Applied sciences

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences

Content

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences | 2021 | 69 | No. 6 (i.a. Special Section on Dynamics of rotating machinery) |

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Bibliography

  1.  J. Kiciński, “Rotor dynamics ― still open questions,” Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci. Tech. Sci., vol. 69, no. 6, p. e139791, 2021, doi: 10.24425/ bpasts.2021.139791.
  2.  S. Nitzschke, Ch. Ziese, and E. Woschke, “Analysis of dynamical behaviour of full-floating disk thrust bearings,” Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci. Tech. Sci., vol. 69, no. 6, p. e139001, 2021, doi: 10.24425/bpasts.2021.139001.
  3.  J. Zapoměl and P. Ferfecki, “Vibration control of rotors mounted in hydrodynamic bearings lubricated with magnetically sensitive oil by changing their load capacity,” Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci. Tech. Sci., vol. 69, no. 6, p. e137988, 2021, doi: 10.24425/bpasts.2021.137988.
  4.  P. Kurnyta-Mazurek, T. Szolc, M. Henzel, and K. Falkowski, “Control system with a non-parametric predictive algorithm for a high- speed rotating machine with magnetic bearings,” Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci. Tech. Sci., vol. 69, no. 6, p. e137988, 2021, doi: 10.24425/ bpasts.2021.138998.
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  7.  B. Schüßler, T. Hopf, and S. Rinderknecht, “Simulative investigation of rubber damper elements for planetary touch-down bearings,” Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci. Tech. Sci., vol. 69, no. 6, p. e139615, 2021, doi: 10.24425/bpasts.2021.139615.
  8.  G. Quinz, M. Prem, M. Klanner, and K. Ellermann, “Balancing of a linear elastic rotor-bearing system with arbitrarily distributed un- balance using the Numerical Assembly Technique,” Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci. Tech. Sci., vol. 69, no. 6, p. e138237, 2021, doi: 10.24425/ bpasts.2021.138237.
  9.  M. Klanner, M. Prem, and K. Ellermann, “Quasi-analytical solutions for the whirling motion of multi-stepped rotors with arbitrarily distributed mass unbalance running in anisotropic linear bearings,” Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci. Tech. Sci., vol. 69, no. 6, p. e138999, 2021, doi: 10.24425/bpasts.2021.138999.
  10.  S. Bastakoti et. al., “Model-based residual unbalance identification for rotating machines,” Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci. Tech. Sci., vol. 69, no. 6, p. e139790, 2021, doi: 10.24425/bpasts.2021.139790.
  11.  T. Szolc and R. Konowrocki, “Research on stability and sensitivity of the rotating machines with overhung rotors to lateral vibrations,” Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci. Tech. Sci., vol. 69, no. 6, p. e137987, 2021, doi: 10.24425/bpasts.2021.137987.
  12.  Ch. Prasad, P. Snabl, and L. Pešek, “A meshless method for subsonic stall flutter analysis of turbomachinery 3D blade cascade,” Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci. Tech. Sci., vol. 69, no. 6, p. e139000, 2021, doi: 10.24425/bpasts.2021.139000.
  13.  F. Gaulard, J. Schmied, and A. Fuchs, “State-of-the-art rotordynamic analyses of pumps”, Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci. Tech. Sci., vol. 69, no. 6, p. e139316, 2021, doi: 10.24425/bpasts.2021.139316.
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Authors and Affiliations

Horst Ecker
1
Rainer Nordmann
2
Tadeusz Burczyński
3
ORCID: ORCID
Tomasz Szolc
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Mechanics and Mechatronics, Getrieidemarkt 9, 1060 Vienna Austria
  2. Technical University of Darmstadt, Institute for Mechatronic Systems, Otto-Berndt Strasse 2, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany
  3. Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Pawińskiego 5B, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

Despite many years of development in the field of rotor dynamics, many issues still need to be resolved. This is due to the fact that turbomachines, even those with low output power, have a very complex design. The author of this article would like to signal these issues in the form of several questions, to which there are no precise answers. The questions are as follows: How can we build a coherent dynamic model of a turbomachine whose some subsystems have non-linear characteristics? How can we consider the so-called prehistory in our analysis, namely, the relation between future dynamic states and previous ones? Is heuristic modelling the future of rotor dynamics? What phenomena may occur when the stability limit of the system is exceeded? The attempt to find answers to these questions constitutes the subject of this article. There are obviously more similar questions, which encourage researchers from all over the world to further their research.
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Bibliography

  1.  M.C. Shaw and T.J. Nussdorfer, “An analysis of the full-floating journal bearing,” NACA, Tech. Rep. RM-E7A28a, 1947.
  2.  C. Kettleborough, “Frictional experiments on lightly-loaded fully floating journal bearings,” Aust. J. Appl. Sci., vol. 5, pp. 211–220, 1954.
  3.  J. Dworski, “High-speed rotor suspension formed by fully floating hydrodynamic radial and thrust bearings,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, vol. 86, no. 2, pp. 149–160, 1964.
  4.  M. Harada and J. Tsukazaki, “The steady-state characteristics of a hydrostatic thrust bearing with a floating disk,” J. Tribol., vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 352–357, Apr 1989, doi: 10.1115/1.3261921.
  5.  M. Fischer, A. Mueller, B. Rembold, and B. Ammann, “Numerical investigation of the flow in a hydrodynamic thrust bearing with floating disk,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, vol. 135, 2013, doi: 10.1115/1.4007775.
  6.  S. Dousti and P. Allaire, “A thermohydrodynamic approach for single-film and double-film floating disk fixed thrust bearings verified with experiment,” Tribol. Int., vol. 140, p. 105858, Dec 2019.
  7.  H. Engel, “Berechung der Strömung, der Drücke und Temperaturen in Radial-Axialbund-Gleitlagern mit Hilfe eines Finite-Elemente-Programms,” Ph.D. thesis, Universität Stuttgart, 1992.
  8.  T. Hagemann, H. Blumenthal, C. Kraft, and H. Schwarze, “A study on energetic and hydraulic interaction of combined journal and thrust bearings,” in Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2015: Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition, no. GT2015‒43460, 2015, pp. 1–11.
  9.  G.H. Jang, S.H. Lee, and H.W. Kim, “Finite element analysis of the coupled journal and thrust bearing in a computer hard disk drive,” Tribol., vol. 128, pp. 335–340, 2006, doi: 10.1115/1.2162918.
  10.  G. Xiang, Y. Han, R. Chen, J. Wang, X. Ni, and K. Xiao, “A hydrodynamic lubrication model and comparative analysis for coupled microgroove journal-thrust bearings lubricated with water,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part J: J. Eng. Tribol., vol. 234, no. 11, pp. 1755–1770, Nov 2019.
  11.  J.-C. Luneno, “Coupled vibrations in horizontal and vertical rotor-bearings systems,” Ph.D. thesis, Luleå University of Technology, 2010.
  12.  C. Ziese, C. Daniel, E. Woschke, and H. Mostertz, “Hochlaufsimulation eines semi-floating gelagerten ATL-Rotors mit schwimmender Axiallagerscheibe,” in 14. Magdeburger Maschinenbautage (24.–25.09.2019), Sep. 2019, pp. 105–112.
  13.  H.G. Elrod, “A cavitation algorithm,” J. Tribol., vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 350–354, 1981.
  14.  S. Nitzschke, E. Woschke, D. Schmicker, and J. Strackeljan, “Regularised cavitation algorithm for use in transient rotordynamic analysis,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., vol. 113, pp. 175–183, 2016.
  15.  S. Nitzschke, “Instationäres Verhalten schwimmbuchsengelagerter Rotoren unter Berücksichtigung masseerhaltender Kavitation,” Ph.D. thesis, Otto-von-Guericke Universität Magdeburg, 2016.
  16.  C. Daniel, “Simulation von gleit-und wälzgelagerten Systemen auf Basis eines Mehrkörpersystems für rotordynamische Anwendungen,” Ph.D. thesis, Otto-von-Guericke Universität Magdeburg, 2013.
  17.  C. Ziese, E. Woschke, and S. Nitzschke, “Tragdruck- und Schmierstoffverteilung von Axialgleitlagern unter Berücksichtigung von mas- seerhaltender Kavitation und Zentrifugalkraft,” in 13. Magdeburger Maschinenbautage, 2017, pp. 312–323.
  18.  A. Kumar and J.F. Booker, “A finite element cavitation algorithm,” J. Tribol., vol. 113, no. 2, pp. 279–284, 1991.
  19.  “MAN turbochargers TCA series floating disk thrust bearing,” https://turbocharger.man-es.com/docs/default-source/ shopwaredocuments/ tca-turbochargerf451d068cde04720bdc9b 8e95b7c0f8e.pdf, accessed: 2020‒10‒09.
  20.  “KBB turbochargers ST27 series f loating disk thrust bearing,” https://kbb-turbo.com/turbocharger-product-series/st27-series, accessed: 2020-10-09.
  21.  C. Irmscher, S. Nitzschke, and E. Woschke, “Transient thermohydrodynamic analysis of a laval rotor supported by journal bearings with respect to calculation times,” in SIRM 2019 – 13th International Conference on Dynamics of Rotating Machines, 2019, pp. Paper–ID SIRM2019–25.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jan Kiciński
1

  1. Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Fiszera 14, Gdańsk 80-231, Poland
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Abstract

Full-floating ring bearings are state of the art at high speed turbomachinery shafts like in turbochargers. Their main feature is an additional ring between shaft and housing leading to two fluid films in serial arrangement. Analogously, a thrust bearing with an additional separating disk between journal collar and housing can be designed. The disk is allowed to rotate freely only driven by drag torques, while it is radially supported by a short bearing against the journal. This paper addresses this kind of thrust bearing and its implementation into a transient rotor dynamic simulation by solving the Reynolds PDE online during time integration. Special attention is given to the coupling between the different fluid films of this bearing type. Finally, the differences between a coupled and an uncoupled solution are discussed.
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Bibliography

  1. M.C. Shaw and T.J. Nussdorfer, “An analysis of the full-floating journal bearing,” NACA, Tech. Rep. RM-E7A28a, 1947.
  2. C. Kettleborough, “Frictional experiments on lightly-loaded fully floating journal bearings,” Aust. J. Appl. Sci., vol. 5, pp. 211–220, 1954.
  3. J. Dworski, “High-speed rotor suspension formed by fully floating hydrodynamic radial and thrust bearings,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, vol. 86, no. 2, pp. 149–160, 1964.
  4. M. Harada and J. Tsukazaki, “The steady-state characteristics of a hydrostatic thrust bearing with a floating disk,” J. Tribol., vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 352–357, Apr 1989, doi: 10.1115/1.3261921.
  5. M. Fischer, A. Mueller, B. Rembold, and B. Ammann, “Numerical investigation of the flow in a hydrodynamic thrust bearing with floating disk,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, vol. 135, 2013, doi: 10.1115/1.4007775.
  6. S. Dousti and P. Allaire, “A thermohydrodynamic approach for single-film and double-film floating disk fixed thrust bearings verified with experiment,” Tribol. Int., vol. 140, p. 105858, Dec 2019.
  7. H. Engel, “Berechung der Strömung, der Drücke und Temperaturen in Radial-Axialbund-Gleitlagern mit Hilfe eines Finite-Elemente-Programms,” Ph.D. thesis, Universität Stuttgart, 1992.
  8. T. Hagemann, H. Blumenthal, C. Kraft, and H. Schwarze, “A study on energetic and hydraulic interaction of combined journal and thrust bearings,” in Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2015: Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition, no. GT2015‒43460, 2015, pp. 1–11.
  9. G.H. Jang, S.H. Lee, and H.W. Kim, “Finite ele- ment analysis of the coupled journal and thrust bearing in a computer hard disk drive,” J. Tribol., vol. 128, pp. 335–340, 2006, doi: 10.1115/1.2162918.
  10. G. Xiang, Y. Han, R. Chen, J. Wang, X. Ni, and K. Xiao, “A hydrodynamic lubrication model and comparative analysis for coupled microgroove journal-thrust bearings lubricated with water,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part J: J. Eng. Tribol., vol. 234, no. 11, pp. 1755–1770, Nov 2019.
  11. J.-C. Luneno, “Coupled vibrations in horizontal and vertical rotor-bearings systems,” Ph.D. thesis, Luleå University of Technology, 2010.
  12. C. Ziese, C. Daniel, E. Woschke, and H. Mostertz, “Hochlaufsimulation eines semi-floating gelagerten ATL-Rotors mit schwimmender Axiallagerscheibe,” in 14. Magdeburger Maschinen- bautage (24.–25.09.2019), Sep. 2019, pp. 105–112.
  13. H.G. Elrod, “A cavitation algorithm,” J. Tribol., vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 350–354, 1981.
  14. S. Nitzschke, E. Woschke, D. Schmicker, and J. Strackeljan, “Regularised cavitation algorithm for use in transient rotordynamic analysis,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., vol. 113, pp. 175–183, 2016.
  15. S. Nitzschke, “Instationäres Verhalten schwimmbuchsengelagerter Rotoren unter Berücksichtigung masseerhaltender Kavitation,” Ph.D. thesis, Otto-von-Guericke Universität Magdeburg, 2016.
  16. C. Daniel, “Simulation von gleit-und wälzgelagerten Systemen auf Basis eines Mehrkörpersystems für rotordynamische Anwendungen,” Ph.D. thesis, Otto-von-Guericke Universität Magdeburg, 2013.
  17. C. Ziese, E. Woschke, and S. Nitzschke, “Tragdruckund Schmierstoffverteilung von Axialgleitlagern unter Berücksichtigung von masseerhaltender Kavitation und Zentrifugalkraft,” in Magdeburger Maschinenbautage, 2017, pp. 312–323.
  18. A. Kumar and J.F. Booker, “A finite element cavitation algorithm,” J. Tribol., vol. 113, no. 2, pp. 279–284, 1991.
  19. “MAN turbochargers TCA series floating disk thrust bearing,” https://turbocharger.man-es.com/docs/default-source/ shopwaredocuments/tca-turbochargerf451d068cde04720bdc9b 8e95b7c0f8e.pdf, accessed: 2020‒10‒09.
  20. “KBB turbochargers ST27 series f loating disk thrust bearing,” https://kbb-turbo.com/turbocharger-product-series/ st27-series, accessed: 2020-10-09.
  21. C. Irmscher, S. Nitzschke, and E. Woschke, “Transient thermohydrodynamic analysis of a laval rotor supported by journal bearings with respect to calculation times,” in SIRM 2019 – 13th International Conference on Dynamics of Rotating Machines, 2019, pp. Paper–ID SIRM2019–25.
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Authors and Affiliations

Steffen Nitzschke
1
Christian Ziese
1
Elmar Woschke
1

  1. Institute of Mechanics, Otto-von-Guericke University, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany
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Abstract

Rotors of rotating machines are often mounted in hydrodynamic bearings. Loading alternating between the idling and full load magnitudes leads to the rotor journal eccentricity variation in the bearing gap. To avoid taking undesirable operating regimes, its magnitude must be kept in a certain interval. This is offered by the hydrodynamic bearings lubricated with smart oils, the viscosity of which can be changed by the action of a magnetic field. A new design of a hydrodynamic bearing lubricated with magnetically sensitive composite fluid is presented in this paper. Generated in the electric coil, the magnetic flux passes through the bearing housing and the lubricant layer and then returns to the coil core. The action of the magnetic field on the lubricant affects the apparent fluid viscosity and thus the position of the rotor journal in the bearing gap. The developed mathematical model of the bearing is based on applying the Reynolds equation adapted for the case of lubricants exhibiting the yielding shear stress. The results of the performed simulations confirmed that the change of magnetic induction makes it possible to change the bearing load capacity and thus to keep the rotor journal eccentricity in the required range. The extent of control has its limitations. A high increase in the loading capacity can arrive at the rotor forced vibration’s loss of stability and induce large amplitude oscillation.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jaroslav Zapoměl
1 2
Petr Ferfecki
1 3

  1. Department of Applied Mechanics, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava, Czech Republic
  2. Department of Dynamics and Vibration, Institute of Thermomechanics, Prague, Czech Republic
  3. IT4Innovations National Supercomputing Center, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava, Czech Republic
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Abstract

This paper deals with research on the magnetic bearing control systems for a high-speed rotating machine. Theoretical and experimental characteristics of the control systems with the model algorithmic control (MAC) algorithm and the proportional-derivative (PD) algorithm are presented. The MAC algorithm is the non-parametric predictive control method that uses an impulse response model. A laboratory model of the rotor-bearing unit under study consists of two active radial magnetic bearings and one active axial (thrust) magnetic bearing. The control system of the rotor position in air gaps consists of the fast prototyping control unit with a signal processor, the input and output modules, power amplifiers, contactless eddy current sensors and the host PC with dedicated software. Rotor displacement and control current signals were registered during investigations using a data acquisition (DAQ) system. In addition, measurements were performed for various rotor speeds, control algorithms and disturbance signals generated by the control system. Finally, the obtained time histories were presented, analyzed and discussed in this paper.
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Authors and Affiliations

Paulina Kurnyta-Mazurek
1
Tomasz Szolc
2
ORCID: ORCID
Maciej Henzel
1
Krzysztof Falkowski
1

  1. Faculty of Mechatronics, Armament and Aerospace, Military University of Technology, ul. gen. Sylwestra Kaliskiego 2, 00-908, Warsaw, Poland
  2. Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Science, ul. Adolfa Pawińskiego 5B, 02-106, Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

A gyroscopic rotor exposed to unbalance is studied and controlled with an active piezoelectrical bearing. A model is required in order to design a suited controller. Due to the lack of related publications utilizing piezoelectrical bearings and obtaining a modal model purely exploiting experimental modal analysis, this paper reveals a method to receive a modal model of a gyroscopic rotor system with an active piezoelectrical bearing. The properties of the retrieved model are then incorporated into the design of an originally model-free control approach for unbalance vibration elimination, which consists of a simple feedback control and an adaptive feedforward control. After the discussion on the limitations of the model-free control, a modified controller using the priorly identified modal model is implemented on an elementary rotor test-rig comparing its performance to the original model-free controller.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jens Jungblut
1
Christian Fischer
1
Stephan Rinderknecht
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Institute for Mechatronic Systems, Technical University Darmstadt, 64287, Germany
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Abstract

Squeeze film dampers (SFDs) are commonly used in turbomachinery in order to introduce external damping, thereby reducing rotor vibrations and acoustic emissions. Since SFDs are of similar geometry as hydrodynamic bearings, the REYNOLDS equation of lubrication can be utilised to predict their dynamic behaviour. However, under certain operating conditions, SFDs can experience significant fluid inertia effects, which are neglected in the usual REYNOLDS analysis. An algorithm for the prediction of these effects on the pressure build up inside a finite-length SFD is therefore presented. For this purpose, the REYNOLDS equation is extended with a first-order perturbation in the fluid velocities to account for the local and convective inertia terms of the NAVIER-STOKES equations. Cavitation is taken into account by means of a mass conserving two-phase model. The resulting equation is then discretized using the finite volume method and solved with an LU factorization. The developed algorithm is capable of calculating the pressure field, and thereby the damping force, inside an SFD for arbitrary operating points in a time-efficient manner. It is therefore suited for integration into transient simulations of turbo machinery without the need for bearing force coefficient maps, which are usually restricted to circular centralized orbits. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated on a transient run-up simulation of a turbocharger rotor with two semi-floating bearings. It can be shown that the consideration of fluid inertia effects introduces a significant shift of the pressure field inside the SFDs, and therefore the resulting damper force vector, at high oil temperatures and high rotational speeds. The effect of fluid inertia on the kinematic behaviour of the whole system on the other hand is rather limited for the examined rotor.
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Authors and Affiliations

Thomas Drapatow
1
Oliver Alber
2
Elmar Woschke
1

  1. Institute of Mechanics, Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany
  2. MAN Energy Solutions SE, 86153 Augsburg, Germany
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Abstract

Designing touch-down bearings (TDB) for outer rotor flywheels operated under high vacuum conditions constitutes a challenging task. Due to their large diameters, conventional TDB cannot suited well, and a planetary design is applied, consisting of a number of small rolling elements distributed around the stator. Since the amplitude of the peak loads during a drop-down lies close to the static load rating of the bearings, it is expected that their service life can be increased by reducing the maximum forces. Therefore, this paper investigates the influence of elastomer rings around the outer rings in the TDB using simulations. For this purpose, the structure and the models used for contact force calculation in the ANEAS simulation software are presented, especially the modelling of the elastomers. Based on the requirements for a TDB in a flywheel application, three different elastomers (FKM, VMQ, EPDM) are selected for the investigation. The results of the simulations show that stiffness and the type of material strongly influence the maximum force. The best results are obtained using FKM, leading to a reduction of the force amplitude in a wide stiffness range.
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Authors and Affiliations

Benedikt Schüßler
1
ORCID: ORCID
Timo Hopf
1
ORCID: ORCID
Stephan Rinderknecht
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Technical University of Darmstadt, Institute for Mechatronic Systems, Germany
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Abstract

In this paper, a new application of the Numerical Assembly Technique is presented for the balancing of linear elastic rotor-bearing systems with a stepped shaft and arbitrarily distributed mass unbalance. The method improves existing balancing techniques by combining the advantages of modal balancing with the fast calculation of an efficient numerical method. The rotating stepped circular shaft is modelled according to the Rayleigh beam theory. The Numerical Assembly Technique is used to calculate the steady-state harmonic response, eigenvalues and the associated mode shapes of the rotor. The displacements of a simulation are compared to measured displacements of the rotor-bearing system to calculate the generalized unbalance for each eigenvalue. The generalized unbalances are modified according to modal theory to calculate orthogonal correction masses. In this manner, a rotor-bearing system is balanced using a single measurement of the displacement at one position on the rotor for every critical speed. Three numerical examples are used to show the accuracy and the balancing success of the proposed method.
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Authors and Affiliations

Georg Quinz
1
Marcel S. Prem
1
Michael Klanner
1
ORCID: ORCID
Katrin Ellermann
1

  1. Graz University of Technology, Institute of Mechanics, Kopernikusgasse 24/IV, 8010 Graz, Austria
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Abstract

Vibration in rotating machinery leads to a series of undesired effects, e.g. noise, reduced service life or even machine failure. Even though there are many sources of vibrations in a rotating machine, the most common one is mass unbalance. Therefore, a detailed knowledge of the system behavior due to mass unbalance is crucial in the design phase of a rotor-bearing system. The modelling of the rotor and mass unbalance as a lumped system is a widely used approach to calculate the whirling motion of a rotor-bearing system. A more accurate representation of the real system can be found by a continuous model, especially if the mass unbalance is not constant and arbitrarily oriented in space. Therefore, a quasi-analytical method called Numerical Assembly Technique is extended in this paper, which allows for an efficient and accurate simulation of the unbalance response of a rotor-bearing system. The rotor shaft is modelled by the Rayleigh beam theory including rotatory inertia and gyroscopic effects. Rigid discs can be mounted onto the rotor and the bearings are modeled by linear translational/rotational springs/dampers, including cross-coupling effects. The effect of a constant axial force or torque on the system response is also examined in the simulation.
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Bibliography

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  7.  J.-S. Wu, F.-T. Lin, and H.-J. Shaw, “Analytical Solution for Whirling Speeds and Mode Shapes of a Distributed-Mass Shaft With Arbitrary Rigid Disks,” J. Appl. Mech., vol. 220, no.  3, pp. 451–468, 2014.
  8.  M. Klanner and K. Ellermann, “Steady-state linear harmonic vibrations of multiple-stepped Euler-Bernoulli beams under arbitrarily distributed loads carrying any number of concentrated elements,” Appl. Comput. Mech., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 31–50, 2020.
  9.  M. Klanner, M.S. Prem, and K. Ellermann, “Steady-state harmonic vibrations of a linear rotor-bearing system with a discontinuous shaft and arbitrary distributed mass unbalance,” in Proceedings of ISMA2020 International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering and USD2020 International Conference on Uncertainty in Structural Dynamics, Leuven, Belgium, Sep. 2020, pp. 1257–1272.
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Authors and Affiliations

Michael Klanner
1
ORCID: ORCID
Marcel S. Prem
1
Katrin Ellermann
1

  1. Graz University of Technology, Institute of Mechanics, Kopernikusgasse 24/IV, 8010 Graz, Austria
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Abstract

To achieve acceptable dynamical behavior for large rotating machines operating at subcritical speeds, the balancing quality check at the planned service speed in the installation location is often demanded for machines such as turbo-generators or high-speed machines. While most studies investigate the balancing quality at critical speeds, only a few studies have investigated this aspect using numerical methods at operational speed. This study proposes a novel, model-based method for inversely estimating initial residual unbalance in one and two planes after initial grade balancing for large flexible rotors operating at the service speeds. The method utilizes vibration measurements from two planes in any single direction, combined with a finite element model of the rotor to inversely determine the residual unbalance in one and two planes. This method can be practically used to determine the initial and residual unbalance after the balancing process, and further it can be used for condition-based monitoring of the unbalance state of the rotor.
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Authors and Affiliations

Satish Bastakoti
1
Tuhin Choudhury
1
ORCID: ORCID
Risto Viitala
2
ORCID: ORCID
Emil Kurvinen
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jussi Sopanen
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Energy Systems, Lappeenranta-Lahti University of Technology LUT, 53850 Lappeenranta, Finland
  2. Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Aalto University, 00076 Espoo, Finland
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Abstract

The rotating machines with overhung rotors form a broad class of devices used in many types of industry. For this kind of rotor machine in the paper, there is investigated an influence of dynamic and static unbalance of a rotor, parallel and angular misalignments of shafts, and inner anisotropy of rigid couplings on system dynamic responses. The considerations are performed through a hybrid structural model of the machine rotor-shaft system, consisting of continuous beam finite elements and discrete oscillators. Numerical calculations are carried out for parameters characterizing a heavy blower applied in the mining industry. The main goal of the research is to assess the sensitivity of the imperfections mentioned above on excitation severity of rotor-shaft lateral vibrations and motion stability of the machine in question.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Szolc
1
ORCID: ORCID
Robert Konowrocki
1

  1. Institute of Fundamental Technological Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Pawińskiego 5B, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The analysis of subsonic stall flutter in turbomachinery blade cascade is carried out using a medium-fidelity reduced-order aeroelastic numerical model. The model is a type of field mesh-free approach and based on a hybrid boundary element method. The medium-fidelity flow solver is developed on the principle of viscous-inviscid two-way weak-coupling approach. The hybrid flow solver is employed to model separated flow and stall flutter in the 3D blade cascade at subsonic speed. The aerodynamic damping coefficient w.r.t. inter blade phase angle in traveling-wave mode is estimated along with other parameters. The same stability parameter is used to analyze the cascade flutter resistance regime. The estimated results are validated against experimental measurements as well as Navier-Stokes based high fidelity CFD model. The simulated results show good agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, the hybrid flow solver has managed to bring down the computational cost significantly as compared to mesh-based CFD models. Therefore, all the prime objectives of the research have been successfully achieved.
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Authors and Affiliations

Chandra Shekhar Prasad
1
Pavel Šnábl
1
Luděk Pešek
1

  1. Institute of Thermomechanics of the CAS, Prague, Czech Republic
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Abstract

State-of-the-art analyses for the rotordynamic assessment of pumps and specific requirements for the simulation tools are described. Examples are a horizontal multistage pump with two fluid film bearings in atmospheric pressure, a horizontal submerged multistage pump with many bearings, and a submerged vertical single-stage pump with water-lubricated bearings. The rotor of the horizontal pump on two bearings is statically overdetermined by the seals and the static bearing forces depend on the deflection in the seals and the bearings. The nonlinear force-displacement relation in the bearings is considered in this paper. The stability of pumps is assessed by Campbell diagrams considering linear seal and bearing properties. Cylindrical bearings can have a destabilizing effect in the case of low loads as in the examples of the submerged pumps. For the pump with many bearings, the influence of the bearing ambient pressure and the bearing specific load on the stability is analyzed. For the vertical pump, the limit cycle, i.e. the vibration level of stabilization, is determined with a nonlinear analysis. All examples have a practical background from engineering work, although they do not exactly correspond to real cases. Analyses were performed with the rotordynamic software MADYN 2000.
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Authors and Affiliations

Frédéric Gaulard
1
Joachim Schmied
1
Andreas Fuchs
1

  1. Delta JS AG, Technoparkstrasse 1, 8005 Zürich, Switzerland
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Abstract

The paper presents the results of experimental verification on using a zero-sum differential game and H control in the problems of tracking and stabilizing motion of a wheeled mobile robot (WMR). It is a new approach to the synthesis of input-output systems based on the theory of dissipative systems in the sense of the possibility of their practical application. This paper expands upon the problem of optimal control of a nonlinear, nonholonomic wheeled mobile robot by including the reduced impact of changing operating condtions and possible disturbances of the robot’s complex motion. The proposed approach is based on the H∞ control theory and the control is generated by the neural approximation solution to the Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs equation. Our verification experiments confirm that the H∞ condition is met for reduced impact of disturbances in the task of tracking and stabilizing the robot motion in the form of changing operating conditions and other disturbances, which made it possible to achieve high accuracy of motion.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zenon Hendzel
1
ORCID: ORCID
Paweł Penar
1

  1. Department of Applied Mechanics and Robotics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, Rzeszów University of Technology, ul. Powstańców Warszawy 12, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland
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Abstract

In the domain of affective computing different emotional expressions play an important role. To convey the emotional state of human emotions, facial expressions or visual cues are used as an important and primary cue. The facial expressions convey humans affective state more convincingly than any other cues. With the advancement in the deep learning techniques, the convolutional neural network (CNN) can be used to automatically extract the features from the visual cues; however variable sized and biased datasets are a vital challenge to be dealt with as far as implementation of deep models is concerned. Also, the dataset used for training the model plays a significant role in the retrieved results. In this paper, we have proposed a multi-model hybrid ensemble weighted adaptive approach with decision level fusion for personalized affect recognition based on the visual cues. We have used a CNN and pre-trained ResNet-50 model for the transfer learning. VGGFace model’s weights are used to initialize weights of ResNet50 for fine-tuning the model. The proposed system shows significant improvement in test accuracy in affective state recognition compared to the singleton CNN model developed from scratch or transfer learned model. The proposed methodology is validated on The Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces (KDEF) dataset with 77.85% accuracy. The obtained results are promising compared to the existing state of the art methods.
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Authors and Affiliations

Nagesh Jadhav
1
Rekha Sugandhi
1

  1. MIT ADT University, Pune, Maharashtra, 412201, India
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Abstract

This paper addresses the problem of part of speech (POS) tagging for the Tamil language, which is low resourced and agglutinative. POS tagging is the process of assigning syntactic categories for the words in a sentence. This is the preliminary step for many of the Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks. For this work, various sequential deep learning models such as recurrent neural network (RNN), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) and Bi-directional Long Short-Term Memory (Bi-LSTM) were used at the word level. For evaluating the model, the performance metrics such as precision, recall, F1-score and accuracy were used. Further, a tag set of 32 tags and 225 000 tagged Tamil words was utilized for training. To find the appropriate hidden state, the hidden states were varied as 4, 16, 32 and 64, and the models were trained. The experiments indicated that the increase in hidden state improves the performance of the model. Among all the combinations, Bi-LSTM with 64 hidden states displayed the best accuracy (94%). For Tamil POS tagging, this is the initial attempt to be carried out using a deep learning model.
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Authors and Affiliations

S. Anbukkarasi
1
S. Varadhaganapathy
2

  1. Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, India
  2. Department of Information Technology, Kongu Engineering College, India
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Abstract

Numerous examples of physically unjustified neural networks, despite satisfactory performance, generate contradictions with logic and lead to many inaccuracies in the final applications. One of the methods to justify the typical black-box model already at the training stage involves extending its cost function by a relationship directly inspired by the physical formula. This publication explains the concept of Physics-guided neural networks (PGNN), makes an overview of already proposed solutions in the field and describes possibilities of implementing physics-based loss functions for spatial analysis. Our approach shows that the model predictions are not only optimal but also scientifically consistent with domain specific equations. Furthermore, we present two applications of PGNNs and illustrate their advantages in theory by solving Poisson’s and Burger’s partial differential equations. The proposed formulas describe various real-world processes and have numerous applications in the area of applied mathematics. Eventually, the usage of scientific knowledge contained in the tailored cost functions shows that our methods guarantee physics-consistent results as well as better generalizability of the model compared to classical, artificial neural networks.
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Authors and Affiliations

Bartłomiej Borzyszkowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Karol Damaszke
1
Jakub Romankiewicz
1
Marcin Świniarski
1
Marek Moszyński
1

  1. Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Gdansk University of Technology, ul. G. Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
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Abstract

Modern industry requires an increasing level of efficiency in a lightweight design. To achieve these objectives, easy-to-apply numerical tests can help in finding the best method of topological optimization for practical industrial applications. In this paper, several numerical benchmarks are proposed. The numerical benchmarks facilitate qualitative comparison with analytical examples and quantitative comparison with the presented numerical solutions. Moreover, an example of a comparison of two optimization algorithms was performed. That was a commonly used SIMP algorithm and a new version of the CCSA hybrid algorithm of topology optimization. The numerical benchmarks were done for stress constraints and a few material models used in additive manufacturing.
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Authors and Affiliations

Grzegorz Fiuk
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mirosław W. Mrzygłód
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Opole University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, ul. Mikołajczyka 5, 45-271 Opole, Poland
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Abstract

The paper presents an analysis of the influence of the shape of the rigid body pressed into the micro-periodic composite half-space on the examples of two punch shapes – parabolic and rectangular. The presented material is a layered body that consists of infinitely many thin alternately arranged homogenous layers. Layers of the presented composite are oblique to the boundary surface. Two cases of punch tip shape are examined – parabolic and rectangular. The presented problem has been formulated within the framework of a homogenized model with microlocal parameters and solved using the elastic potentials method and averaged boundary condition. Fourier integral transform method has been used to obtain the solution and the inverse integrals have been calculated numerically. Solutions in terms of contact pressure and maximum pressure characteristics were shown in the form of graphs.
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Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Sebestianiuk
1
Dariusz M. Perkowski
1
Roman Kulchytsky-Zhyhailo
1

  1. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Białystok University of Technology, ul. Wiejska 45C, 15-351 Białystok, Poland
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Abstract

In the paper, the numerical method of solving the one-dimensional subdiffusion equation with the source term is presented. In the approach used, the key role is played by transforming of the partial differential equation into an equivalent integro-differential equation. As a result of the discretization of the integro-differential equation obtained an implicit numerical scheme which is the generalized Crank-Nicolson method. The implicit numerical schemes based on the finite difference method, such as the Carnk-Nicolson method or the Laasonen method, as a rule are unconditionally stable, which is their undoubted advantage. The discretization of the integro-differential equation is performed in two stages. First, the left-sided Riemann-Liouville integrals are approximated in such a way that the integrands are linear functions between successive grid nodes with respect to the time variable. This allows us to find the discrete values of the integral kernel of the left-sided Riemann-Liouville integral and assign them to the appropriate nodes. In the second step, second order derivative with respect to the spatial variable is approximated by the difference quotient. The obtained numerical scheme is verified on three examples for which closed analytical solutions are known.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marek Błasik
1

  1. Institute of Mathematics, Czestochowa University of Technology, al. Armii Krajowej 21, 42-201 Czestochowa, Poland
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Abstract

This paper presents the design of a versatile mechanism that can enable new directions in amphibious, all-terrain locomotion. The simple, passive, flapped-paddle can be integrated with several structures that are well-suited for locomotion in terrestrial applications. The flapped-paddle overcomes a serious limitation of the conventional flipper where the net lateral forces generated during oscillatory motion in aquatic environments averages out to zero. The flapped-paddle and its mounting, collectively, rests in natural positions in the aquatic environment so as to maximize hydrodynamic force utilization and consequently the propulsive efficiency. The simplicity of the design enabled us to develop a simulation model that concurs well with experimental results. The results reported in the paper are based on integrating the flapped-paddle with the curved leg of the RHex hexapod robot.
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Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Burzynski
1
Ashutosh Simha
2
Ülle Kotta
2
Ewa Pawluszewicz
1
Shivakumar Sastry
3

  1. Bialystok University of Technology, Department of Robotics and Mechatronics, ul. Wiejska 45C, 15-351 Bialystok, Poland
  2. School of Information Technologies, Department of Software Science, Tallinn University of Technology, 12618 Tallinn, Estonia
  3. University of Akron, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Akron, Ohio 44325, USA
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Abstract

In the article the results of simulation and experimental studies of the movement of a four-wheeled mobile platform, taking into account wheel slip have been presented. The simulation results have been based on the dynamics of the four-wheel mobile platform. The dynamic model of the system motion takes into account the relationship between the active and passive forces accompanying the platform motion, especially during wheel slip. The formulated initial problem describing the motion of the system has been solved by the Runge-Kutta method of the fourth order. The proposed computational model including the platform dynamics model has been verified in experimental studies using the LEO Rover robot. The motion parameters obtained on the basis of the adopted computational model in the form of trajectories, velocities and accelerations have been compared with the results of experimental tests, and the results of this comparison have been included in the paper. The proposed computational model can be useful in various situations, e.g., real-time control, where models with a high degree of complexity are useless due to the computation time. The simulation results obtained on the basis of the proposed model are sufficiently compatible with the results of experimental tests of motion parameters obtained for the selected type of mobile robot.
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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Jaskot
1
ORCID: ORCID
Bogdan Posiadała
2

  1. Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, ul. Akademicka 3, 42-201 Częstochowa, Poland
  2. Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science, ul. Dąbrowskiego 73, 42-201 Częstochowa, Poland
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Abstract

The following paper presents wind tunnel investigation of aerodynamic characteristics of hovering propellers. This propulsion system may be applied on a lightweight Quad Plane VTOL (Vertical Take-Off and Landing) UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle). A Quad Plane is a configuration consisting of a quadcopter design combined with a conventional twin-boom airplane. This kind of design should therefore incorporate the advantages of both types of vehicles in terms of agility and long endurance. However, those benefits may come with a cost of worse performance and higher energy consumption. The characteristics of a fixed-wing aircraft and propellers in axial inflow are well documented, less attention is put to non-axial flow cases. VTOL propellers of a hybrid UAV are subject to a multitude of conditions – various inflow speeds and angles, changing RPMs, interference between propellers and between nearby aerodynamic structures. The tested system presented in this article consists of four electric motors with two coaxial pairs of propellers mounted on one of the fuselage beams. Such a configuration is often chosen by designers of small and medium hybrid UAVs. There is a need for studies of clean, efficient ways of transporting, and this article can aid future designers of a new type of electric UAVs.
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Authors and Affiliations

Katarzyna Pobikrowska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Tomasz Goetzendorf-Grabowski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Institute of Aeronautics and Applied Mechanics, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Nowowiejska 24, 00-665 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

Coagulation is a process during which a flocculent suspension may sediment. It is characterized by its polydisperse structure. There are three main fractions of sedimentation particles after coagulation: spherical, non-spherical and porous agglomerates. Each of the fractions sediments in a different manner, for different forces act on them, due to interactions between the particles, inhibition or entrainment of neighboring particles. The existing sedimentation models of polydisperse suspension do not consider the flocculation process, i.e. the change of one particle into another during sedimentation, resulting from their agglomeration. The presented model considers the shape of particles and flocculation, which is a new approach to the description of the mathematical process of sedimentation. The velocity of sedimentation depends on the concentration of particles of a given fraction in a specific time step. Following the time step, the heights of individual fractions are calculated. Subsequently, new concentration values of individual fractions are determined for the correspondingly reduced volume of occurrence of a given fraction in the volume analyzed, taking particle flocculation into consideration. The new concentration values obtained in this way allow to recalculate the total sedimentation rates for the next time step. Subsequent iterations allow for numerical simulation of the sedimentation process.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mariusz Rząsa
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ewelina Łukasiewicz
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Computer Science, Opole University of Technology, ul. Oleska 48, 45-052 Opole, Poland
  2. Department of Thermal Engineering and Industrial Facilities, Opole University of Technology, ul. St. Mikołajczyka 5, 45-271 Opole, Poland
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Abstract

This study proposes a new integrated analytical-field design method for multi-disc magnetorheological (MR) clutches. This method includes two stages, an analytical stage (composed of 36 algebraic formulas) and a field stage based on the finite element method (FEM). The design procedure is presented systematically, step-by-step, and the results of the consecutive steps of the design calculations are depicted graphically against the background of the entire considered clutch. The essential advantage of the integrated method with this two-stage structure is the relatively high accuracy of the first analytical stage of the design procedure and the rapid convergence of the second field stage employing the FEM. The essence of the new method is the introduction of a yoke factor kY (the concept of which is based on the theory of induction machines) that determines the ratio of the total magnetomotive force required to magnetise the entire magnetic circuit of the clutch to the magnetomotive force required to magnetise the movement region. The final value, the yoke factor kY is determined using loop calculations. The simplicity of the developed design method predisposes its use in optimisation calculations. The proposed method can also be adapted to other MR devices analysed in shear mode.
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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Kluszczyński
1
ORCID: ORCID
Zbigniew Pilch
1

  1. Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, ul. Warszawska 24, 31-155, Cracow, Poland
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Abstract

This article deals with the effect of selected machining parameter values in hard turning of tested OCHN3MFA steel in terms of SEM microstructural analysis of workpiece material, cutting forces, long-term tests, and SEM observations of flank wear VB and crater wear KT of used changeable coated cemented carbide cutting inserts in the processes of performed experiments. OCHN3MFA steel was selected as an experimental (workpiece) material. The selected experimental steel was analyzed prior to hard turning tests to check the initial microstructure of bulk material and subsurface microstructure after hard turning and chemical composition. Study of workpiece material’s microstructure and worn cemented carbide cutting inserts was performed with Tescan Vega TS 5135 scanning electron microscope (SEM) with the X-Ray microanalyzer Noran Six/300. The chemical composition of workpiece material was analyzed with Tasman Q4 surface analyzer. All hard turning experiments of the used specimens were performed under the selected machining parameters in the SU 50A machine tool with the 8th selected individual geometry of coated cementite carbide cutting inserts clamped in the appropriate DCLNR 2525M12-M type of cutting tool holder. During the hard turning technological process of the individual tested samples made of OCHN3MFA steel, cutting forces were measured with a Kistler 9257B piezoelectric dynamometer, with their subsequent evaluation using Dynoware software. After the long-term testing, other experiments and results were also realized, evaluating the influence of selected machining parameters with different cutting insert geometry on the achieved surface quality.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jozef Majerík
1
Igor Barényi
1
Zdenek Pokorný
2
Josef Sedlák
3
Vlastimil Neumann
4
David Dobrocký
2
Aleš Jaroš
3
Michal Krbaťa
1
Jaroslav Jambor
1
Roman Kusenda
1
Miroslav Sagan
1
Jiri Procházka
2

  1. Department of Engineering, Alexander Dubcek University of Trencin, Trencin, Slovak Republic
  2. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Defence in Brno, Brno, Czech Republic
  3. Department of Manufacturing Technology, Brno University of Technology, Brno, Czech Republic
  4. Department of Combat and Special Vehicles, University of Defence in Brno, Brno, Czech Republic
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Abstract

The goal of the research was to analyze the acoustic emission signal recorded during heat treatment. On a special stand, samples prepared from 27MnCrB5-2 steel were tested. The steel samples were heated to 950°C and then cooled continuously in the air. Signals from phase changes occurring during cooling were recorded using the system for registering acoustic emission. As a result of the changes, Widmanstätten ferrite and bainite structures were observed under a scanning microscope. The recorded acoustic emission signal was analyzed and assigned to the appropriate phase transformation with the use of artificial neural networks.
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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Trafarski
1
Małgorzata Łazarska
1
Zbigniew Ranachowski
2

  1. Institute of Materials Engineering, Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, ul. J.K. Chodkiewicza 30, 85-064 Bydgoszcz, Poland
  2. Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Pawińskiego 5B, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The increasing concern for worldwide energy production is the result of global industrialization and decreasing energy resources. Despite the cost factor, solar energy continues to become more popular due to its long-term nature as a resource and growing conversion efficiency. A dye-sensitized solar cell converts visible light into electricity. The efficient use of dye as a sensitizer is the critical factor in enhancing the performance of the dye-sensitized solar cell. Natural dyes are found in abundance in leaves, flower petals, roots, and other natural resources. Due to the advantages of natural dyes such as cost-effectiveness, the simpler extraction process, and being environmentally friendly, etc., researchers are working extensively to replace synthetic dyes with natural ones. This paper highlights the various types of natural dyes and their effect on the efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cell.
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Authors and Affiliations

Cherry Bhargava
1
ORCID: ORCID
Pardeep Kumar Sharma
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Symbiosis International (Deemed University), Pune, Maharashtra, India-412115
  2. Stratjuris Partners, Westport, Baner, Pune, Maharashtra, India-411045
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Abstract

The article presents the method of magnetron sputtering for the deposition of conductive emitter coatings in semiconductor structures. The layers were applied to a silicon substrate. For optical investigations, borosilicate glasses were used. The obtained layers were subjected to both optical and electrical characterisation, as well as structural investigations. The layers on silicon substrates were tested with the four-point probe to find the dependence of resistivity on the layer thickness. The analysis of the elemental composition of the layer was conducted using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an EDS system. The morphology of the layers was examined with the atomic force microscope (AFM) of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the structures with the use of X-ray diffraction (XRD). The thickness of the manufactured layers was estimated by ellipsometry. The composition was controlled by selecting the target and the conditions of the application, i.e. the composition of the plasma atmosphere and the power of the magnetrons. Based on the obtained results, this article aims to investigate the influence of the manufacturing method and the selected process parameter on the optical properties of thin films, which should be characterised by the highest possible value of the transmission coefficient (>85–90%) and high electrical conductivity.
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Authors and Affiliations

Małgorzata Musztyfaga-Staszuk
1
Dušan Pudiš
2
Robert Socha
3
Katarzyna Gawlińska-Nęcek
4
Piotr Panek
4

  1. Silesian University of Technology, Welding Department, ul. Konarskiego 18A, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
  2. Faculty of Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Zilina, Slovakia
  3. Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Niezapominajek 8, 30-239 Krakow, Poland
  4. Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAS, ul. Reymonta 25, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
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Abstract

The above-threshold operation of a Fabry-Perot laser with a nonlinear PT (parity time) mirror is investigated. For the first time, the analysis accounts for gain saturation of an active medium as well as gain and loss saturation effects in the PT mirror. The obtained laser output intensity characteristics have been demonstrated as a function of various PT mirror parameters such as: the ratio of the PT structure period to laser operating wavelength, number of PT mirror primitive cells, and gain and loss saturation intensities of the PT mirror gain and loss layers. Two functional configurations of the laser have been considered: laser operating as a discrete device, and as a component of an integrated circuit. It has been shown that, in general, the laser operation depends on the PT mirror orientation with respect to the active medium of the laser. Moreover, when the laser radiation is outcoupled through the PT mirror to the free space, bistable operation is possible, when losses of the mirror’s loss layer saturate faster than gain of the gain layer. Furthermore, for a given saturation intensity of the mirror loss layers, the increase of the saturation intensity of the mirror gain layers causes increasing output intensity, i.e., the PT mirror additionally amplifies the laser output signal.
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Authors and Affiliations

Agnieszka Mossakowska-Wyszyńska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Piotr Witoński
1
ORCID: ORCID
Paweł Szczepański
1 2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw, Poland
  2. National Institute of Telecommunications, ul. Szachowa 1, 04-894 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The article discusses the applicability of a novel method to determine horizontal curvature of the railway track axis based on results of mobile satellite measurements. The method is based on inclination angle changes of a moving chord in the Cartesian coordinate system. In the presented case, the variant referred to as the method of two virtual chords is applied. It consists in maneuvering with only one GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) receiver. The assumptions of the novel method are formulated, and an assessment of its application in the performed campaign of mobile satellite measurements is presented. The shape of the measured railway axis is shown in the national spatial reference system PL-2000, and the speed of the measuring trolley during measurement is calculated based on the recorded coordinates. It has been observed that over the test section, the curvature ordinates differ from the expected waveform, which can be caused by disturbances of the measuring trolley trajectory. However, this problem can easily be overcome by filtering the measured track axis ordinates to obtain the correct shape – this refers to all track segments: straight sections, circular arcs and transition curves. The virtual chord method can also constitute the basis for assessing the quality of the recorded satellite signal. The performed analysis has shown high accuracy of the measuring process.
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Authors and Affiliations

Władysław Koc
1
ORCID: ORCID
Andrzej Wilk
1
Cezary Specht
2
Krzysztof Karwowski
1
Jacek Skibicki
1
Krzysztof Czaplewski
2
Slawomir Judek
1
Piotr Chrostowski
3
Jacek Szmagliński
3
Paweł Dąbrowski
2
Mariusz Specht
2
Sławomir Grulkowski
3
Roksana Licow
3

  1. Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical and Control Engineering, ul. G. Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
  2. Gdynia Maritime University, Faculty of Navigation, al. Jana Pawła II 3, 81-345 Gdynia, Poland
  3. Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, ul. G. Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
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Abstract

The connection of renewable energy sources with significant nominal power (in the order of MW) to the medium-voltage distribution grid affects the operating conditions of that grid. Due to the increasing number of installed renewable energy sources and the limited transmission capacity of medium-voltage networks, the cooperation of these energy sources is becoming increasingly important. This article presents the results of a six-year study on a 2 MW wind power plant and a 1 MW photovoltaic power plant in the province of Warmia and Mazury, which are located a few kilometers away from each other. In this study, active energy, currents, voltages as well as active, reactive, and apparent power and higher harmonics of currents and voltages were measured. The obtained results show the parameters determining the power quality at different load levels. Long-term analysis of the operation of these power plants in terms of the generated electricity and active power transmitted to the power grid facilitated estimating the repeatability of active energy production and the active power generated in individual months of the year and times of day by a wind power plant and a photovoltaic power plant. It also allowed us to assess the options of cooperation between these energy sources. It is important, not only from a technical but also from an economic point of view, to determine the nominal power of individual power plants connected to the same connection point. Therefore, the cooperation of two such power plants with the same nominal power of 2 MW was analyzed and the economic losses caused by a reduction in electricity production resulting from connection capacity were estimated.
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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Lange
1
ORCID: ORCID
Marian Pasko
2
Dariusz Grabowski
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Electrical and Power Engineering, Electronics and Automation, University of Warmia and Mazury, ul. M. Oczapowskiego 11, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
  2. Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Silesian University of Technology, ul. Akademicka 10, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland

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