Gaseous nitriding of binary Ni-Cr solid-solution alloys was studied at 1125ºC over the range 1 to 6000 bar of N2-pressure. At the specified temperature the nitriding response of the Ni-Cr alloys depends on the Cr-content in the initial alloy and activity (fugacity) of nitrogen at the gas/metal interface. Transition from cubic δ-CrN to hexagonal β-Cr2N precipitation occurs within the reaction zone after nitrogenization at 1125ºC under nitrogen pressure 100-6000 bar when chromium content in the initial alloy is 28 at. % or higher. It was found that a ternary phase, π (Cr12.8Ni7.2N4.0) is formed inside the Ni32Cr alloy upon cooling in nitrogen after nitriding at 1125ºC and 1 bar of N2. Experimental evidence is presented that π-phase is involved in peritectoid relations with β-Cr2N and γ-(Ni-Cr) solid solution. It was also demonstrated that nitriding behaviour of the Ni-Cr alloy can be rationalized using pertinent phase diagram information, but, in some cases, effect of mechanical stresses induced upon the internal precipitation can vitiate this prediction.
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Authors and Affiliations

A. Kodentsov
1
ORCID: ORCID
C. Cserháti
2

  1. Mat-Tech BV, Development & Testing, Son, The Netherlands
  2. University of Debrecen Hungary Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Department of Solid State Physics, Hungary
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Abstract

The carbothermic reduction of calcined magnesite in vacuum was studied. By thermodynamic analysis, the starting temperature of reduction reaction dropped from 2173K to 1523K when system pressure dropped from 1 atmosphere to 100 Pa. The experiments were carried out at different conditions under 10~100 Pa and the experimental results shown that the reduction extent of MgO improved by increasing the reaction temperature and time, the pellet forming pressure as well as adding fluoride as catalyst. The rate-determining step of carbothermic reduction process was gas diffusion with the apparent activation energy of 241.19~278.56 kJ/mol.
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Authors and Affiliations

Qifeng Tang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jinqing Ao
1
ORCID: ORCID
Biyou Peng
1
ORCID: ORCID
Biao Guo
1
ORCID: ORCID
Tao Yang
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Xihua University, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chengdu 610039, PR China
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Abstract

Currently, the world of material requires intensive research to discover a new-class of materials those posses the properties like lower in weight, greater in strength and better in mechanical properties. This led to the study of light and strong alloys or composites. This study focuses to produce current novel aluminium composite with an appreciable density, good machinable characteristics, less corrosive, high strength, light weight and low manufacturing cost product. In this research, an aluminium metal matrix composites (AMMC) (Al-0.5Si-0.5Mg-2.5Cu-15SiC) was developed using the metallurgical powdered method and subjected to the investigation of erosion wear characteristics. Here the solid particle erosion test was conducted on AMMC samples. The article presents, the design of Taguchi experiments and statistical techniques of erosion wear characteristics and the behaviors of the composite. The rate of erosion wear found to decrease with increasing impact angle, regardless of the rate of impact. With higher impact velocity erosion rate increases but decreases with stand of distance.
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Authors and Affiliations

Rajesh Kumar Behera
1
ORCID: ORCID
Birajendu Prasad Samal
2
ORCID: ORCID
Sarat Chandra Panigrahi
3
ORCID: ORCID
Pramod Kumar Parida
4
ORCID: ORCID
Kamalakanta Muduli
5 6
ORCID: ORCID
Noorhafiza Muhammad
7
ORCID: ORCID
Nitaisundar Das
6
Shayfull Zamree Abd Rahim
7
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Biju Patnaik University of Technology, Odisha, India
  2. Orissa Engineering College, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
  3. Raajdhani Engineering College, Bhubaneswar, India
  4. College Engineering and Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
  5. Papua New Guinea University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lae, Morobe Province, Pmb 411, Papua New Guinea
  6. C.V. Raman Global University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
  7. Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Center of Excellence Geopolymer & Green Technology (Cegeogtech) and Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Kampus Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
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Abstract

Water contamination that caused by heavy metals is a very common phenomenon in the industrial age. One of the popular way to treat metal contaminated water is by adsorption process using activated carbon as the adsorbent. This paper works on producing activated carbon by chemical means with impregnation ratios of NaOH:char (w/w) was predetermined at 1:1 (ACT1-1), 2:1 (ACT2-1) and 3:1 (ACT3-1) under activation temperature of 700°C. Considering the Leucaena leucocephala is a wildly, easy and fast grown species, with the availability throught the year, it was chosen to be used as the precursor. The properties of these activated carbons and its potential for cadmium removal from aqueus solution was analyzed. It was found that the highest surface area was recorded at 662.76 m²/g. Four parameters were studied which are contact time, the effect of pH, initial concentration of adsorbate and temperature. The equilibrium time was achieved in 40 min treatment at initial concentrations of 30 mg/l. The adsorbent exhibited good sorption potential for cadmium at pH 8.0 and equilibrium temperature of 30℃. Based on the results, this study had proved that activated carbon from Leucaena leucocephala biomass have the good potential to be used for removal of cadmium from wastewater.
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Authors and Affiliations

W.M.H.W. Ibrahim
1
N.S. Sulaiman
2
M.H.M. Amini
1
W.R.A. Kadir
3
M. Mohamed
1
S.F.M. Ramle
1
U. Bilgin
4
W. Rahman
5 6

  1. Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Faculty of Bioengineering and Technology, Jeli Campus, 17600 Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia
  2. Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Industrial Technology, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia
  3. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, 52109 Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Malaysia
  4. Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Forestry, 61080 Trabzon, Turkey
  5. Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Perlis, Malaysia
  6. Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology (CEGeoGTech), Perlis, Malaysia
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Abstract

Marine sediments with rapid oxic/anoxic transitions are difficult to monitor in real time. Organic overload that may lead to anoxia and buildup of hydrogen sulfide can be caused by a variety of factors such as sewage spills, harbor water stagnation, algal blooms and the vicinity of aquaculture operations. We have tested a novel multiprobe technology (named SPEAR) on marine sediments to evaluate its performance in monitoring sediments and overlaying water. Our results show the ability of the SPEAR probes to distinguish electrochemical changes at 2-3 mm scale and at hourly cycles. SPEAR probes have the ability to identify redox interfaces and redox transition zones in sediments, but do not use micromanipulators (which are cumbersome in field and underwater applications). We propose that the best target habitats for SPEAR-type monitoring are rapidly evolving muddy deposits and sediments near aquaculture operations where pollution with organics stresses the ecosystem.
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Authors and Affiliations

R. Popa
1
ORCID: ORCID
I.C. Moga
1
ORCID: ORCID
K.H. Nealson
2
ORCID: ORCID
V.M. Cimpoiasu
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. DFR Systems SRL, R&D Department, Bucharest, Romania
  2. University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 90089, USA
  3. University of Craiova, Biology and Environmental Engineering Department, Frontier Biology and Astrobiology Research Center, Craiova, 200585, Romania
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Abstract

The parameters of the injection moulding process have a significant influence on the properties of the moulded parts. Selection of appropriate injection conditions (e. g. the injection temperature, mould temperature, injection and holding pressure, injection speed) contributes to the productivity and energy consumption of the injection moulding process as well as to the quality of the moulded parts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of injection moulding parameters on properties of poly(ethylene) mouldings. Regranulate obtained from recycled film, which is a mixture of low-density poly(ethylene) and linear low-density poly(ethylene), was used for testing. Samples in the form of standardised tensile bars of type A1 were produced by injection moulding. A Krauss-Maffei KM65-160C4 injection moulding machine was used for this purpose. Variable parameters of the this process used in the study were: injection speed, mould temperature and holding pressure. The results of tensile strength tests of the obtained samples are presented. The weight and dimensions of mouldings from four different regranulates were also investigated. The effect of injection moulding conditions on the properties of poly(ethylene) mouldings was shown in the investigations. The mass of poly(ethylene) mouldings is dependent on the holding pressure.
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Authors and Affiliations

A. Kalwik
1
ORCID: ORCID
R. Humienny
1
ORCID: ORCID
K. Mordal
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science, Department of Technology and Automation, 21 Armii Krajowej Av., 42- 201 Czestochowa, Poland
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Abstract

This study evaluated the effect of milling speed and compaction pressure on the densification and morphology of the CuZn-Gr composite. The composite was prepared by using the powder metallurgy technique. The effect on the microstructural and compaction was determined based on different milling speeds. The different milling speeds involved were 175, 200, 225, and 250 rpm. Meanwhile, the different compaction pressures used in this study were 127, 250, 374, and 500 MPa. The properties of the milled powder gave the result to green density and densification parameters. The XRD pattern of Cu and Zn broadened as milling time increased.
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Authors and Affiliations

M.N. Masri
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Mohammad
1
M. Yusoff
1
ORCID: ORCID
S. Mamat
1
ORCID: ORCID
P.T. Teo
1
ORCID: ORCID
R. Othman
2
A.R. Irfan
3 4
ORCID: ORCID
Pramod K. Singh
5
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Faculty of Bioengineering and Technology, 17600 Jeli Kelantan, Malaysia
  2. Urich Technology (KC0023880-A), No. 457, Lorong 7/1, Taman Semarak, 08000 Sungai Petani, Kedah, Malaysia
  3. Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Perlis, Malaysia
  4. Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology (CEGeoGTech), Perlis, Malaysia
  5. Sharda University, School of Basic Sciences and Research, Department of Physics, Center of Excellence on Solar Cells & Renewable Energy, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201308, India
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Abstract

In this work, zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films are deposited on glass substrate using the sol-gel spin coating technique. The effect of annealing temperature on structural properties was investigated. The ZnO sol-gel was produced from zinc acetate dehydrate as the starting material with iso-propanol alcohol as the stabilizer. The ratio was controlled, distilled water and diethanolamine as the solvent mixing on a magnetic stirrer for an hour under constant heat of 60°C. The ZnO thin film was deposited using the spin coating technique with the speed of 3000 rpm for 30 minutes before the sample undergoes pre-heat in the oven at the temperature of 100°C for 10 minutes. The sample was annealing in the furnace for an hour at 200°C, 350°C, and 500°C. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirms that hexagonal wurtzite structure with zincite and zinc acetate hydroxide hydrate composition. The thin films surface roughness was analyzed using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for surface morphology observation.
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Authors and Affiliations

R. Hussin
1 2 3
ORCID: ORCID
F. Hanafi
2
R.A. Rashid
1
Z. Harun
2 4
Z. Kamdi
2
S.A. Ibrahim
1 4
A.R. Ainuddin
2
W. Rahman
5 3
A.M. Leman
1 3

  1. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Jalan Edu Hub Gunasama1, Pagoh Edu Hub, KM1, Jln Panchor, 84600 Pagoh Johor, Malaysia
  2. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Parit Raja, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia
  3. Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology (CEGeoGTech), Perlis, Malaysia
  4. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Integrated Material and Process, Advanced Manufacturing & Materials Centre, Parit Raja, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia
  5. Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Perlis, Malaysia
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Abstract

Tannic acid or tannin, type of phenolic compound contains in kenaf bast fibre. Conventional extraction has certain limitations in terms of time, energy, and solvent consumption. Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) can extract bioactive components in shorter time, low temperature, with lesser energy and solvent requirement. UAE as alternative extraction technique is better equipped to retain the functionality of the bioactive compounds. In this study, the conditions for ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) of tannic acid from kenaf bast fibre by assessing the effect of sonication time and different duty cycles were optimized. The use of ultrasound to extract tannic acid from kenaf bast fiber was evaluated. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was carried out using ethanol as solvent to intensify the extraction efficacy. Phytochemical screening was conducted to identify the presence of tannic acid in extracts. The extracts then were analyzed using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). It was found that 0.2429 mg/mL of tannic acid was obtained under the extraction conditions of extraction temperature of 40℃, sonication time of 20 minutes and duty cycle of 50%. From SEM analysis, it was found that the raw sample demonstrated rough surface and no porous but kenaf bast fibre display smoother surface with less impurities and few pores appeared after the extraction process using UAE. These results indicate that ultrasound-assisted extraction is an efficient method for extracting tannic acid from kenaf bast fibre with the advantages of lower extraction time and higher extraction yield.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Mohamad
1
ORCID: ORCID
H.A. Ibrahim
1
M.F.M. Nasir
2
N.A. Mohidem
3
ORCID: ORCID
N.F. Shoparwe
1
P.T. Teo
1
ORCID: ORCID
M.N. Masri
1
ORCID: ORCID
A.R. Irfan
4 5
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Faculty of Bioengineering and Technology, Jeli Campus, Kelantan, Malaysia
  2. National Kenaf and Tobacco Board, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
  3. Universiti Putra Malaysia, Faculty of Engineering Selangor, Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Malaysia
  4. Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Perlis, Malaysia
  5. Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology (CEGeoGTech), Perlis, Malaysia
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Abstract

The composition and structural modification of aluminium alloys influence their strength, tribological properties and structural stability. The phase composition of the structure as well as the characteristics of the elementary cell of each identified phase was established by X-ray diffraction, and the main objective was to determine the compositional phases, microstructure and microcomposition of the alloy. Based on the cyclic voltammograms it can be said that on the OCP interval (+1.5 V… –1.1 V), after the breakthrough potential is an intensification of the anodic process by the pronounced increase of the current density, in these conditions the Al-Si alloy has low values which means that it has a better corrosion resistance.
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Authors and Affiliations

M.G. Minciuna
1 2
P. Vizureanu
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
B. Jeż
3
ORCID: ORCID
A.V. Sandu
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
M. Nabiałek
3
ORCID: ORCID
D.C. Achitei
1 2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. “Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Blvd. Mangeron, No. 51, 700050, Iasi, Romania
  2. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Centre of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology (CEGeoGTech), 01000 Perlis, Malaysia
  3. Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Production Engineering and Materials Technology, Department of Physics, 42-200 Częstochowa, Poland
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Abstract

This paper presents a comparative study on the effects of the in-situ surface modifications performed on “H” type microfluidic systems obtained via additive manufacturing. The microsystem was printed using a polylactic acid filament on an Ender-5 Pro printer. The surface modification of the main channel was done using chloroform by two different methods: vapor smoothing and flushing. The obtained surface roughness was studied using an optical microscope and the ImageJ software, as well as scanning electron microscopy. The effect of the channel surface treatment upon the characteristics of the fluid flow was assessed. The microfluidic systems were used for the dynamic study of biofilm growth of Candida albicans (ATCC 10231). The influence of the surface roughness of the main channel on the formation and growth of the biofilm was studied using quantitative methods, scanning electron microscopy imaging as well as optical coherence tomography.
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Authors and Affiliations

A. Csapai
1
ORCID: ORCID
D.-A. Țoc
2
ORCID: ORCID
V. Pașcalău
1
ORCID: ORCID
V. Toșa
1
ORCID: ORCID
D. Opruța
3
ORCID: ORCID
F. Popa
1
ORCID: ORCID
C. Popa
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Materials Science and Engineering Department, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 103-105 Muncii Ave., 400641 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
  2. Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 8 Victor Babeș Street, 400000 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
  3. Thermal Engineering Department, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 103-105 Muncii Ave., 400641 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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Abstract

The research focused on TiO2 nanostructures environmental applications due to the special characteristics that displayed degradation of the organic compounds into environmentally friendly products through exposure to UV light. The protocol behind obtaining the nanostructures involved the use of a Ti material exposed to alkaline treatment and advanced oxidation using NaOH solution and acetone. These studied nanostructures were analyzed extensively by using methods such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for characterizing the elements, compounds and morphological properties of the material. These differences in morphology is attributed to different NaOH solution concentrations. The Ti sheets were immersed into NaOH and acetone mixed solutions for 72 hours. The best results were recorded by using 30% NaOH solution. After obtaining the 3D structures, which improve specific surface and contact area with the environment, the samples were tested under UV light in order to degrade methylene blue in order to determine their photocatalytic performance.
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Authors and Affiliations

C.I. Tarcea
1
ORCID: ORCID
C.M. Pantilimon
1
ORCID: ORCID
G. Coman
1
ORCID: ORCID
A.A. Turcanu
1
ORCID: ORCID
A.M. Predescu
1
ORCID: ORCID
E. Matei
1
ORCID: ORCID
A.C. Berbecaru
1
ORCID: ORCID
C. Predescu
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Department of Materials Processing and Ecometallurgy, 313 Splaiul Independentei, 060042, Bucharest, Romania
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Abstract

The article presents the developed IT solutions supporting the material and technological conversion process in terms of the possibility of using the casting technology of selected alloys to produce products previously manufactured with the use of other methods and materials. The solutions are based on artificial intelligence, machine learning and statistical methods. The prototype module of the information and decision-making system allows for a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of this type of procedure. Currently, the selection of the method of manufacturing a product is based on the knowledge and experience of the technologist and constructor. In the described approach, this process is supported by the proprietary module of the information and decision-making system, which, based on the accumulated knowledge, allows for an initial assessment of the feasibility of a selected element in a given technology. It allows taking into account a large number of intuitive factors, as well as recording expert knowledge with the use of formal languages. Additionally, the possibility of searching for and collecting data on innovative solutions, supplying the knowledge base, should be taken into account. The developed and applied models should allow for the effective use and representation of knowledge expressed in linguistic form. In this solution, it is important to use methods that support the selection of parameters for the production of casting. The type, number and characteristics of data have an impact on the effectiveness of solutions in terms of classification and prediction of data and the relationships detected.
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Authors and Affiliations

D. Wilk-Kołodziejczyk
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
K. Jaśkowiec
2
ORCID: ORCID
A. Bitka
2
ORCID: ORCID
Z. Pirowski
2
ORCID: ORCID
M. Grudzień-Rakoczy
2
ORCID: ORCID
K. Chrzan
2
ORCID: ORCID
M. Małysza
2
ORCID: ORCID
M. Doroszewski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
  2. Centre of Casting Technology, The Łukasiewicz Research Network – Cracow Technology Institute, Poland
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Abstract

The article discusses benefits associated with the use of silicon carbide in the process of melting gray cast iron and ductile cast iron in induction electric furnaces. It presents the analysis of the impact of various charge materials and the addition of a variable amount of SiC and FeSi to the fixed charge when melting cast iron of grades GJS 400-15 and GJS 500-7 on mechanical properties and microstructure. Moreover, the article includes an analysis of the efficiency of carburization and the increase in the content of silicon during the application of SiC. The article also presents the results of the study of primary modification using silicon carbide at the minimum temperature of Temin eutectic and Tsol solidus. Based on analysis of the literature, conducted research, and calculations, it was found that the addition of silicon carbide has a beneficial impact on the properties of melted cast iron. The addition of SiC in the charge increases the content of C and Si without increasing the amount of contaminations. The addition of SiC at reduced pig iron presence in the charge decreases production costs, while the use of SiC as an inoculant increases both Temin and Tsol, which is beneficial from the point of view of cast iron nucleation.
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Authors and Affiliations

K. Janerka
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ł. Kostrzewski
2
ORCID: ORCID
M. Stawarz
1
ORCID: ORCID
J. Jezierski
1
ORCID: ORCID
J. Szajnar
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Silesian University of Technology, Department of Foundry Engineering, 7 Towarowa Str., 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
  2. Leszczyńska Fabryka Pomp, 15 Fabryczna Str., 64-100 Leszno, Poland
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Abstract

This paper presents an innovative solution in the form of a virtual reality (VR) and high performance computing (HPC) system dedicated to aid designing rotary forming processes with laser beam reheating the material formed. The invented method allowing a virtual machine copy to be coupled with its actual counterpart and a computing engine utilizing GPU processors of graphic NVidia cards to accelerate computing are discussed. The completed experiments and simulations of the 316L stainless steel semi-product spinning process showed that the developed VR-HPC system solution allows the manufacturing process to be effectively engineered and controlled in industrial conditions.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Hojny
1
ORCID: ORCID
P. Marynowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
G. Lipski
1
ORCID: ORCID
T. Gądek
2
ORCID: ORCID
Ł. Nowacki
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
  2. Research Network Łukasiewicz – Metal Forming Institute, Jana Pawła II 14, 61-139 Poznań, Poland
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Abstract

An investigation of the failure process of maraging steel grade X3NiCoTi18-9-5 produced by the SLM method that is subjected to various three-dimensional stress-states has been carried out. In this paper, deformations and damage evolution are analysed experimentally and numerically. Three microstructures of the SLM steel were obtained after the appropriate heat treatment. Tensile tests of smooth specimens and axisymmetric notched specimens have been performed. Numerical models of the samples with ring notches were made in order to determine the stress state and displacement field in the notch area at the moment of the sample’s breakage as well as to compare the experimentally determined effective strain in the notch after the sample’s breakage with the deformation being calculated on the basis of the numerical solution. As a result of the research, it was found that the type of fracture of samples obtained from X3NiCoTi18-9-5 steel powder by the SLM method depends on the size of the ring notch’s radius. Based on the performed numerical calculations and experimental tests, it was found that, for each of the analysed variants of heat treatment, it was possible to indicate the approximate limit value of triaxiality factor Tf, above which there is a scrap of brittle X3NiCoTi18-9-5 steel produced by the SLM method. This value is determined by the characteristic bending of the function that determines the relationship between triaxiality factor Tf and effective strain eeff.
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Authors and Affiliations

J. Piekło
1
ORCID: ORCID
A. Garbacz-Klempka
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Foundry Engineering, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
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Abstract

Microalloying elements such as Ti, Nb, V, entered into steel they influence their microstructure and mechanical properties, because formation of carbonitrides, M(C,N). Influence of carbonitrides to the microstructure and mechanical properties depends on their basic stereological parameters: volume fraction, Vv, and their size, r. In this work the Cellular Automata model of the kinetics of the carbonitrides precipitation which enable to predict the image of the microstructure and calculate the size of carbonitrides formed during isothermal annealing of supersaturated steel is presented. In the high temperature the microalloying elements inhibit the austenite grains growth. Chemical composition of steel has influence to volume fraction and size of precipitations. The work is supplemented with examples of experimental comparison.
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Authors and Affiliations

P. Marynowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Hojny
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
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Abstract

One of the most interesting categories of artifacts for archaeometallurgical research includes deposits of bronze items, so-called “metallurgists hoards”. They contain, aside of final products, many fragments of raw material and, moreover, metallurgical tools. An important source for the studies on the history of metallurgical technology is hoard from Przybysław, Greater Poland district.
Thus, the aim of the work is the identification and interpretation of bronze-working practices and strategies adopted by prehistoric communities of the Late Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age (ca. 600 BC). The examined objects are characterized in terms of their design, structure, and chemical composition. The methods chosen for the studies of artifacts include: metallographic macro- and microscopic observations using optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the analysis of chemical composition with the methods of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF).
The thermodynamic analysis of the alloys was performed on the basis of the CALPHAD method. The experimental melts allowed to verify the theoretical considerations and to determine the characteristic temperatures of changes.
The old casting technology can be analyzed basing on computer modeling and computer simulation methods. Simulations in the MAGMASOFT® software are a good example to illustrate how to fill a mould cavity with a molten bronze for a hoop ornament. It is also an appropriate tool to determine temperature distribution in a mould. The simulations also show the possible disadvantages with this old technology.
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Authors and Affiliations

A. Garbacz-Klempka
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Piękoś
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Perek-Nowak
2
ORCID: ORCID
J. Kozana
1
ORCID: ORCID
P. Żak
1
ORCID: ORCID
A. Fijołek
1
ORCID: ORCID
P. Silska
3
ORCID: ORCID
M. Stróżyk
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Foundry Engineering, Historical Layers Research Centre, Kraków, Poland
  2. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Non Ferrous Metals, Historical Layers Research Centre, Kraków, Poland
  3. Archaeological Museum in Poznań, Poznań, Poland
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Abstract

A fading mechanism during casting of treated Al-B-Sr master alloys in an aluminium-silicon cast alloy was investigated. Two different master alloys, the Al-3%B-3%Sr and Al-4%B-1%Sr were demonstrated for the efficiency test both grain refinement and modification microstructure. From experimental result, the addition of Al-3%B-3%Sr master alloy led to a refined grain size and fully modified eutectic Si. However, smaller grain sizes were found with Al-4%B-1%Sr master alloy addition while eutectic Si had coarser acicular morphology. The formation of high amounts of SrB6 compound in the Al-3%B-3%Sr master alloy resulted to increase of grain size and eutectic Si. In fading mechanism test when holding the melt for prolong time, the agglomeration of the SrB6 and AlSiSr compounds at the bottom of the casting specimen was important factors that decreased both grain refinement and modification efficiency. The stirring of the melt before pouring was found that the grain size and Si morphology were improved.
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Authors and Affiliations

P. Muangnoy
1
ORCID: ORCID
K. Eidhed
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. University of Technology North Bangkok, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Materials and Production Technology Engineering, King Mongkut’s Bangkok, Thailand
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Abstract

This paper reports on the flexural properties of thin fly ash geopolymers exposed to elevated temperature. The thin fly ash geopolymers (dimension = 160 mm × 40 mm × 10 mm) were synthesised using12M NaOH solution mixed with designed solids-to-liquids ratio of 1:2.5 and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 1:4 and underwent heat treatment at different elevated temperature (300°C, 600°C, 900°C and 1150°C) after 28 days of curing. Flexural strength test was accessed to compare the flexural properties while X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis was performed to determine the phase transformation of thin geopolymers at elevated temperature. Results showed that application of heat treatment boosted the flexural properties of thin fly ash geopolymers as the flexural strength increased from 6.5 MPa (room temperature) to 16.2 MPa (1150°C). XRD results showed that the presence of crystalline phases of albite and nepheline contributed to the increment in flexural strength.
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Authors and Affiliations

Yong-Sing Ng
1 2
Yun-Ming Liew
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Cheng-Yong Heah
1 3
Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Hui-Teng Ng
1 2
Lynette Wei Ling Chan
4

  1. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology (CeGeoGTech), Kangar, 01000 Perlis, Malaysia
  2. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, Kangar, 01000 Perlis, Malaysia
  3. Universiti Malaysia Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Perlis (UniMAP), Kangar, 01000 Perlis, Malaysia
  4. Ceramic Research Company Sdn Bhd (Guocera-Hong Leong Group), Lot 7110, 5½ Miles, Jalan Kapar, 42100 Klang, Selangor, Malaysia
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Abstract

The tundish prevents unsteady flow affecting on the steel cleanness and temperature. The presented article offers a new design of a ladle shroud (LS) with three holes placed in a special dome (separating the steel flow) steeped in a metal bath. Various options of the LS construction were analysed, as well as its positioning in the tundish in relation to its longitudinal axis. The conducted numerical simulations enabled to assess the impact of the designed ladle shroud on the flow of liquid steel through the tundish. The results showed that the best option is to use the LS with two larger holes and one smaller which activates the flow structure and reduces the rate of the liquid steel velocity in the tundish, limiting the flow turbulence.
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Authors and Affiliations

H. Suchan
1
ORCID: ORCID
A. Cwudziński
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Production Engineering and Materials Technology, Department of Metallurgy and Metals Technology, 19 Armii Krajowej Av., 42-200 Czestochowa, Poland
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Abstract

Heat transport when two surfaces of solids come into contact is an important phenomenon in many metallurgical processes. Determining the boundary conditions of heat transfer allows to obtain the correct solutions of the heat conduction equation. The paper presents models for determining the heat transfer coefficient between steel materials in contact. Experimental tests were carried out to measure the temperature changes of the contacting samples made of steel S235 (1.0038) and steel 15HM (1.7335) under the pressure of 10, 15 and 20 MPa. There was a large temperature difference between the samples. The results of the experiment were compared with numerically calculated temperatures and the value of the heat transfer coefficient was determined at different pressure values depending on the time.
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Authors and Affiliations

A. Przyłucka-Bednarska
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Rywotycki
1
ORCID: ORCID
K. Sołek
1
ORCID: ORCID
Z. Malinowski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. AGH University of Science And Technology, Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
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Abstract

The inverse solution to the heat flux identification during the vertical plate cooling in air has been presented. The developed solution allowed to separate the energy absorbed by the chamber due to radiation from the convection heat losses to air. The uncertainty tests were carried out and the accuracy of the solution has been estimated at a level of 1%-5% depending on the boundary condition model. The inverse solution was obtained for the temperature measurements in the vertical plate. The stainless-steel plate was heated to 950°C and then cooled in the chamber in air only to about 30°C. The identified heat transfer coefficient was compared with the Churchill and Chu model. The solution has allowed to separate the radiation heat losses and to determine the Nusselt number values that stay in good agreement with the Churchill and Chu model for a nearly steady-state air flow for the plate temperature below 100°C.
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Authors and Affiliations

B. Hadała
1
ORCID: ORCID
Z. Malinowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
A. Gołdasz
2
ORCID: ORCID
A. Cebo-Rudnicka
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, Department of Heat Engineering and Environment Protection, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
  2. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Energy and Fuels, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
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Abstract

The article presents the results of tests of plastic shaping of magnesium alloy Mg-Li. Magnesium alloy for an extrusion process was obtained with the method of vacuum smelting and casting into graphite moulds. The materials for tests were slabs cast from magnesium alloys with symbols: Mg-4%Li-1%Ca (LX41). Before the process of deformation the castings were subject to homogenization. Conventional extrusion tests were conducted in a complex state of deformation (KoBo method). An assessment was performed of the influence of the deformation process parameters on the structure and properties of the tested alloy. Results of mechanical tests were presented both for static compression test in room temperature. On the basis of the achieved tests results, the susceptibility to plastic working for the Mg-4%Li-1%Ca alloy was determined. An analysis of the microstructure was conducted both in the initial condition and after plastic deformation with the use of light and scanning microscopy techniques. The applied deformation methods allowed the determination of the influence of process parameters on changes in the microstructure and properties of the Mg-4%Li-1%Ca alloy.
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Authors and Affiliations

I. Bednarczyk
1

  1. Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Material Science, 40-019 Katowice, 8 Krasińskiego Str., Poland
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Abstract

Numerical simulations of the KOBO extrusion process are presented in this paper. The coupled thermomechanical Eulerian-Lagrangian approach was applied for the three-dimensional finite element model. The dynamic explicit Euler forward method was used in numerical calculations. The elastic-plastic Chaboche model assuming isotropic and kinematic hardening under variable temperature conditions was applied to describe the behaviour of the material under cyclic loading. In numerical computations Chaboche material model implemented in commercial software, as well as the proprietary one written as FORTRAN procedure were tested. The numerical results present the stress and strain distributions in the extruded material, as well as an increase of temperature due to the plastic work and friction. The shape of plastic strain zones was verified experimentally. The approach presented in the paper is a promising numerical tool to simulate the KOBO process.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Wójcik
1
ORCID: ORCID
A. Skrzat
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Rzeszow University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, Department of Materials Forming and Processing, 8 Powstańców Warszawy Ave., 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland

Instructions for authors

Instructions for Authors


Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is a quarterly journal of Polish Academy of Sciences and Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAS which publishes original scientific papers and reviews in the fields of metallurgy and materials science, foundry, mechanical working of metals, thermal engineering in metallurgy, thermodynamic and physical properties of materials, phase equilibria in the broad context and diffusion. In addition to the regular, original scientific papers and conference proceedings, invited reviews presenting the up-to-date knowledge and monothematic issues devoted to preferred areas of research will be published. Submission of a paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that if accepted it will not be published elsewhere in the same form.


When preparing the manuscript, please pay attention to the following rules:


1. Manuscript submission

1.1. Manuscripts to be considered for publication should be submitted to the Editorial Office via www.editorialsystem.com/amm/. Authors should designate corresponding author, whose responsibility is to represent the Authors in contacts with the Editorial Office. The corresponding author receives an e-mail notification confirming the submission of the manuscript to the Editorial Office and is informed about the progress of the review process.


1.2. Manuscript should not exceed 15 pages of full-size paper (A4), must be double spaced (please use 12 point font), with generous margins, and the pages must be numbered. Authors should submit an electronic file of their manuscript in Microsoft Word (minimum : version 2000).


1.3. All manuscripts must be written in good English. Both British and U.S. English are acceptable but Authors should be consistent in their usage. It is sole responsibility of the Authors to make sure that the manuscript is grammatically correct and spell checked. Authors are strongly encouraged to have the manuscript proofread by a native speaker of English or a language professional, before it is submitted to the editorial office. Papers written in poor English will be automatically rejected without being subjected to review.


1.4. Authors should submit an electronic copy of final version of their paper in Microsoft Word Format, shemes (sketches) and figures saved as .eps, .jpeg, or .tiff.


1.5. Articles submitted for publication should include abstract and maximum 5 keywords.


1.6. Please adhere to the following order of presentation:


Author(s) with first names in full and ORCID.

Affiliation(s): in a short form (Institution, City, Country). Use the superscripts (*, **, . . .) after the Authors’ names in case of different affiliations.

Title: All words in lower case (first letter of first word capitalized).


Abstract: maximum 10 lines, including primary objective, research design, methods and procedures, main outcomes and results. Do not use abbreviations in the abstract.

Keywords: 5 maximum.

Main text: Begin on the second page with Introduction, followed by Experimental (Materials and Methods) and/or Theory section, Results, Discussion, and end with Conclusion section and Acknowledgement. When appropriate the Authors may choose to combine Results section and Discussion section into one Results and Discussion section. Make sure the text in sections is divided logically into paragraphs.
Use the decimal system for sections, subsections and (at the most) sub-subsections, as exemplified in the headings of these instructions.
All abbreviations should be spelled out the first time they are introduced in text or references. Thereafter the abbreviation can be used.


Appendices

References

Correspondence address: title, name, postal address, telephone and e-mail address of the corresponding Author, number ORCID.

Figure captions

Tables

2. Manuscript preparation


The editorial system includes:


1. Manuscript, which should contain the full text with figures, tables and signatures to them where they are placed.


2. Figures, tables and signatures to them as separate files.


2.1. Formulae, equations and units
The formulas should be written in Microsoft Equation and MathType with the possibility of editing (not as graphics).
Formulae and equations should be typed on separate lines and numbered consecutively in parentheses on the right side (1) . . . (n). Vectors must be indicated as such. Size of symbols should be kept uniform for all equations in the manuscript. Formulae and equations should be referred to in the text as follows: Eq. (1).
Numbers and units must be separated by a space, e.g. 5.5 wt.%, 273.15 K, 1013 MPa, etc. The only exception are angle degrees, e.g. 90°.

2.2. Figures

Figures should be complete without corrections and additions in the word. Figures are usually printed in reduced size (fitting column width of 85 mm) and this should be taken into account when preparing them. For the best results, make sure that lettering on figures and micrographs is at least 2 mm high after reduction, and the style of labeling must be uniform for all figures. Each figure should have its own caption explaining the content without reference to the text. Figure captions should be typed on a separate page at the end of manuscript. The appropriate place of in the text should be indicated by <Fig. 3 > written in separate line. Figures should be referred to in text as follows: Fig. 1. The magnification must be indicated by a labeled scale marker on the micrograph itself, not drawn below it. For optimum printing quality micrographs should be saved as .eps or .tiff at a resolution of at least 300 dpi while line drawings at a resolution of at least 600 dpi.

2.3. Move file
The authors can make movie files up to 100 MB in MP4 format.
The author at the first reference (Movie 1. Click here) should with the Click here command connect the web address with the place of uploading the movie (hyperlink) and at the end of the article provide a list of hyperlinks (samples: Movie 1, hyperlink, movie no 2, hyperlink ......).

The files will be removed from the edytorial system when rejected or published article (moved to Rejected or Published manuscripts).


2.4. Tables

Tables together with captions should be typed on separate page at the end of manuscript. Tables are to be numbered consecutively using Arabic numbers in the text (TABLE 1 . . . n). A caption must be placed above respective table and should explain the symbols used in the heading and in the left hand column. Tables should be referred to in the text as follows: TABLE 1.


2.5. References

References should be typed on separate pages and numbered consecutively applying the system accepted by the Quarterly (initials and names all authors, journal title [abbreviated according to the Journal Title Abbreviations of Web of Science: http://library.caltech.edu/reference/abbreviations/, everyone abbreviation should be end with a dot - example. Arch.Metall.Mater.] or book title; journal volume or book publisher; page spread; publication year in bracket).

The use of DOI numbers (full notation and linked) is mandatory for each paper and should be formatted as shown in the examples below:

Journals:

[1] L.B. Magalas, Development of High-Resolution Mechanical Spectroscopy, HRMS: Status and Perspectives. HRMS Coupled with a Laser Dilatometer. Arch. Metall. Mater. 60 (3), 2069-2076 (2015). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/AMM-2015-0350

[2] E. Pagounis, M.J. Szczerba, R. Chulist, M. Laufenberg, Large Magnetic Field-Induced Work output in a NiMgGa Seven-Lavered Modulated Martensite. Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 152407 (2015). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4933303

[3] H. Etschmaier, H. Torwesten, H. Eder, P. Hadley, Suppression of Interdiffusion in Copper/Tin thin Films. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. (2012).DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-011-0090-2 (in press).

Books:

[2] M. H. Kamdar, A.M.C. Westwood, Environment-Sensitive Mechanical Behaviour, New York 1981.

Proceedings:

[3] F. Erdogan, in: H. Liebowitz (Ed.), Fracture 2, Academic Press 684, New York (1968).

Internet resource:

[4] http://www.twi.co.uk/content/fswqual.html

PhD Thesis:

[6] F.M. LIang. World Hyphenation by Computer. PhD thesis, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, June.

Chapter in books:

[7] R. Major, P. Lacki, R. Kustosz, J. M. Lackner, Modelling of nanoindentation to simulate thin layer behavior, in: K. J. Kurzydłowski, B. Major,

P. Zięba (Ed.), Foundation of Materials Design 2006, Research Signpost (2006).

Articles in press:

[8] H. EtschmaIer, H. Torwesten, H. Eder, P. Hadley, J. Mater. Eng. Perform. (2012), DOI: 10.1007/s11665-011-0090-2 (in press).

3. Fees

No honorarium will be paid. The journal does not have article processing charges (APCs) nor article submission charges.

4. Review and proofread process

4.1. Peer review process All submitted manuscripts undergo review by renowned specialists appointed by the Editor-in-Chief and members of the Editorial Board. Reviewers receive guidance to help them perform the review, and submit written opinion on the manuscript together with recommendation to accept as is, or reject, or accept after revision. In the latter case i.e. when revision is requested, the authors are obliged to respond to Editor and Reviewers’ comments in detail and make revisions to the manuscript. A rebuttal to Reviewers’ comments can also be sent via the Editorial System in writing. Decision to reject the article is taken by the Editorial Board with the final decision belonging to the Editor, who may appoint another reviewer if necessary. Reviewers remain anonymous to Authors and their identity cannot be revealed by the Editorial Office.

In a separate file, the authors are requested to suggest names and contact details (affiliations and valid e-mail addresses) of at least three experts who could serve as reviewers.

Brief explanation (2-3 sentence-long) why each person is suitable as a reviewer should also be provided. The suggested reviewers cannot be from the same country as affiliation of the corresponding author. The decision to appoint a reviewer belongs solely to the editor.

4.2. Revised manuscript submission

When revision of a manuscript is requested, Authors should return the revised version of their manuscript as soon as possible. Prompt action may ensure fast publication if a paper is finally accepted for publication in Arch. Metall. Mater. If it is the first revision of an article Authors are requested to return their revised manuscript within 7 days.

If it is the second revision Authors are requested to return their revised manuscript within 1 day.

4.3. Final proofreading

Authors will receive a pdf file with the edited version of their manuscript for final proofreading. This is the last opportunity to view an article before its publication on the journal web site. No changes or modifications can be introduced once it is published. Thus authors are requested to check their proof pages carefully against manuscript within 3 working days and prepare a separate document containing all changes that should be introduced. Authors are sometimes asked to provide additional comments and explanations in response to remarks and queries from the language or technical editors.

5. Original version

Starting from issue 1/ 2018, Volume 63, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is published in electronic via www.journals.pan.pl. The printed version is printed only for designated libraries (legal basis: Regulation of the Minister of Culture and Art of March 6, 1997).

6. Prevent cases of plagiarism

Readers should be sure that the authors present the results of their work transparently, fair and honest, regardless of whether they are the direct authors, or used the help of a specialized entity (natural or legal person). To prevent cases of plagiarism, "ghostwriting" and "guest Authorship", the Editorial Office will require that the Authors disclosed the contribution of individual Authors in the creation of manuscript (with their affiliations and contributions, i.e. the information who is responsible for: research concept and design, collection and/or assembly of data, data analysis and interpretation, writing the manuscript). Funding sources (together with grant number) must also be revealed. The corresponding Author will bear the main responsibility for the manuscript. Detected cases will be exposed, including notifying the appropriate entities (institutions employing the Authors, scientific societies, associations of editors of scientific journals, etc.).

7. License type

Articles are printed in an open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/). This license allows authors to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, remix, transform, and build upon the material. Authors may not use the material for commercial purposes. However, this condition does not include dependent works (they may be covered by another license).

Submission of an article to the journal is unequivocal to expressing consent to the publication in both paper and electronic form.

Additional info

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is covered by the following services:


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