Nauki Techniczne

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials

Zawartość

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials | 2022 | vol. 67 | No 4

Abstrakt

Solidification/Stabilization (S/S) method with cement as a binder to remediate metals in petroleum sludge has been successfully proven. However, this technique has not yet been explored to remediate organic contaminants since a high concentration of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) was also detected in the sludge. This study focuses on remediating 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds in raw petroleum sludge with Portland cement as a binder using the S/S method. The initial concentration of 16 PAHs in the raw sludge was first measured before the performance of the S/S method to remediate the PAHs were evaluated. The S/S matrices were tested for leaching behavior and strength after 7 and 28 days by air curing. The leaching test was measured using the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the remaining PAHs concentration in the matrices was analyzed using a Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). In the raw sludge, all 16 PAHs compounds were below the standard limit except for Benzo(a)anthracene, Benzo(a)pyrene, Dibenzo(ah)anthracene, and Indeno(1,2,3- cd_ pyrene), which are considered as high rings PAHs. The high rings PAHs show lower concentration in leachate than low rings PAHs, which indicates the potential of the S/S method in remediating high rings PAHs. The high sludge ratio in S/S matrices has shown that the percentage strength is increasing, similar to Portland cement. Therefore, this study contributed to the possibility of the S/S method in the remediation of PAHs in petroleum sludge by using only Portland cement as a binder.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Noor Faiza Roslee
1
ORCID: ORCID
Nor Amani Filzah Mohd Kamil
1
ORCID: ORCID
Aeslina Abdul Kadir
2
ORCID: ORCID
Abdul Rahim Jalil
3
ORCID: ORCID
Nurhidayah Hamzah
4
ORCID: ORCID
Norazian Mohamed Noor
5
ORCID: ORCID
Andrei Victor Sandu
6
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universiti Tun Hussien Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia
  2. Universiti Tun Hussien Onn Malaysia, Micro Pollutant Research Centre, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia
  3. Pengerang Refining Company Sdn. Bhd. 81600 Pengerang, Johor Malaysia
  4. Universiti Teknologi MARA Department of Water Resource and Environmental System, 40450, Selangor, Malaysia
  5. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Faculty of Civil Engineering Technology, 01000 Perlis Malaysia
  6. "Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, 700050 lasi, Romania

Abstrakt

In this study, to investigate effects of tin addition on the microstructures and corrosion properties, Zn-1Mg-xSn (x = 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0 wt.%) ternary zinc alloys were prepared. The experimental results indicated that the Zn-1Mg-2.0 wt.% Sn alloy has the better mechanical properties compared with pure zinc and Zn-1Mg alloy. The tensile strength of the alloy material is 173.2±3.7 MPa, the yield strength is 120.7±2.4 MPa, the elongation is 5.64±0.08% and the hardness is 76.9±0.8 HV. The average degradation rate of the alloys immersion in SBF solution for 60 days is 0.16±0.03 mm/year, and the Zn-1Mg-2.0 wt.% Sn alloy hemolysis rate is only 0.81±0.02%. It is confirmed that the addition of tin is effective to improve the mechanical properties and degradation of Zn-1Mg alloy. It may be a candidate of the clinical application requirements of the degradable implant materials in orthopedics.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Zhouling Long
1
ORCID: ORCID
Haiyang Lang
2
ORCID: ORCID
Jun Ou
2 3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, China
  2. Guilin University of Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering / Dental Clinic and Experimental Center of Medical Sciences, 12 Jianganroad, Guilin, 541004, Guilin, China
  3. Guilin Medical University, Experimental Center of Medical Sciences, 26, Huanchen Road Guilin, 541002, Guilin, China

Abstrakt

Current work attempts to fabricate aluminium alloy AA2219 metal matrix composite (AMC) reinforced with natural bio-based sea shell powder (SSP) which is a ceramic material, in view of improving the mechanical and tribological properties. SSP was characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) to assess its chemical constituents and particle size. Stir casting route was adopted for fabricating AMCs reinforced with 1, 2 and 3 wt. % of SSP. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) was used to analyse the formation of secondary elements during casting and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used analyze the surface morphology of the composite specimen before and after tribological tests. Hardness, Compressive strength and tribological properties were evaluated using appropriate tests and corresponding ASTM standards. Characterization methods revealed that the formation of secondary elements was very low at 3 wt. % of SSP when compared with other compositions. Hardness and compressive strength was found to be maximum for 3 wt. % of SSP while the specific wear rate and coefficient of friction values were found to be lesser for the same composite when compared with the unreinforced alloy and were on par with the AA2219 composites containing synthetic reinforcements.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

V. Bhuvaneswari
1
ORCID: ORCID
L. Rajeshkumar
1
ORCID: ORCID
R. Saravanakumar
2
D. Balaji
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. KPR Institute of Engineering and Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Coimbatore – 641407, Tamilnadu, India
  2. VSB College of Engineering and Technical Campus, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Coimbatore – 642109, Tamilnadu, India

Abstrakt

We build the melting theory and the theory of the Debye temperature for defective and perfect cubic metals mainly based on the statistical moment method. Our theoretical results are applied to metals Ni, Pd and Pt. Our calculations of melting temperatures agree well with experiments and other calculations. Our other calculations are highly reliable.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Nguyen Quang Hoc
1
Bui Duc Tinh
1
Nguyen Duc Hien
2

  1. Hanoi National University of Education, 136 Xuan Thuy, Hanoi, Vietnam
  2. Mac Dinh Chi High School, Chu Pah district, Gia Lai province, Vietnam

Abstrakt

Accordingly with the principles of the circular economy, mixed plastic wastes can be recycled also by thermoforming, getting new non-oriented fibers composite materials. This study highlights the mechanical behavior of new composite material plates containing recycled glass fibers as reinforcing element and ABS-PMMA mixture as matrix, as well as an efficient way to convert a manufacturing process wastes in a product. The mechanical behavior of new composite material plates was evidenced by tensile, flexural and compression tests. In addition a surface morphology analysis was performed.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

M.A. Platon
1
ORCID: ORCID
O. Nemeș
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
A.-E. Tiuc
1
ORCID: ORCID
C. Vilău
3
ORCID: ORCID
C.M. Dudescu
3
ORCID: ORCID
S. Pădurețu
4
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Materials and Environmental Engineering, 28 Memorandumului Street, 400114, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
  2. National Institute for Research and Development in Environmental Protection, 294 Blvd. Splaiul Independentei, Sector 6, 060031, Bucharest, Romania
  3. Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Automotive, Mechatronics and Mechanical Engineering, 28 Memorandumului Street, 400114, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
  4. Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Machine Building, 28 Memorandumului Street, 400114, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Abstrakt

The Fe-based alloy with manganese led to the appearance of new austenitic alloys, with the antiferromagnetic property pursued, resulting in compatibility with the magnetic field as that of magnetic resonance imaging. The corrosion resistance behavior of the biodegradable Fe-Mn-Si alloy was analyzed in a thermostatic chamber at 37±1°C for 24, 48 and 72 hours by immersing in Ringer solution. Also, the cast and laminated samples were subjected to electro-corrosion tests using a potentiostat equipment. Linear and cyclic potentiometry is presented for characterize the corrosion behavior of the experimental samples in electrolyte. Due to the interaction between the alloy and the liquid medium a change in the solution pH was observed. Structure analysis and chemical composition details of the surfaces were obtained using electron scanning microscopy (SEM) and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS).
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

A.-M. Roman
1
ORCID: ORCID
R. Chelariu
1
ORCID: ORCID
R. Cimpoesu
1
ORCID: ORCID
I. Stirbu
1
ORCID: ORCID
I. Ionita
1
ORCID: ORCID
M.M. Cazacu
2
ORCID: ORCID
B.A. Prisecariu
3
ORCID: ORCID
N. Cimpoesu
3
ORCID: ORCID
P. Pietrusiewicz
4
ORCID: ORCID
A. Sodor
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, “Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Prof.dr.doc. D. Mangeron no. 41 Street, 700050 Iasi, Romania
  2. “Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Department of Physics, 700050 Iasi, Romania
  3. “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Iasi, 16 Univ. Street, 700115 Iasi, Romania
  4. Częstochowa University of Technology, Department of Physics , 42-200 Częstochowa, Poland

Abstrakt

Copper-based alloys with the addition of Al present excellent properties and can be considered a proper choice for applications as contact materials based on their good strength and fret resistance. Cu-Al alloys are used in different systems parts as bearings, gears and worm gears. The intention is to replace steel materials with new copper-based materials for parts that work in a possible explosive environment to reduce the possibility of spark appearance. Copper-berilyum alloys are known as non-sparking alloys and are used in different tools obtaining for environments with possible explosive gaseous. Results from the obtaining and analysis of a new alloy based on CuAlBe are given. The material was melted in a vacuum induction furnace from CuBe master alloy and high purity aluminium and cast into a metallic die. The alloys obtained were analyzed using EDS – energy dispersive spectroscopy for chemical composition, OM-optical and SEM-electronic microscopy for the microstructure, and the electro-corrosion resistance was tested using linear Tafel diagram and cyclic potentiometry.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

R.G Chelariu
1
ORCID: ORCID
N. Cimpoeșu
1
ORCID: ORCID
T.I. Birnoveanu
1
ORCID: ORCID
B. Istrate
2
ORCID: ORCID
C. Baciu
1
ORCID: ORCID
C. Bejinariu
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. “Gheorghe Asachi” University of Iasi, Faculty of Materials Science Engineering, Prof.dr.doc. D. Mangeron Street, no. 41, Iași 700050, Romania
  2. “Gheorghe Asachi” University of Iasi, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Prof.dr.doc. D. Mangeron Street, No. 61-63, Iași 700050, Romania

Autorzy i Afiliacje

Mohd Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan
1
ORCID: ORCID
Aeslina Abdul Kadir
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Nor Amani Filzah Mohd Kamil
1
ORCID: ORCID
Nurul Nabila Huda Hashar
1
ORCID: ORCID
Noor Amira Sarani
1
ORCID: ORCID
Badaruddin Ibrahim
3
ORCID: ORCID
Kahirol Mohd Salleh
3
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah
4 2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat Johor, Malaysia
  2. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Center of Excellent Geopolymer and Green Technology (CEGeoGTech), Malaysia
  3. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat Johor, Malaysia
  4. Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Faculty of Engineering Technology (FETech), 01000 Kangar, Perlis, Malaysia

Abstrakt

This paper studied the effect of laser welding technology on dissimilar metal welding joints of TA15 titanium alloy and Inconel 718 nickel-based alloy. The research results indicate that the laser welding of TA15 titanium alloy and Inconel 718 nickel-based alloy directly was difficult to form well, which due to the intermetallic compounds caused the joint brittle. When the pure Cu foil was used as the filling layer, the quality of the welding joints can be improved effectively. The experimental results also indicate that there were brittle intermetallic-compounds in the laser welding seam, and the laser power had an important influence on the performance and mechanical properties of the dissimilar metal joint. The maximum average tensile strength of the welding joint of 2300 W was increased to 252.32 MPa. Scanning electron microscope(SEM) results show that the fracture morphology was river pattern, a typical morphological of cleavage fracture, and the mode was brittle fracture.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Qi An
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Dongting Wu
1
ORCID: ORCID
Peng Liu
3
Yong Zou
4
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Shandong University, Key Laboratory of Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Jinan, 250061, China
  2. Shandong University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jinan, 250061, China
  3. Shandong Jianzhu University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jinan, 250101, China
  4. Shandong University, Jinan Shandong Engineering & Technology Research Center for Modern Welding, 250061, China

Abstrakt

This paper presents an experimental investigation on the mechanical properties and microstructure of geopolymer repair materials mixed using fly ash (FA) and concrete substrates. An optimal combination of FA and concrete substrate was determined using the compressive test of geopolymer mortar mixed with various concrete substrate classes. It was found that the contribution of (C35/45) concrete substrates with the FA geopolymer mortar increases the 28-day bonding strength by 25.74 MPa. The microstructure analysis of the samples using scanning electron microscopy showed the denser structure owing to the availability of high calcium and iron elements distribution. These metal cations (Ca2+ and Fe3+) are available at OPC concrete substrate as a result from the hydration process reacted with alumina-silica sources of FA and formed calcium aluminate silicate hydrate (C-A-S-H) gels and Fe-bonding linkages.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Ikmal Hakem A. Aziz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Warid Wazien Ahmad Zailani
3
ORCID: ORCID
Shayfull Zamree Abd Rahim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Heah Cheng Yong
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Andrei Victor Sandu
4
ORCID: ORCID
Loke Siu Peng
1

  1. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Centre of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology (CEGeoGTech), Perlis, Malaysia
  2. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, Perlis, Malaysia
  3. Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM), Faculty of Civil Engineering, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
  4. “Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Romania

Abstrakt

Ultrasound-promoted transient liquid phase bonding (U-TLP) is a high quality, high efficiency, and low-cost method for fast bonding of difficult-wetting materials in the atmospheric environment. In this paper, U-TLP was used to bond SiC particles reinforced aluminium-based metal matrix composite which particle volume fraction was 70%. The pure zinc foil was used as the intermediate layer. The effects of ultrasonic on microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of joints during the transient liquefaction stage were investigated. The mechanism of ultrasonic effects in the transient liquefaction stage of U-TLP was also inducted. The results showed that high volume fraction SiCp/Al MMCs were bonded well at low temperature in the air environment. Ultrasonic vibration can remove the oxide film on the surface of aluminum matrix composites, enhance the wettability of SiC particles with weld metal, promote atomic diffusion and homogenization of SiC particles, and improve the welding quality and efficiency. Reasonable increase of ultrasonic vibration time could effectively improve the joint strength.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Changzhuang Zhou
1
ORCID: ORCID
Lin Ma
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Chao Zhu
1
ORCID: ORCID
Qinghe Cui
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jindi Liang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Yujian Song
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Shenyang Aerospace University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang 110136, China
  2. The University of Queensland, Australia

Abstrakt

As one of the most promising 3rd generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS), medium Mn steels attract much attention because of their exceptional mechanical property and reasonable cost. However, their application in the modern automotive industry is limited by poor weldability. In this study, 7Mn steel was welded by resistance spot welding (RSW), which was followed by high-temperature annealing to increase the cross-tension property. With this effort, enhanced cross-tension strength (CTS) with a partial interfacial fracture (PIF) mode was realized. During the annealing after RSW that produced martensite, austenitization was realized and then evolved into martensite by the following air cooling. This process produced structure homogeneity across the joint. With respect to the RSW joint, martensite remained the dominant structure after annealing while the diffusion of C and Mn solutes was triggered. With the increase of annealing temperature, the diffusion was enhanced, and the grain boundary embrittlement was reduced, leading to higher CTS.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Bingge Zhao
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Yuanfang Wang
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Chenyu Sun
1 2
Kai Ding
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Guanzhi Wu
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Tao Wei
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Hua Pan
3 4
ORCID: ORCID
Yulai Gao
1 2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Shanghai University, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy, 200444, P.R. China
  2. Shanghai University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Center for Advanced Solidification Technology (CAST), Shanghai, 200444, P.R.China
  3. State Key Laboratory of Development and Application Technology of Automotive Steels, Shanghai 201900, P.R. China
  4. Automobile Steel Research Institute, R&D Center, Baoshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd . Shanghai 201900, P.R. China

Abstrakt

In this study, the electrospray deposition (ESD) method was used to deposit carbon nanotubes (CNT) onto the surfaces of carbon fibers (CF) in order to produce hybrid carbon fiber-carbon nanotubes (CF-CNT) which is rarely reported in the past. Extreme high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (XHR-FESEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to analyse the hybrid carbon fiber-carbon nanotube (CF-CNT). The results demonstrated that CNT was successfully and homogenously distributed on the CF surface. Hybrid CF-CNT was then prepared and compared with CF without CNT deposition in terms of their tensile properties. Statistically, the tensile strength and the tensile modulus of the hybrid CF-CNT were increased by up to 3% and 25%, respectively, as compared to the CF without CNT deposition. The results indicated that the ESD method did not cause any reduction of tensile properties of hybrid CF-CNT. Based on this finding, it can be prominently identified some new and significant information of interest to researchers and industrialists working on CF based products.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Muhammad Razlan Zakaria
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Hazizan Md Akil
3
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Firdaus Omar
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Shayfull Zamree Abd Rahim
2
ORCID: ORCID
M. Nabiałek
4
ORCID: ORCID
J.J. Wysłocki
4
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, Kompleks Pengajian Jejawi 2, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
  2. Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Geopolymer & Green Technology, Centre of Excellent (CEGeoGTech) Perlis, Malaysia
  3. Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
  4. Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Production Engineering and Materials Technology, Department of Physics 42-201 Czestochowa, Poland

Abstrakt

This paper presents the results of experimental research on the fabrication of thin-walled panels with longitudinal stiffening ribs by the single point incremental sheet forming technique. The bead-stiffened panels were made of Alclad 2024-T3 aluminium alloy sheets commonly used in aircraft structures. The influence of forming parameters and tool strategy on surface quality and the possibility of obtaining stiffening ribs with the required profile and depth was tested through experimental research. Two tool path strategies, spiral with continuous sinking and multi-step z-level contouring, were considered. The results of the experiments were used to verify the finite element-based numerical simulations of the incremental forming process. It was found that the main parameter which influences the formability of test sheets is the tool path strategy; the tool path strategy with multi-step z-level contouring allowed the rib to be formed to a depth of 3.53 mm without risk of cracking. However a greater depth of rib equal of 5.56 mm was achieved with the continuous tool path. The tool path strategy was also the main parameter influencing the surface finish of the drawpiece during the single point incremental forming process.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

B. Krasowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
A. Kubit
2
ORCID: ORCID
T. Trzepieciński
2
ORCID: ORCID
J. Slota
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Carpatian State School in Krosno, Krosno, Poland
  2. Rzeszow University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, 12 Powstańców Warszawy Av., 35-959, Rzeszów, Poland
  3. Technical University of Košice, Košice, Slovakia

Abstrakt

In this study, an electrochemical method was used to permeate hydrogen through annealed DP590 steel under various pre-strain conditions (0-15%). Stress-strain and internal friction-temperature curves of the dual phase (DP) steel were obtained from slow strain-rate tensile tests and internal friction measurements, respectively. The diffusion of interstitial atoms, formation of Cottrell atmospheres, and embrittlement mechanism of DP steel were investigated under different prestress conditions before and after hydrogen permeation. The results show that the tensile strength of DP steel first decreases and then increases and the elongation sharply decreases with increasing pre-strain. The strength and ductility present similar trends with changes in pre-strain before and after hydrogen charging, however, after hydrogen charging, an obvious increase in tensile strength and decrease in elongation are observed. Furthermore, the γ peak amplitude decreases and the Snoek-Ke-Koster (SKK) peak amplitude increases with increasing internal pre-strain according to the friction-temperature curve. The γ peak and SKK peak exhibit the same trends with increasing pre-strain before and after hydrogen charging and both the γ peak and SKK peak decrease with hydrogen charging. The dislocation density in DP steel increases after hydrogen charging.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Qihang Pang
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Cong Geng
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Jiaji Wang
2
ORCID: ORCID
Weijuan Li
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Jing Guo
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Xiaoming Yu
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. University of Science and Technology LIAONING, School of Materials and Metallurgy, ANSHAN LIAONING, 114051, China
  2. State Key Laboratory of Metal Material for Marine Equipment and Application, Anshan Liaoning, 114009, China
  3. Shenyang Ligong University, School of Material Science and Engineering, Shenyang Liaoning, 110159, China

Abstrakt

This paper investigates the thermal and mechanical properties of a composite made from a combination of 2063-epoxy resin and three different braided carbon-fiber fabric reinforcements. These fibres consist of HTS carbon, HTS carbon braided with nickel coated carbon and HTS carbon braided with nickel coated copper, respectively. The composites were manufactured through resin transfer molding (RTM) route. The thermal diffusivity of carbon fibers composites was measured at different temperature by using a flash method. The transverse and planar thermal conductivities were determined by measuring the specific heat, density and thermal diffusivities, respectively. The current research highlights the influence of adding nickel coated carbon and nickel-plated copper wires on the braided composites. The evaluation shows that the HTS carbon braided manufactured with nickel-plated copper wires presents higher in-plane thermal conductivity (in direction parallel of the fibres) when comparing to HTS carbon and HTS carbon braided manufactured with nickel coated carbon. The thermal conductivity benefits of those composite were achieved at the expenses of lower mechanical properties of braided composites investigated.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Jamal Arbaoui
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Jérémie Aucher
1
ORCID: ORCID
Moussa Gomina
1
ORCID: ORCID
Joel Breard
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Laboratoire CRISMAT, UMR 6508 CNRS/ENSICAEN, 6 Bd Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex 4, France
  2. University of Cadi Ayyad, National School of Applied Sciences, Laboratory of Materials, Processes, Environment and Quality, B.P. 63, 46000, Safi, Morocco

Abstrakt

Due to the importance of uranium and uranium alloys to national defence and nuclear industrial applications, it is necessary to understand dendrite formation in their solidification structures and to control their microstructures. In this study, a modified cellular automaton model was developed to predict 2-D and 3-D equiaxed dendrite growth in U-Nb alloys. The model takes into account solute diffusion, preferential growth orientation, interface curvature, etc., and the solid fraction increment is calculated using the local level rule method. Using this model, 2-D large-scale and 3-D equiaxed dendrite growth with various crystallographic orientations in the U-5.5Nb alloy were simulated, and the Nb micro-segregation behaviour during solidification was analysed. The simulated results showed reasonable agreement with the as-cast microstructure observed experimentally.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Bin Su
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jing-Yuan Liu
1
ORCID: ORCID
Xiao-Peng Zhang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Xue-Wei Yan
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. China Academy of Engineering Physics, Institute of Materials, Jiangyou, China
  2. Zhengzhou University of Aeronautics, School of Aero Engine, Zhengzhou, China

Abstrakt

High pressure die casting (HDPC) allows to produce aluminum parts for car industry of complicated shapes in long series. Dies used in this process must be robust enough to withstand long term injection cycling with liquid aluminum alloys, as otherwise their defects are imprinted on the product making them unacceptable. It is expected that nitriding followed by coating deposition (duplex treatment) should protect them in best way and increase intervals between the cleaning/repairing operations. The present experiment covered investigations of the microstructure of the as nitride and deposited with CrAlN coating as well as its shape after foundry tests. The observations were performed with the scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM) method. They showed that the bottom part of this bi-layer is formed by roughly equi-axed Cr2N crystallites, while the upper one with the fine columnar (CrAl)N crystallites. This bi-layers were matched with a set of 7x nano-layers of CrN/(CrAl)N, while at the coating bottom a CrN buffer layer was placed. The foundry run for up to 19 500 cycles denuded most of coated area exposed to fast liquid flow (40 m/s) but left most of bottom part of the coating in the areas exposed to slower flow (7 m/s). The acquired data indicated that the main weakness of this coating was in its porosity present both at the columnar grain boundaries (upper layer) as well as at the bottom of droplets imbedded in it (both layers). They nucleate cracks propagating perpendicularly and the latter at an angle or even parallel to the substrate. The most crack resistant part of the coating turned-out the bottom layer built of roughly equiaxed fine Cr2N crystallites. Even application of this relatively simple duplex protection in the form of CrAlN coating deposited on the nitride substrate helped to extend the die run in the foundry by more than three times.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

A. Wilczek
1
J. Morgiel
2
ORCID: ORCID
A. Sypień
2
ORCID: ORCID
M. Pomorska
2
ORCID: ORCID
Ł. Rogal
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Limatherm S.A., Tarnowska Str. 1, 34-600 Limanowa , Poland
  2. Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science Polish Academy of Science, 25 Reymonta Str., 30-059 Krakow, Poland

Abstrakt

This paper details a finite element analysis of the behaviour of Si-Al geopolymer concrete beam reinforced steel bar under an impulsive load and hyper velocity speed up to 1 km/s created by an air blast explosion. The initial torsion stiffness and ultimate torsion strength of the beam increased with increasing compressive strength and decreasing stirrup ratio. The study involves building a finite element model to detail the stress distribution and compute the level of damage, displacement, and cracks development on the geopolymer concrete reinforcement beam. This was done in ABAQUS, where a computational model of the finite element was used to determine the elasticity, plasticity, concrete tension damages, concrete damage plasticity, and the viability of the Johnson-Cook Damage method on the Si-Al geopolymer concrete. The results from the numerical simulation show that an increase in the load magnitude at the midspan of the beam leads to a percentage increase in the ultimate damage of the reinforced geopolymer beams failing in shear plastic deformation. The correlation between the numerical and experimental blasting results confirmed that the damage pattern accurately predicts the response of the steel reinforcement Si-Al geopolymer concrete beams, concluded that decreasing the scaled distance from 0.298 kg/m3 to 0.149 kg/m3 increased the deformation percentage.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Nurul Aida Mohd Mortar
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Kamarudin Hussin
1
ORCID: ORCID
Rafiza Abdul Razak
3
ORCID: ORCID
Sanusi Hamat
4
ORCID: ORCID
Ahmad Humaizi Hilmi
4
Noorfifi Natasha Shahedan
1
ORCID: ORCID
Long Yuan Li
5
ORCID: ORCID
Ikmal Hakem A. Aziz
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology (CEGeoGTech), Malaysia
  2. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, Malaysia
  3. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Faculty of Civil Engineering Technology, Malaysia
  4. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Malaysia
  5. University of Plymouth, School of Marine Science and Engineering, Plymouth PL4 8AA, United Kingdom

Abstrakt

Iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) seek to unravel iron corrosion for oil and gas steel pipeline failure. IRB continued to be dominating the microbiological corrosion of iron structures in steel by deteriorating steel surface via Fe(III) reduction. The mechanisms by IRB mediate Fe(III) reduction into Fe(II) for bacterial respiration to contribute to iron steel corrosion. However, the complexity of corrosion is not fully comprehended. It remains controversial due to the corrosion mechanisms proposed by IRB that may induce or inhibit corrosion when engaged with microbial biofilm. In this brief review, understanding microbiological corrosion mechanisms associated with IRB interactions may better understand microbiological corrosion and derive corrosion control.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

N.A.A. Jamaluddin
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Yusoff
1
ORCID: ORCID
S.K. Wee
1
ORCID: ORCID
M.N. Masri
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Faculty of Bioengineering and Technology, 17600 Jeli Kelantan, Malaysia

Abstrakt

Nozzle clogging seriously affects the continuity of spraying powder in vacuum induction melting gas atomization (VIGA) process and increases the consumption of gas and raw materials. However, there are few systematic studies on nozzle clogging. This paper reports the physics of nozzle clogging in gas atomization production. The influence of coupling-length of different melt delivery-tubes on nozzle clogging is studied numerically and experimentally. The interface tracking method of Volume of Fluid (VOF) and the large eddy simulation (LES) model are performed for visualizing the melt droplets flow traces in primary atomization and the associated simulation cloud images compared with experimental results. Four delivery-tube coupling-lengths (0 mm, 3 mm, 5 mm, and 7 mm) relative to nozzle position and two gas pressures (3 MPa and 4.5 MPa) are chosen for this study. The results indicated that the coupling-lengths of 0 mm and 3 mm increases the strength of the recirculation zone, the melt droplets backflow is obvious, and the nozzle is blocked. However, this phenomenon eliminated with increasing coupling-lengths, the atomization process is continuous, but the final fine powder yield decreases. This research is of guiding significance and reference for understanding the nozzle clogging of vacuum induction melting gas atomization (VIGA) technology.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Junfeng Wang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Min Xia
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jialun Wu
1
ORCID: ORCID
Changchun Ge
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. University of Science & Technology Beijing Institute of Special Ceramics and Powder Metallurgy, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing,100083, China
  2. University of Science & Technology Academician of CAS, Institute of Special Ceramics and Powder Metallurgy, Beijing, China

Abstrakt

This paper is focused on investigating the mechanisms associated with different failure modes of copper (C101) sandwich panels with honeycomb cores of different heights subjected to flexural loading. Honeycomb core is made up of copper strips which were formed to required shapes using Dies fabricated by Electric Discharge Wire cut machining technique. All the joints in the sandwich panel were established through Brazing technique. Three-point bending test was conducted as per ASTM standard C-393. It was observed that increase in height of the core resulted in panels with higher strength to weight ratio. It also exhibited higher stiffness to weight ratio and very high strain energy absorption ability. An increase in flexural strength was reported with a maximum of 43% improvement for 10.9 mm core compared to 6.9 mm core. Further, 81.75% increase in absorbed strain energy was reported for 10.9 mm thick panel compared to 6.9 mm. The Optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis confirmed the establishment of good bonding between the filler and the substrate. Energy-dispersive Spectroscopic (EDS) analysis revealed the presence of Cu, Al, Zn, SiO2 and CaCO3 in the substrate. Further it also revealed the presence of Cu, CaCO3 and GaP in the filler material. The failure mode map was constructed which can be used for predicting different types of failures more likely to occur for specific parameters of copper sandwich panel. The dominant failures occurred during testing was in good agreement with the prediction done through failure mode map. The appreciable results in the proposed research may be supportive in construction of cooling system. The structure development and process control are convenient in mass production in automobile industries.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

A. Vino
1
ORCID: ORCID
K. Kalaichelvan
1
ORCID: ORCID
S. Sajith
2
ORCID: ORCID
G. Kumaresan
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Anna University, Department of Ceramics, AC Techcampus, Chennai, India
  2. Anna University, Department of Aerospace Engineering, MIT Campus, Chennai, India
  3. Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sathya Mangalam, Erode – 638 401, India

Abstrakt

Thanks to dyeing of polymers, the possibilities of their use are constantly increasing. It is equally important to use additives that will have several functions. A perfect example is titanium dioxide used as an optical brightener and a flame retardant at the same time. Mostly it is used in the form of a powder. However, there are no studies where TiO2 is used as a colourbatch based on the different polymer matrix.
The aim of the work was to investigate the effect of titanium white in the form of colourbatch on the flammability and selected properties of mouldings produced in various processing conditions. Colourbatch based on PS matrix, was used in the research. The variable processing parameters were: injection temperature Tw, volume flow rate Vw, residence time and the addition of a colourbatch. On the basis of the measurements, it was found that the processing conditions and the addition of the colourbatch have low effect on the hardness of the mouldings, which was in the range from 75.59o Sh D (Shore type D) to 81.95o Sh D. It was also noted that the addition of colourbatch with TiO2 and increasing injection temperature reduces impact strength even by several dozen percent. Moreover, it was found that use of TiO2 causes a delay in the ignitability of the samples in selected cases. It is difficult to determine whether the variable processing conditions or the addition of TiO2 on the PS matrix have a greater impact on the ignitability of the moulded parts.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

M. Trzaskalska
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science, Department of Technology and Automation, 21 Armii Krajowej Av., 42-201 Czestochowa, Poland

Abstrakt

In this study, the effects of grain refinement and production methods on the corrosion, corrosive wear and mechanical properties of the as-cast and as-rolled Mg-2 wt.% Zn (ZM20) and Mg-2 wt.% Zn-0,51 wt.% Mn (ZM21) alloys were examined by using OM, XRD, SEM, hardness and uniaxial tensile test. Additionally, the potentiodynamic polarization, immersion corrosion test and corrosive wear properties of the ZM20 and ZM21 alloys were compared. According to the XRD results, MgZn and MgZn2 phases were found in the alloys and also MnZn3 phase occurred in the ZM21 alloy with the addition of manganese. Both during solidification forming nucleation points with the added manganese and during rolling the broken secondary phase particles distributed into the matrix prevented grain growth and led to the formation of a more refined structure. The tensile test results showed that the strength of the as-cast ZM21 alloys were better than that of the as-cast ZM20 alloys and further improvement in mechanical properties occurred with the rolling of the both alloys. The most superior hardness was found in the as-rolled ZM21 alloy. In the total 400-m reciprocal corrosive wear test in the 3.5% NaCl solution, the lowest mass loss was in the as-rolled ZM21 alloys. In the potentiodynamic corrosion test, the highest corrosion resistance was occurred by the as-cast ZM20 alloy.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Halil Ahmet Gören
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mehmet Ünal
2
ORCID: ORCID
Yunus Türen
3
ORCID: ORCID
Hayrettin Ahlatçı
3
ORCID: ORCID
Yavuz Sun
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Sinop University, The Vocational School, Mechatronic Department, Sinop, Turkey
  2. Karabuk University, Manufacturing Engineering, Turkey
  3. Karabuk University, Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Turkey

Abstrakt

Tests were performed on example tools applied in hot die forging processes. After withdrawal from service due to excessive wear, these tools can be regenerated for re-use through machining and hardfacing. First, analysis of worn tools was carried out for the purpose of identifying tool working conditions and wear mechanisms occurring in the surface layer of tools during forging. Testing of worn tools included observations under a microscope, surface scanning and microhardness measurement in the surface layer. The results indicate very diverse work conditions, which suggest the application of different materials and hardfacing tool regeneration technology in individual die forging processes.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

P. Widomski
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Kaszuba
1
ORCID: ORCID
J. Krawczyk
1
ORCID: ORCID
B. Nowak
2
ORCID: ORCID
A. Lange
1
ORCID: ORCID
P. Sokołowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Z. Gronostajski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Department of Metal Forming, Welding and Metrology, 7-9 Lukasiewicza Str., 50-371, Wroclaw, Poland
  2. CEO, Kuźnia Jawor S.A. Poland

Abstrakt

This study aims to determine optimal forming parameters for Incremental Sheet Forming process Commercially Pure titanium Grade 2 sheets in terms of formability improvement, force reduction, and efficiency of forming. Based on the central composite design, data were collected during 20 runs and then variation analysis was performed. The experiments were performed on a 3 axis CNC milling machine equipped with a Kistler dynamometer plate. Subsequently, regression models have been developed to describe process responses by input factors. As crucial parameters, the relative velocity and step size of the tool that affect the forming force and the height of the fracture have been determined. Finally, the application of optimization algorithm has emerged optimal input factors in terms of selected multi-criteria goal. The results of this study suggest that there is a process window that allows the formation of 45° wall angle drawpieces of commercially pure titanium Grade 2.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

M. Szpunar
1
ORCID: ORCID
T. Trzepieciński
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
R. Ostrowski
3
ORCID: ORCID
M. Zwolak
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Rzeszow University of Technology, Doctoral School of Engineering and Technical Sciences, 8 Powst. Warszawy Av., 35-959, Rzeszów, Poland
  2. Rzeszow University of Technology, Department of Manufacturing and Production Engineering, 12 Powst. Warszawy Av., 35-959, Rzeszów, Poland
  3. Rzeszow University of Technology, Department of Materials Forming and Processing, 12 Powst. Warszawy Av., 35-959, Rzeszów, Poland

Abstrakt

In this article, the authors focused on the widely used aluminium extrusion technology, where the die quality and durability are the essential factors. In this study, detailed solutions in the three-key area have been presented. First is applying marking technology, where a laser technique was proposed as a consistent light source of high power in a selected, narrow spectral range. In the second, an automated and reliable identification method of alphanumeric characters was investigated using an advanced machine vision system and digital image processing adopted to the industrial conditions. Third, a proposed concept of online tool management was introduced as an efficient process for properly planning the production process, cost estimation and risk assessment. In this research, the authors pay attention to the designed vision system’s speed, reliability, and mobility. This leads to the practical, industrial application of the proposed solutions, where the influence of external factors is not negligible.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

S. Świłło
1
ORCID: ORCID
R. Cacko
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Metal Forming and Foundry, Faculty of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 85 Narbutta Str., 02-525, Warszawa, Poland

Abstrakt

In the present work, Hydroxyapatite synthesis was carried out using hydrothermal method with calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO 3) 2.4H 2O) and fosfor pentaoksit (P 2O 5) as precursors. For the hydrothermal method, constant reaction temperature (180°C) and different reaction times (6 hours, 12 hours, 18 hours and 24 hours) were determined. The samples produced were divided into two groups. Four samples were not heat treatment; four samples were heat treatment at 700°C for 1 hour. The obtained products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) techniques, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis spectrometer. SEM photos showed that the Hydroxyapatite powders produced are in the form of the agglomerate. According to EDS results, Hydroxyapatite samples are of high purity. XRD’s findings confirm that the diffraction peaks correspond to the pure phase of Hydroxyapatite. A general decrease was observed in the energy band gap of the samples with increasing hydrothermal reaction time.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Nida Kati
1
ORCID: ORCID
Sermin Ozan
1
ORCID: ORCID
Tülay Yildiz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mehmet Arslan
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Fırat Unıversity, Faculty of Technology, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, 23200, Elazığ, Turkiye

Abstrakt

The paper presents the results of research and analysis of the effect of joining by the RFSSW method of alclad sheets made of Al2024 with an anodic oxide coating, with the using the tool with modified geometry of the front surface of inner sleeve. The different effects of the modifications made on the phenomenon of plasticization and stirring of materials in the process of creating a weld, microstructure of welds and mechanical strength of lap joints were shown. The tests were carried out on 1.27 mm thick sheets, with the use of an unmodified tool and modified tools with three variants of the geometry. The welds and the joints samples were subjected to metallographic and strength tests. It has been shown that the use of a properly selected modified geometry has a beneficial effect on the transport of materials to be joined in the joint zone (flow pattern of plasticized layers and the stirring effect) during the welding, which translates into the strength of the joints and the nature of the weld failure.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

W. Łogin
1
ORCID: ORCID
R.E. Śliwa
2
ORCID: ORCID
R. Ostrowski
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Development Project Office, Polskie Zakłady Lotnicze w Mielcu Sp. z o.o., Poland
  2. Rzeszów University of Technology, 12 Powstańców Warszawy Av., 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland

Abstrakt

In this study, the nominal composition of Cu-2.5Ti alloy was thermally treated to obtain homogenized, aged, and 40% prior cold-rolled+ aged samples. The hardness, wear behavior, and microstructure of samples were investigated. The reciprocating wear tests were performed under four different loads under dry and 3.5%NaCl corrosive environments. The alloy reached its highest hardness value of 8 hours for the aged sample. The hardness value of the sample that was homogenized then cold-rolled by 40% and aged was found higher than the other samples. A decrease in the wear rates in dry conditions was observed in homogenized, aged and cold-rolled and aged samples, respectively. This decrease was more in the corrosive environment. Studies can be advanced by examining the wear behavior at different alloy ratios. The effects of different alloying elements and the ratio of cold-rolled before or after aging can also be investigated for future research.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Ceren Efe
1
ORCID: ORCID
Yavuz Sun
2
ORCID: ORCID
Yunus Türen
2
ORCID: ORCID
Hayrettin Ahlatci
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Zonguldak Bülent Ecevit University, Gökçebey M. M. Çanakcı Vocational School of Higher Education, Gökçebey, Zonguldak, Turkey
  2. Karabuk University, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Karabuk, Turkey

Abstrakt

Y and V codoped SrBi 2Nb 2O 9 ceramics, which have been characterized by XRD, FTIR and SEM techniques, were prepared through molten salt using NaCl-KCl medium. Through X-ray diffraction analysis, all prepared samples were matched by undoped SrBi 2Nb 2O 9. The lattice parameters do not depend on the amount of dopants. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the compounds are composed of small crystallites of varying size and orientation, resulting in many micros train defects. FTIR spectra revealed that the dopant promotes a slight decrease in the 612 cm –1 band. A plate-like morphology was revealed by scanning electron microscopy, while Nyquist plots indicate non-Debye relaxation for all compounds. V and Y were incorporated into SrBi 2Nb 2O 9 lattice in order to reduce dielectric loss tangent. Thus, the codoping increases the of SrB 1.9Y 0.1Nb 1.95V 0.05O 9 (Y0.1V0.05) ceramic whereas, they were significantly decreased in the case of SrBi 1.8Y 0.2Nb 2O 9 (Y0.2) ceramic. Y0.1V0.05 sample makes up the highest efficient charge transfer, followed by Y0.2 sample representing the lowest.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Mohamed Afqir
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mohamed Elaatmani
1
ORCID: ORCID
Abdelouahad Zegzouti
1
ORCID: ORCID
Nabiha Tahiri
1
Mohamed Daoud
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Université Cadi Ayyad, Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Laboratoire de Sciences des Matériaux et Optimisation des Procédés, Marrakech, Morocco

Abstrakt

The soft magnetic properties of Fe-based amorphous alloys can be controlled by their compositions through alloy design. Experimental data on these alloys show some discrepancy, however, with predicted values. For further improvement of the soft magnetic properties, machine learning processes such as random forest regression, k-nearest neighbors regression and support vector regression can be helpful to optimize the composition. In this study, the random forest regression method was used to find the optimum compositions of Fe-Si-B-C alloys. As a result, the lowest coercivity was observed in Fe80.5Si3.63B13.54C2.33 at.% and the highest saturation magnetization was obtained Fe81.83Si3.63B12.63C1.91 at.% with R2 values of 0.74 and 0.878, respectively.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Young-Sin Choi
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Do-Hun Kwon
1
ORCID: ORCID
Min-Woo Lee
1
ORCID: ORCID
Eun-Ji Cha
1
ORCID: ORCID
Junhyup Jeon
3
ORCID: ORCID
Seok-Jae Lee
3
ORCID: ORCID
Jongryoul Kim
2
ORCID: ORCID
Hwi-Jun Kim
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Smart Liquid Processing R&D Department, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, 156, Gaetbeol-ro, Yeonsu-Gu, Incheon 21999, Korea
  2. Hanyang Univ., Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Ansan 15588, Korea
  3. Jeonbuk National Univ., Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Jeonju 54896, Korea

Abstrakt

In this study, we investigated the effect of cladding on structural carbon steel (S45C) using 5%Cr-1.5%Mo-Fe powder (SKD61), which is expected to show economically efficient production of die-casting parts. The process conditions were performed under argon atmosphere using a diode laser source with specialized wavelength of 900-1070 nm, and the output conditions were 3, 4, and 5 kW, respectively. After the cladding was completed, the surface coating layer’s shape and the microstructure were analyzed. The hardness test was carried out with Micro Vickers hardness tester under 500 gram-force along the normal line at the interval of 0.2 mm from the surface to core direction on the cross-sectional area. In addition, polarization curve test of the surface coating layer was performed to investigate the corrosion resistance characteristics.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Cheol-Woo Kim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Hyo-Sang Yoo
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Suncheon Ppuri Technology Support Center, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, 34, Haeryongsandan 2-ro, Haeryong-myeon, Suncheon-si, Jeollanam-do, 58022, Korea

Abstrakt

Tungsten diselenide (WSe2) is one of the promising transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) for nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. To enhance and tune the electronic performance of TMDs, chemical functionalization via covalent and van der Waals approaches has been suggested. In the present report, the electric and structural transition of WSe2 oxidized by exposure to O3 is investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy. It is demonstrated that the exposure of WSe2/high-ordered pyrolytic graphite sample to O3 induces the formation of molecular adsorbates on the surface, which enables to increase in the density of states near the valence band edge, resulting from electric structural modification of domain boundaries via exposure of atomic O. According to the work function extracted by Kelvin probe force microscopy, monolayer WSe2 with the O3 exposure results in a gradual increase in work function as the exposure to O3. Therefore, the present report demonstrates the potential pathway for the chemical functionalization of TMDs to enhance the electric performance of TMDs devices.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Eunjeong Kim
1
Sangyoeb Lee
2
ORCID: ORCID
Yeonjin Je
3
Dong Park Lee
3
Sang Jun Park
3
Sanghyun Jeong
2
Joon Sik Park
2
Byungmin Ahn
4
ORCID: ORCID
Jun Hong Park
1 3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Gyeongsang National University, Department of Materials Engineering and Convergence Technology, Jinju, Korea
  2. Hanbat National University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Daejeon, Korea
  3. Gyeongsang National University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jinju, Korea
  4. Ajou University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Energy Systems Research, Suwon, Korea

Abstrakt

This work mainly focuses on the sintering behavior of the Cu-Sn alloy with the addition of Ag up to 4 wt% after pulsed electric current sintering (PECS) process for ultra-fast sintering. The microstructural evolution was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and density measurements. The mechanical properties were evaluated via measurements of transverse rupture strength (TRS) and Rockwell hardness. The mechanism during the sintering process has been discussed thoroughly, and the effect on porosity with the addition of the Ag is also correlated. The results showed that the growth of porosity progressed with the amount of Ag up to 2 wt%, and further addition of Ag leads reduction in porosity. The effect on mechanical properties were improved slowly as the amount of Ag increased.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Se Hwan Lee
1
ORCID: ORCID
Byungmin Ahn
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Ajou University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Energy System Research, Suwon, 16499, Korea
  2. Ehwa Diamond Industrial Co., Ltd., Osan, 18145, Korea

Abstrakt

Black TiO 2nanofibers have recently emerged as a promising material that has both advantages of black metal oxide and one-dimensional nanostructure. However, current reduction-based synthesis approaches are not compatible with practical applications because these processes require high process costs, complicated processes, and sophisticated control. Therefore, it is still necessary to develop a simple and facile method that can easily introduce atomic defects during the synthesis process. This work suggests an electrospinning process with an antioxidant and subsequent calcination process for the facile synthesis of black TiO 2 nanofibers. The synthesized black TiO 2 nanofiber has an average diameter of 50.3 nm and a rutile structure. Moreover, this nanofiber represented a noticeable black color and a bandgap of 2.67 eV, clearly demonstrating the bandgap narrowing by the introduced atomic defects.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Myeongjun Ji
1
ORCID: ORCID
Eung Ryong Kim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mi-Jeong Park
1
ORCID: ORCID
Hee Yeon Jeon
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jaeyun Moon
2
ORCID: ORCID
Jongmin Byun
1
ORCID: ORCID
Young-In Lee
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul, 01811, Republic of Korea
  2. University of Nevada, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Las Vegas, 4505 S. Maryland PKWY Las Vegas, NV 89154, United States

Abstrakt

In this study, the effect of the coiling temperature on the tensile properties of API X70 linepipe steel plates is investigated in terms of the microstructure and related anisotropy. Two coiling temperatures are selected to control the microstructure and tensile properties. The API X70 linepipe steels consist mostly of ferritic microstructures such as polygonal ferrite, acicular ferrite, granular bainite, and pearlite irrespective of the coiling temperature. In order to evaluate the anisotropy in the tensile properties, tensile tests in various directions, in this case 0° (rolling direction), 30°, 45° (diagonal direction), 60°, and 90° (transverse direction) are conducted. As the higher coiling temperature, the larger amount of pearlite is formed, resulting in higher strength and better deformability. The steel has higher ductility and lower strength in the rolling direction than in the transverse direction due to the development of γ-fiber, particularly the {111}<112> texture.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Dong-Kyu Oh
1
ORCID: ORCID
Seung-Hyeok Shin
1
ORCID: ORCID
Sang-Min Lee
2
ORCID: ORCID
Byoungchul Hwang
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul, 01811, Republic of Korea
  2. Hyundai Steel Company, Dangjin-Si, Chungnam, 31719, Republic of Korea

Abstrakt

The present research deals with the effect of pre-strain on the hydrogen embrittlement behavior of intercritically annealed medium-Mn steels. A slow strain-rate tensile test was conducted after hydrogen charging by an electrochemical permeation method. Based on EBSD and XRD analysis results, the microstructure was composed of martensite and retained austenite of which fraction increased with an increase in the intercritical annealing temperature. The tensile test results showed that the steel with a higher fraction of retained austenite had relatively high hydrogen embrittlement resistance because the retained austenite acts as an irreversible hydrogen trap site. As the amount of pre-strain was increased, the hydrogen embrittlement resistance decreased notably due to an increase in the dislocation density and strain-induced martensite transformation.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Sang-Gyu Kim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Young-Chul Yoon
1
ORCID: ORCID
Seok-Woo Ko
1
ORCID: ORCID
Byoungchul Hwang
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul, 01811, Republic of Korea

Abstrakt

In-situ observation of the transformation behavior of acicular ferrite in high-strength low-alloy steel using confocal laser scanning microscopy was discussed in terms of nucleation and growth. It is found that acicular ferrite nucleated at dislocations and slip bands in deformed austenite grains introduced by hot deformation in the non-recrystallization austenite region, and then proceeded to grow into an austenite grain boundary. According to an ex-situ EBSD analysis, acicular ferrite had an irregular shape morphology, finer grains with sub-grain boundaries, and higher strain values than those of polygonal ferrite. The fraction of acicular ferrite was affected by the deformation condition and increased with increasing the amount of hot deformation in the non-recrystallization austenite region.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Sang-In Lee
1
ORCID: ORCID
Seung-Hyeok Shin
1
ORCID: ORCID
Hyeonwoo Park
2
ORCID: ORCID
Hansoo Kim
2
ORCID: ORCID
Joonho Lee
2
ORCID: ORCID
Byoungchul Hwang
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul, 01811, Republic of Korea
  2. Korea University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul, 02841, Republic of Korea

Abstrakt

Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a prominent n-type semiconductor material used in optoelectronic devices owing to the wide bandgap and transparency. The low-temperature growth of ZnO thin films expands diverse applications, such as growth on glass and organic materials, and it is also cost effective. However, the optical and electrical properties of ZnO films grown at low temperatures may be inferior owing to their low crystallinity and impurities. In this study, ZnO thin films were prepared by atomic layer deposition on SiO2 and glass substrates in the temperature range of 46-141℃. All films had a hexagonal würtzite structure. The carrier concentration and electrical conductivity were also investigated. The low-temperature grown films showed similar carrier concentration (a few 1019 cm−3 at 141°C), but possessed lower electrical conductivity compared to high-temperature (>200°C) grown films. The optical transmittance of 20 nm thin ZnO film reached approximately 90% under visible light irradiation. Additionally, bandgap energies in the range of 3.23-3.28 eV were determined from the Tauc plot. Overall, the optical properties were comparable to those of ZnO films grown at high temperature.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Ji Young Park
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ye Bin Weon
1
ORCID: ORCID
Myeong Jun Jung
1
ORCID: ORCID
Byung Joon Choi
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Seoul, Korea

Abstrakt

An optimum route to synthesis the W-based composite powders with homogeneous dispersion of oxide nanoparticles was investigated. The La2O3 dispersed W powder was synthesized by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis using ammonium metatungstate hydrate and lanthanum nitrate. The dispersion of Y2O3 nanoparticles in W- La2O3 powder was carried out by a polymer addition solution method using yttrium nitrate. XPS and TEM analyses for the composite powder showed that the nano-sized La2O3 and Y2O3 particles were well distributed in W powder. This study suggests that the combination processing of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis and polymeric additive solution is a promising way to synthesis W-based composite powders.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Youn Ji Heo
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Eui Seon Lee
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jeong Hyun Kim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Young-In Lee
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Young-Keun Jeong
3
ORCID: ORCID
Sung-Tag Oh
1 2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul 01811, Republic of Korea
  2. Seoul National University of Science and Technology, The Institute of Powder Technology, Seoul 01811, Republic of Korea
  3. Pusan National University, Graduate School of Convergence Science, Busan 46241, Republic of Korea

Abstrakt

This study investigates the effects of repetitive injection molding on the properties of feedstock using the AISI 4140 feedstock. The properties of feedstock are evaluated from the mixing homogeneity of powder and binder, rheological properties, and dimensional accuracy of parts sintered. The feedstock after the 1st injection molding shows a better homogeneity than as-received feedstock due to re-mixing effects between the screw and barrel during the injection molding process. As the number of recycling numbers increases, the homogeneity, viscosities ad shrinkage ratio of recycled feedstocks show slight differences with those of the as-received feedstock until the 6th molding injection. However, some rheological parameters like the moldability index sharply increased up to the 4th injection but shows a tendency to decrease thereafter.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Jin Man Jang
1 2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon, 21999, Republic of Korea
  2. Inha University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Incheon, 22212, Republic of Korea

Abstrakt

Recently, 3D printing processes have been used to manufacture metal powder filters with manufacturing complex-shape. In this study, metal powder filters of various shapes were manufactured using the metal extrusion additive manufacturing (MEAM) process, which is used to manufacture three-dimensional structures by extruding a filament consisting of a metal powder and a binder. Firstly, filaments were prepared by appropriately mixing SUS316 powder with sizes ranging from 7.5 µm to 50 µm and a binder. These filaments were extruded at temperatures of 100℃ to 160℃ depending on the type of filament being manufactured, to form three types of cylindrical filter. Specimens were sintered in a high vacuum atmosphere furnace at 850℃ to 1050℃ for 1 hour after debinding. The specimens were analyzed for permeability using a capillary flow porometer, porosity was determined by applying Archimedes’ law and microstructure was observed using SEM.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Yu-Jeong Yi
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Min-Jeong Lee
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Su-Jin Yun
1
ORCID: ORCID
Manho Park
3
ORCID: ORCID
Ju-Yong Kim
4
ORCID: ORCID
Jungwoo Lee
2
ORCID: ORCID
Jung-Yeul Yun
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), Metal Powder Department, Changwon, 51508, Republic of Korea
  2. Pusan National University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Busan, 46241, Republic of Korea
  3. R&D Center, ASFLOW CO. Ltd, Hwasung, 16648, Republic of Korea
  4. 3DP R&D Center, REPROTECH, Suwon, 16229, Republic of Korea

Abstrakt

Fe-Cr-B-based metamorphic alloy coating layers were manufactured by plasma spray with a Fe-Cr-B-Mo-Nb composition (hereinafter, M+) powder. The microstructure and wear properties of the coating layers were investigated and compared with a metamorphic alloy coating layer fabricated with commercial M material. XRD analysis revealed that the M and M+ coating layers were composed of α-Fe, (Cr, Fe)2B, and some metallic glass phases. Wear test results showed that M+ coating layers had a superior wear resistance which had 1.48 times lower wear volume than M coating layers. Observations of the worn-out surfaces and cross-sections of the coating layers showed that M+ coating layer had relatively low oxides along the particle boundaries and it suppress a delamination behavior by the oxides.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Yong-Hoon Cho
1
ORCID: ORCID
Gi-Su Ham
1 2
So-Yeon Park
1
ORCID: ORCID
Choongnyun Paul Kim
2
Kee-Ahn Lee
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Inha University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Incheon 22212, Republic of Korea
  2. Kolon Advanced Research Cluster, Kolon Industries Inc., Seoul 07793, Republic of Korea

Abstrakt

Co-Cr-Mo based sheet I-WP lattice was fabricated via laser powder bed fusion. The effect of microstructure and the I-WP shape on compressive mechanical response was investigated. Results of compression test showed that yield strength of the sheet I-WP was 176.3 MPa and that of bulk Co-Cr-Mo (reference material) was 810.4 MPa. By applying Gibson-Ashby analytical model, the yield strength of the lattice was reversely estimated from that of the bulk specimen. The calculated strength of the lattice obtained was 150.7 MPa. The shape of deformed lattice showed collective failure mode, and its microstructure showed that strain-induced martensitic transformation occurred in the overall lattice. The deformation behavior of additively manufactured sheet I-WP lattice was also discussed.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

So-Yeon Park
1
ORCID: ORCID
Kyu-Sik Kim
2
ORCID: ORCID
Bandar Almangour
3
ORCID: ORCID
Kee-Ahn Lee
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Inha University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Incheon, Korea
  2. Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon, Korea
  3. Interdisciplinary Research Center for Intelligent Manufacturing & Robotics, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabi

Abstrakt

In this study, a SUS316L membrane having double layered pore structures was fabricated, and the pore characteristics were analyzed after coating with a spherical powder and a flake-shaped powder on a disk-shaped SUS316L support using a wet powder spraying process. The thickness of the coated layer was checked using an optical microscope, and air permeability was measured using a capillary flow porometer. When the coating amount was similar, the fine porous layer prepared using flake powder was thicker and showed higher porosity. In the case of a similar thickness, the case of using flake powder was half of the amount of spherical powder used. Therefore, it was confirmed that it is possible to manufacture a metal membrane having a high filter efficiency even with a small coating amount when using the flake powder.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Min-Jeong Lee
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Hyeon-Ju Kim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Manho Park
3
ORCID: ORCID
Jung-Yeul Yun
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), Metal Powder Department, Changwon 51508, Republic of Korea
  2. Pusan National University Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Republic of Korea
  3. R&D Center, ASFLOW Co. Ltd, Suwon, Republic of Korea

Abstrakt

MoO3 thick film was manufactured by using a thermal spray process (Atmospheric Plasma Spray, or APS) and its microstructure, phase composition and properties of the coating layer were investigated. Initial powder feedstock was composed of an orthorhombic α-MoO3 phase, and the average powder particle size was 6.7 μm. As a result of the APS coating process, a MoO3 coating layer with a thickness of about 90 μm was obtained. Phase transformation occurred during the process, and the coating layer consisted of not only α-MoO3 but also β-MoO3, MoO2. Phase transformation could be due to the rapid cooling that occurred during the process. The properties of the coating layer were evaluated using a nano indentation test. Hardness and reduced modulus were obtained as 0.47 GPa and 1.4 GPa, respectively. Based on the above results, the possibility of manufacturing a MoO3 thick coating layer using thermal spray is presented.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Yu-Jin Hwang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Kyu-Sik Kim
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Jae-Sung Park
3
Kee-Ahn Lee
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Inha University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Incheon, Korea
  2. Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon, Korea
  3. LT Metal, Seoul, Korea

Abstrakt

Artificial intelligence operated with machine learning was performed to optimize the amount of metalloid elements (Si, B, and P) subjected to be added to a Fe-based amorphous alloy for enhancement of soft magnetic properties. The effect of metalloid elements on magnetic properties was investigated through correlation analysis. Si and P were investigated as elements that affect saturation magnetization while B was investigated as an element that affect coercivity. The coefficient of determination R2 (coefficient of determination) obtained from regression analysis by learning with the Random Forest Algorithm (RFR) was 0.95 In particular, the R2 value measured after including phase information of the Fe-Si-B-P ribbon increased to 0.98. The optimal range of metalloid addition was predicted through correlation analysis method and machine learning.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Min-Woo Lee
1
ORCID: ORCID
Young-Sin Choi
1
ORCID: ORCID
Do-Hun Kwon
1
ORCID: ORCID
Eun-Ji Cha
1
ORCID: ORCID
Hee-Bok Kang
2
ORCID: ORCID
Jae-In Jeong
2
ORCID: ORCID
Seok-Jae Lee
3
ORCID: ORCID
Hwi-Jun Kim
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Smart Liquid Processing R&D Department of Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon 21999, Korea
  2. R&D Center of Youngin Electronic, Youngin 1033, Korea
  3. Jeonbuk National University, Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Jeonju 54896, Korea

Abstrakt

The aluminum composite with dispersed high entropy alloy were developed by stir casting involving the powder-in-tube method. First, Al0.5CoCrCuFeNi high entropy alloy (HEA) powder was made by mechanical alloying, and the powder was extruded in a tube-type aluminum container to form HEA precursor. The extruded HEA precursor was then dispersed in the aluminum matrix via stir casting. As a result, Fe-Cr-Ni based high-entropy phases was uniformly formed in the aluminum matrix, revealing ~158, 166, 235% enhancement of tensile strength by incorporating 1, 3, and 5 wt% HEA particles, respectively.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Min Sang Kim
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Han Sol Son
3
ORCID: ORCID
Gyeong Seok Joo
2
ORCID: ORCID
Young Do Kim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Hyun Joo Choi
3
ORCID: ORCID
Se Hoon Kim
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Hanyang University, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Seoul, Republic of Korea
  2. Korea Automotive Technology Institute, Metallic Material R&D Center, Cheonan-si, Republic of Korea
  3. Kookmin University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Abstrakt

In this study, a flake-shaped metal powder was coated on a tube shaped pre-sintered 316L stainless steel support using a wet powder spraying process to fabricate a double pore structure, and the pore characteristics were analyzed according to coating time and tube rotation speed. The thickness of the coated layer was checked via optical microscopy, and porosity was measured using image analysis software. Air permeability was measured using a capillary flow porometer. As a result of the experiment, the optimal rotation speed of the support tube was established as 200 rpm. When the rotation speed was fixed, the coating thickness and the coating amount of the double pore structure increased as the coating time increased. The porosity of the double pore structure was increased due to the irregular arrangement of the flake-shaped powder. The air permeability of the double pore structure decreased with increasing fine pore layer thickness.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Min-Jeong Lee
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Yu-Jeong Yi
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Hyeon-Ju Kim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Manho Park
3
ORCID: ORCID
Jungwoo Lee
2
ORCID: ORCID
Jung-Yeul Yun
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), Metal Powder Department, Changwon, 51508, Republic of Korea
  2. Pusan National University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Busan, 46241, Republic of Korea
  3. R&D Center, ASFLOW Co. Ltd, Hwasung, 16648, Republic of Korea

Abstrakt

High temperature vacuum brazing is a well-known and commonly used method for joining of nickel based elements and subassemblies of gas turbines, both for stationary and aviation applications. Despite the fact that currently used brazing filler metals meet stringent requirements of aviation and energetic industries, a lot of effort is spent on improving operational properties of the joints through modification of chemical composition or brazing process parameters. This paper aims for both of these aspects – its purpose is evaluation of the impact of filler metal composition, brazing gap width and process conditions on the microstructure of joints between sheet metal elements made of Hastelloy X nickel superalloy. Two different Ni-based filler materials (BNi-2 and Amdry 915) were investigated, based on the results of light and scanning electron microscopy evaluations, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and hardness measurements.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

K. Krystek
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
K. Krzanowska
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Wierzbińska
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Motyka
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Rzeszow University of Technology, Department of Materials Science, 12 Powstańców Warszawy Av., 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland
  2. Pratt & Whitney Rzeszów S.A., 120 Hetmańska Str., 35-078 Rzeszów, Poland

Instrukcja dla autorów

Instructions for Authors


Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is a quarterly journal of Polish Academy of Sciences and Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAS which publishes original scientific papers and reviews in the fields of metallurgy and materials science, foundry, mechanical working of metals, thermal engineering in metallurgy, thermodynamic and physical properties of materials, phase equilibria in the broad context and diffusion. In addition to the regular, original scientific papers and conference proceedings, invited reviews presenting the up-to-date knowledge and monothematic issues devoted to preferred areas of research will be published. Submission of a paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that if accepted it will not be published elsewhere in the same form.


When preparing the manuscript, please pay attention to the following rules:


1. Manuscript submission

1.1. Manuscripts to be considered for publication should be submitted to the Editorial Office via www.editorialsystem.com/amm/. Authors should designate corresponding author, whose responsibility is to represent the Authors in contacts with the Editorial Office. The corresponding author receives an e-mail notification confirming the submission of the manuscript to the Editorial Office and is informed about the progress of the review process.


1.2. Manuscript should not exceed 15 pages of full-size paper (A4), must be double spaced (please use 12 point font), with generous margins, and the pages must be numbered. Authors should submit an electronic file of their manuscript in Microsoft Word (minimum : version 2000).


1.3. All manuscripts must be written in good English. Both British and U.S. English are acceptable but Authors should be consistent in their usage. It is sole responsibility of the Authors to make sure that the manuscript is grammatically correct and spell checked. Authors are strongly encouraged to have the manuscript proofread by a native speaker of English or a language professional, before it is submitted to the editorial office. Papers written in poor English will be automatically rejected without being subjected to review.


1.4. Authors should submit an electronic copy of final version of their paper in Microsoft Word Format, shemes (sketches) and figures saved as .eps, .jpeg, or .tiff.


1.5. Articles submitted for publication should include abstract and maximum 5 keywords.


1.6. Please adhere to the following order of presentation:


Author(s) with first names in full and ORCID.

Affiliation(s): in a short form (Institution, City, Country). Use the superscripts (*, **, . . .) after the Authors’ names in case of different affiliations.

Title: All words in lower case (first letter of first word capitalized).


Abstract: maximum 10 lines, including primary objective, research design, methods and procedures, main outcomes and results. Do not use abbreviations in the abstract.

Keywords: 5 maximum.

Main text: Begin on the second page with Introduction, followed by Experimental (Materials and Methods) and/or Theory section, Results, Discussion, and end with Conclusion section and Acknowledgement. When appropriate the Authors may choose to combine Results section and Discussion section into one Results and Discussion section. Make sure the text in sections is divided logically into paragraphs.
Use the decimal system for sections, subsections and (at the most) sub-subsections, as exemplified in the headings of these instructions.
All abbreviations should be spelled out the first time they are introduced in text or references. Thereafter the abbreviation can be used.


Appendices

References

Correspondence address: title, name, postal address, telephone and e-mail address of the corresponding Author, number ORCID.

Figure captions

Tables

2. Manuscript preparation


The editorial system includes:


1. Manuscript, which should contain the full text with figures, tables and signatures to them where they are placed.


2. Figures, tables and signatures to them as separate files.


2.1. Formulae, equations and units
The formulas should be written in Microsoft Equation and MathType with the possibility of editing (not as graphics).
Formulae and equations should be typed on separate lines and numbered consecutively in parentheses on the right side (1) . . . (n). Vectors must be indicated as such. Size of symbols should be kept uniform for all equations in the manuscript. Formulae and equations should be referred to in the text as follows: Eq. (1).
Numbers and units must be separated by a space, e.g. 5.5 wt.%, 273.15 K, 1013 MPa, etc. The only exception are angle degrees, e.g. 90°.

2.2. Figures

Figures should be complete without corrections and additions in the word. Figures are usually printed in reduced size (fitting column width of 85 mm) and this should be taken into account when preparing them. For the best results, make sure that lettering on figures and micrographs is at least 2 mm high after reduction, and the style of labeling must be uniform for all figures. Each figure should have its own caption explaining the content without reference to the text. Figure captions should be typed on a separate page at the end of manuscript. The appropriate place of in the text should be indicated by <Fig. 3 > written in separate line. Figures should be referred to in text as follows: Fig. 1. The magnification must be indicated by a labeled scale marker on the micrograph itself, not drawn below it. For optimum printing quality micrographs should be saved as .eps or .tiff at a resolution of at least 300 dpi while line drawings at a resolution of at least 600 dpi.

2.3. Move file
The authors can make movie files up to 100 MB in MP4 format.
The author at the first reference (Movie 1. Click here) should with the Click here command connect the web address with the place of uploading the movie (hyperlink) and at the end of the article provide a list of hyperlinks (samples: Movie 1, hyperlink, movie no 2, hyperlink ......).

The files will be removed from the edytorial system when rejected or published article (moved to Rejected or Published manuscripts).


2.4. Tables

Tables together with captions should be typed on separate page at the end of manuscript. Tables are to be numbered consecutively using Arabic numbers in the text (TABLE 1 . . . n). A caption must be placed above respective table and should explain the symbols used in the heading and in the left hand column. Tables should be referred to in the text as follows: TABLE 1.


2.5. References

References should be typed on separate pages and numbered consecutively applying the system accepted by the Quarterly (initials and names all authors, journal title [abbreviated according to the Journal Title Abbreviations of Web of Science: http://library.caltech.edu/reference/abbreviations/, everyone abbreviation should be end with a dot - example. Arch.Metall.Mater.] or book title; journal volume or book publisher; page spread; publication year in bracket).

The use of DOI numbers (full notation and linked) is mandatory for each paper and should be formatted as shown in the examples below:

Journals:

[1] L.B. Magalas, Development of High-Resolution Mechanical Spectroscopy, HRMS: Status and Perspectives. HRMS Coupled with a Laser Dilatometer. Arch. Metall. Mater. 60 (3), 2069-2076 (2015). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/AMM-2015-0350

[2] E. Pagounis, M.J. Szczerba, R. Chulist, M. Laufenberg, Large Magnetic Field-Induced Work output in a NiMgGa Seven-Lavered Modulated Martensite. Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 152407 (2015). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4933303

[3] H. Etschmaier, H. Torwesten, H. Eder, P. Hadley, Suppression of Interdiffusion in Copper/Tin thin Films. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. (2012).DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-011-0090-2 (in press).

Books:

[2] M. H. Kamdar, A.M.C. Westwood, Environment-Sensitive Mechanical Behaviour, New York 1981.

Proceedings:

[3] F. Erdogan, in: H. Liebowitz (Ed.), Fracture 2, Academic Press 684, New York (1968).

Internet resource:

[4] http://www.twi.co.uk/content/fswqual.html

PhD Thesis:

[6] F.M. LIang. World Hyphenation by Computer. PhD thesis, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, June.

Chapter in books:

[7] R. Major, P. Lacki, R. Kustosz, J. M. Lackner, Modelling of nanoindentation to simulate thin layer behavior, in: K. J. Kurzydłowski, B. Major,

P. Zięba (Ed.), Foundation of Materials Design 2006, Research Signpost (2006).

Articles in press:

[8] H. EtschmaIer, H. Torwesten, H. Eder, P. Hadley, J. Mater. Eng. Perform. (2012), DOI: 10.1007/s11665-011-0090-2 (in press).

3. Fees

No honorarium will be paid. The journal does not have article processing charges (APCs) nor article submission charges.

4. Review and proofread process

4.1. Peer review process All submitted manuscripts undergo review by renowned specialists appointed by the Editor-in-Chief and members of the Editorial Board. Reviewers receive guidance to help them perform the review, and submit written opinion on the manuscript together with recommendation to accept as is, or reject, or accept after revision. In the latter case i.e. when revision is requested, the authors are obliged to respond to Editor and Reviewers’ comments in detail and make revisions to the manuscript. A rebuttal to Reviewers’ comments can also be sent via the Editorial System in writing. Decision to reject the article is taken by the Editorial Board with the final decision belonging to the Editor, who may appoint another reviewer if necessary. Reviewers remain anonymous to Authors and their identity cannot be revealed by the Editorial Office.

In a separate file, the authors are requested to suggest names and contact details (affiliations and valid e-mail addresses) of at least three experts who could serve as reviewers.

Brief explanation (2-3 sentence-long) why each person is suitable as a reviewer should also be provided. The suggested reviewers cannot be from the same country as affiliation of the corresponding author. The decision to appoint a reviewer belongs solely to the editor.

4.2. Revised manuscript submission

When revision of a manuscript is requested, Authors should return the revised version of their manuscript as soon as possible. Prompt action may ensure fast publication if a paper is finally accepted for publication in Arch. Metall. Mater. If it is the first revision of an article Authors are requested to return their revised manuscript within 7 days.

If it is the second revision Authors are requested to return their revised manuscript within 1 day.

4.3. Final proofreading

Authors will receive a pdf file with the edited version of their manuscript for final proofreading. This is the last opportunity to view an article before its publication on the journal web site. No changes or modifications can be introduced once it is published. Thus authors are requested to check their proof pages carefully against manuscript within 3 working days and prepare a separate document containing all changes that should be introduced. Authors are sometimes asked to provide additional comments and explanations in response to remarks and queries from the language or technical editors.

5. Original version

Starting from issue 1/ 2018, Volume 63, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is published in electronic via www.journals.pan.pl. The printed version is printed only for designated libraries (legal basis: Regulation of the Minister of Culture and Art of March 6, 1997).

6. Prevent cases of plagiarism

Readers should be sure that the authors present the results of their work transparently, fair and honest, regardless of whether they are the direct authors, or used the help of a specialized entity (natural or legal person). To prevent cases of plagiarism, "ghostwriting" and "guest Authorship", the Editorial Office will require that the Authors disclosed the contribution of individual Authors in the creation of manuscript (with their affiliations and contributions, i.e. the information who is responsible for: research concept and design, collection and/or assembly of data, data analysis and interpretation, writing the manuscript). Funding sources (together with grant number) must also be revealed. The corresponding Author will bear the main responsibility for the manuscript. Detected cases will be exposed, including notifying the appropriate entities (institutions employing the Authors, scientific societies, associations of editors of scientific journals, etc.).

7. License type

Articles are printed in an open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/). This license allows authors to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, remix, transform, and build upon the material. Authors may not use the material for commercial purposes. However, this condition does not include dependent works (they may be covered by another license).

Submission of an article to the journal is unequivocal to expressing consent to the publication in both paper and electronic form.

Dodatkowe informacje

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